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The Medieval Period (Pg 22) 1066-1485 1066-Norman ConquestWilliam the Conqueror defeats Harold at Hastings, becomes king of England Medieval PeriodMiddle.

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Presentation on theme: "The Medieval Period (Pg 22) 1066-1485 1066-Norman ConquestWilliam the Conqueror defeats Harold at Hastings, becomes king of England Medieval PeriodMiddle."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Medieval Period (Pg 22) Norman ConquestWilliam the Conqueror defeats Harold at Hastings, becomes king of England Medieval PeriodMiddle ages

2 Feudalism William introduced feudalisma political and economic system in which the hierarchy of power was based on the premise that the king owned all the land in the kingdom. ¼ for King; ¼ for church; ½ to nobles or barons who supplied the king with warriors called knights

3 Serfs Conquered Anglo-Saxons that were bound to the land they could not own Did not speak French, the language of the nobles Spoke a mixture of French and English known as Middle English that adapted into the language we speak today

4 --Economics-- DOMESDAY BOOK 1085For tax purposes, William ordered the compilation of a detailed survey of the land and population of England A modern day Census Translates to day of judgment

5 --Sociology Womens Rights A womans status was based on her husband or fathers position in society She held husbands rank Remained subservient to the husband Men maintained all the property and wealth Women ran the house, sewed, weaved, cooked

6 --Architecture CATHEDRALS RomanesqueMassive, richly decorated Took decades or centuries to build Built in gratitude to God Built as acts of penitence Built along pilgrimage routes Churches became the most corrupt institution of the Medieval Period

7 --History THE CRUSADES The Christian response to the expansion of Islam into the holy land of Jerusalem 8 major expeditions For the Knights these were part Holy War, part pilgrimage, and sometimes profitable

8 --History THE CRUSADES The Childrens Crusades of 1212 Legend has it that a boy was visited by Jesus and told to convert the Muslims to Christianity He gained a following of 30,000 children who followed him towards the Holy Land The waters of the Marseilles would not part and the children were sold into slavery

9 Literary History Common folk relied on oral tradition to tell stories BalladsBrief narrative poems sung to musical accompaniment Mystery and Miracle Playswhich dramatized episodes from the Bible and from saints lives Morality PlaysTaught moral lessons

10 --Law PARLIAMENT Edward I--The kings Great Council Meeting place or talking place for nobles, knights and clergy Became a representation for townships akin to the democratic process we use

11 King Henry II Sent four loyal knights to murder Thomas a Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury Reformed the judicial system Established a system of juries Initiated English common laws Becket quickly became a saint, his shrine a popular pilgrimage destination

12 How to Become a Saint You have to be close to God Help the poor Be good and kind to people when you are alive Perform two miracles after you have passed away.

13 King Henry II His wife brought the ideas of chivalry, a code of honor among knights The code encouraged knights to protect ladies and go on holy quests (Crusades) His son was Richard I, called Richard the Lion-Hearted Richard fought in the crusades, his brother John plotted against him (Robin Hood)

14 Decline of Feudalism Growth of towns and population of commoners Increase in trade due to Crusades Guilds formed to stabilize prices and set rules for advancement of craftsmen pg 24

15 Plague Crowding and poor sanitation Rats and fleas imported from cargo ships Black Death (Bubonic Plague) killed a third of Englands population in 1300s Bring out your dead!

16 Plague Rap Ring around the rosie- ring-like sores that formed on people's skin. Pockets full of posies- Flowers that were stuffed into pockets to ward off the stench Ashes, ashes, we all fall down- ashes alludes to the funeral pyres ashes and the falling down was everybody dying

17 Romances Tales of chivalric knights, many featured King Arthur and his round table Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Le Morte dArthur (The death of Arthur) by Sir Thomas Malory

18 Geoffrey Chaucer pg ?-1400 The Father of English Literature Chaucer is French for shoemaker 1357Became an attendant for the Princes wife 1359French POW in 100 yr war, ransomed by the court

19 Geoffrey Chaucer As the Kings messenger, he traveled to Italy (Dante) and France (The Romance of the Rose) The Parliament of Fowlscommemorated the wedding of Richard II 1386Became a Knight King Henry IV took over but Chaucer remained in the court

20 Geoffrey Chaucer 1400Died; (possibly from the Plague) Buried in Londons Westminster Abbey (Poets CornerJohn Dryden, Tennyson, Robert Browning) Did not complete all the Canterbury Tales

