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Review for Test 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Review for Test 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review for Test 4

2 Coral Sea Great Barrier Reef Ayers Rock Great Victoria Desert

3 Europe’s Impact on Australia
Language: England/Great Britain colonized Australia, so the official language is… English!

4 Europe’s Impact on Australia
Religion: England sent their prisoners to prisons in Australia. The Irish were mostly Catholic. Their jailors and others were mostly Anglican, so the main religions are… Catholic and Anglican (old Church of England)

5 Aborigines Aborigines – indigenous people of Australia
Hunters and gatherers in a traditional society