21 The Canterbury Tales 1387A collection of verse and prose tales told by pilgrims traveling to Canterbury to see the shrine of Saint Thomas a Becket Unfinished at the time of Chaucers death Chaucer portrayed himself in the tale as a short, plump pilgrim

22 The Prologue (Introduction) Vocabulary word accrue, agility, courtliness, defer, diligent, disdain, dispatch, eminent, frugal, malady, mode, personable, repine, sedately, wield

23 The Prologue Tonewriters attitude toward the works subject or characters (ironic, satiric, humorous…) Characterizationthe means by which a writer develops a characters personality (description, speech, thoughts, actions…)

24 Pilgrimage Generally began with a priests blessing Wore clothing that identified them as pilgrims Stayed in roadside hospices Walked or road horses, roads became very muddy when wet Could buy a small badge of cast pewter as a souvenir

25 The Prologue Social Diversity, a microcosm Chaucer describes the 29 pilgrims, providing insight into the larger society Narrative poemmore formal than most poems of the 14 th century Poetic verse formrhymed and iambic pentameter Opens with an apostrophe or address to spring

26 The Prologue ZephyrusGreek god of west wind RamAstrologyindicates a reference to 14 th century science This narrative poem was directed towards the noble class, not the commoners SettingBegins in London (not Canterbury) Medieval England was experiencing a warming period

27 The Prologue SettingBegins across the Thames River, where, 200 years later, Shakespeares Globe Theater will be erected Tabard Inn (Drum)you beat a drum when you want people to join you Harry Bailey is the Innkeeper 100 miles to Canterbury 4-day journey by horse

28 The Prologue Purpose of trip is as much social as religiousSpring Break Travel in a band for safety (Brigands and Highwaymen) Harry Bailey decrees that each pilgrim will provide 4 tales (29 X 4 =116) Winner will get a free dinner Generally, the best tales come from the worst people

29 The Prologue Each pilgrim is a stereotype of their profession (priests are priestly, knights are knightly…) But some are mixed with irony The KnightChivalrous, noble, returned from the Crusades The Knights sona Squirea ladys man The Yeomanan attendant to the knight

30 The Prologue (Nun) The Nun Prioress Madam Eglantyne Speaks French Eats delicately Weep if she saw a mouse in a trap Lap dogs that dine better than the population Fine features (a broad forehead)

31 The Prologue (pg ) The HOST HostHarry Bailey, Innkeeper of Tabard Description: Jovial, generous, self- confidant, wide girth Proposes that each pilgrim share two tales on way to Canterbury, two on way back Winner get a supper, paid by all Offers to come along and be judge Drew lots to decide who begins the tales

32 The Prologue (Nun) Forehead should have been modestly covered by a wimple, equivalent of showing legs Broach Love conquers all, should say religion conquers all She is a hypocrite but Chaucer only winks at her sins, Christianity is all inclusive

33 The Prologue Tonedetached and ironic ToneHarry Bailey understates the greed and hypocrisy, allows readers to draw their own conclusions Example, The Nun Prioress: Her sexy forehead, feeding her dogs meat and milk, her broach Amor vincit omnia (Love conquers all)


35 The Pardoners Prologue (pg ) Very honest about his dishonesty Theme: Radix malorum est cupiditas (love of money is the root of all evilBible translated from Hebrew to Latin) Avarice and cupidityGreed (avarice is one of the seven deadly sins)

36 The Pardoners Prologue Seems contemptuous toward those to whom he preaches (ie. They can go blackberrying, for all I care!) And thus I preach against the very vice I make my living out ofavarice. (Irony) Verse 55For though I am a wholly vicious man, dont think I cant tell moral tales. I can! example of _____________

37 The Pardoners Prologue Hypocrisy

38 The Pardoners Tale (pg ) Three rowdy drunks hear a coffin bell Tell the tavern nave to report back Dead man was a friend of theirs (plague) Death as a thief is an example of _______ Verses 79-81, Be on guard… is an example of this literary technique_______

39 The Pardoners Tale Personification Foreshadowing

40 The Pardoners Tale The rioters make a pact (brotherhood) that they will kill this traitor Death Encountered an old man, the three were very disrespectful (verse 114) Old man respondsI cant find one who would change his youth to have my age Verse 130implores Mother earth to open up for him (personification)

41 The Pardoners Tale The gambler accuses the old man of collaborating with death The old man directs the rioters to death, sitting under an oak tree They found a pile of gold florins (coins) Verse 178Fortune means Fate Verse 182our lucky day (Irony and foreshadowing)

42 The Pardoners Tale One rioter is chosen to go to town for food The two remaining conspire against the young man (parleydiscussion) Plotted to stab him with daggers Young man bought poison from the apothecary (pharmacist) Poured poison into two of the three wine bottles

43 The Pardoners Tale When the young man returned, his brothers slew him They celebrated by drinking the poisoned winethey perished The Pardoner addresses the pilgrims (verse 299) He offers to absolve their sins for a price You may fall off your horse and break your neckscare tactic

44 The Wife of Bath Prologue Reread lines of Prologue, pg 125, Introduction of Wife of Bath A worthy woman from Bath city (a well- known health resort, mineral springs) A seamstress, a Gold digger 5 husbands at the church door Well-traveled: Rome, Jerusalem… Gap-tooth, large hips, liked to laugh

45 The Wife of Bath Prologue This tale belongs to the Marriage Group Also a Medieval Romance The battle of the sexes She cautions us about marriage

46 The Wife of Bath PrologueVocabulary pg 154 Abominably, bequeath, concede, contemptuous, cosset, crone, dejected Ecstasy, implore, maim, prowess, rebuke, statute, temporal, tribulation

47 The Wife of Bath Prologue setting: King Arthurs days A magical time of elves and fairies Verbal ironylines (religion has replaced fantasy) What was the wife of Baths attitude toward Friars? (incubus)

48 The Wife of Bath Tale A knight who was a lusty liver Took her maidenhead (raped her) Punishment was to be loss of head because code of chivalry was broken

49 The Wife of Bath Queen implored the king for leniency Queen gave the knight a chance to live if he could answer the question What is the thing that women most desire? one year and a day

50 The Wife of Bath Tale Wealth? Honor? Jollity and pleasure? Clothes? Fun in bed? Widowed and remarried? Cosseted? Flattery? Guyswhat do you think the answer is? Ladieswhat do you think the answer is?

51 The Wife of Bath Tale ALLUSIONa reference to a historical or fictional person, place or event King Midas (fictional), Ovid (historical) Moral of storywomen cant keep secrets

52 The Wife of Bath Tale Knight was dejected because he could not find a consensus among the women knight saw 24 women dancing They transformed into an old woman She promises to tell him the secret

53 The Wife of Bath Tale Knight swears to do whatever she asks They both went to see the Queen a woman wants the self-same sovereignty over husband as over her lover With the Queens watching, the old crone asks the knight to marry her

54 The Wife of Bath Tale The knight begs her to change her mind so foul a misalliance! They have a private wedding Wedding nightshe asks him if this is the way knights behave

55 The Wife of Bath Tale The knight is contemptuous The code of chivalry demands that knights respect their elders She explains the meaning of gentility Nothing wrong with being poor, even Jesus chose to come to the world poor You need not fear to be a cuckold

56 The Wife of Bath Tale You have two choices line 395 Old and ugly and loyal? Or… Young and pretty and unfaithful? The knight left the decision to his wife

57 The Wife of Bath Tale The wife has won the mastery Kiss me, she says… His ugly wife turned into a beautiful young lady that remained forever faithful And they lived happily ever after

58 BALLADS (pgs ) A narrative poem that was originally intended to be sung Consists of 4 line stanzas, or quatrain 2 nd and 4 th line rhyme, sometime have a refraina repeated phrase Passed down orally

59 BALLADS (pgs ) Most Medieval people were illiterate Stories often changed in the retelling Many versions of the same story Ballads focused on a single incident

60 BALLADS (pgs ) Begin in the middle of the story (in medias res) Rhyme and repetition of sounds enabled minstrels to recall and recite the ballads Alliterationthe repetition of consonant sounds

61 BALLADS (pgs ) Popular subjects included: tragic love, domestic conflict, crime, war, and shipwreck DialectScottish Rase = rose Gin = if Twa = two

62 BALLADS Rhyming scheme= abcb or aabb O slowly, slowly rase she up a To the place where he was lyin, b And when she drew the curtain by: c Young man, I think youre dyin. b ---from Barbara Allan

63 BARBARA ALLAN Tells the story of a tragic love Theme: unfulfilled or unrequited love and impending doom Modern examples: Songs by Garth Brooks, Meat Loaf, Brad Paisley StoryThe Little Mermaid, Hunchback of Notre Dame

64 BARBARA ALLAN To an audience at that time, it would not have seemed at all unusual that a nobleman such as Sir John Graeme could be healthy one day and then be lying near death the next Does he die of illness or unrequited love?

65 BARBARA ALLAN The tolling of the dead-bell forces Barbara Allan to accept the reality of Sir Johns death In death, Sir John and Barbara Allan are finally happy with each other and able to achieve a peace in their relationship that they could not agree to in life Why werent they able to be together in life?

66 SIR PATRICK SPENS Describes the loss at sea of a Scottish ship and crew Theme: man against nature, the dangers faced by sailors at sea

67 SIR PATRICK SPENS Drunk king asks for a super sailor to sail his ship Old man replies: Sir Patrick Spens… King writes him a letter, he laughs at first Spens agrees, despite the danger (The tear blinded his ee.)

68 SIR PATRICK SPENS He sails against the advice of his crew (For I fear a deadly storm) The ship sinks off the coast of Aberdour (50 fathoms deep) The sailors hats float while their ladies wait for their return

69 GET UP AND BAR THE DOOR Tells the humorous story of a strong-willed husband and wife locked in an argument Theme: Treats marital discord in a humorous manner

70 GET UP AND BAR THE DOOR Off-rhymes -then / pan -sure / door Chances are that the words in each pair had the same vowel sounds in this time Changes came in the 16 th century modern English

71 Get up and Bar the Door Man and wife in home –Wife preparing dinner –Neither wants to bar the door –Make a deal: the one who speaks first has to get up and bar the door –2 men walk in and see the silent pair –They threaten to shave his beard and kiss his wife –He speaks and she wins the deal

72 BALLADS All three of these ballads deal with problems encountered in everyday life

73 The English Renaissance pg Rebirth Began in in 14 th century Italy Began in England after the War of the Roses, Henry VII

74 The English Renaissance Medieval period focused on religion and the after life Renaissance stressed humanity on earth Arts, literature, beauty in nature, human impulses, a new mastery over the world Questioned timeworn truths (flatlanders) Challenged authority

75 The English Renaissance Renaissance Man A many-faceted person who cultivated his innate talents to the fullest

76 Thirst for Knowledge Great burst of exploration – culminates in Columbus arrival in New World in 1492 Compass developed Advances in field of astronomy Growing sense of nationalism Protestant reformation

77 The English Renaissance Henry VII son (Arthur) married Catherine of Aragon, daughter of King Ferdinand of Spain, Englands greatest new World rival Arthur died, pope allowed Arthurs younger brother (Henry VIII) to marry Catherine This would prove to be a problem

78 The English Renaissance Henry VIII Succeeded his father in 1509 A true Renaissance prince Skilled athlete, poet, musician… Asked the church for permission to divorce Catherine after 18 yrs and only one female child--Mary

79 HENRY VIII The Pope refused Henrys request for a divorce Henry broke with Rome in 1534, declared himself head of the Church of England or Anglican Church Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn, she produced a daughterElizabeth Anne was later executed for adultery

80 Queen Mary Restored Pope, Catholicism Married Philip of Spain Executed approx. 300 protestants These executions are why shes known as Bloody Mary

81 The Elizabethan Era The unwanted daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Strong, clever, educated in Greek & Latin, patron of the arts Re-established monarchys position over Anglican Church, restored Book of Common Prayer Believed in religious tolerance, lowered taxes, in favor of public education

82 Queen Elizabeth I Never marriedThe Virgin Queen She was the inspiration for Spensers The Faerie Queene Supported Sir Walter Raleigh -introduced tobacco and potatoes -Tried for treason, imprisoned in Tower of London -finally executed in 1618

83 Spanish Armada Spain refused to recognize Englands claim to Americasent 130 ships They claimed English privateers were plundering Spanish ships 8-day battle aided by a storm; England became known as a great sea power

84 King James I Did NOT believe in religious tolerance; persecuted Puritans 1604King James I appointed scholars to create a new translation of the Bible, promoted the use of English language (King James Version)

85 The English Renaissance Following Queen Eliz I, came King James 1605The Gunpowder Plot to blow up ParliamentGuy Fawkes Day (Nov 5 celebrate) 1606Shakespeare's Macbeth produced

86 The English Renaissance 1629 Charles I dismissed Parliament for 11 years Thousands migrated to N. America, mostly Puritans Long Parliament

87 Evolution of Poetry Lyric poetry was favorite Sonnet perfected; sonnet cycles became very popular Edmund Spenser wrote The Faerie Queene (epic, intricate verse w/ rich imagery)

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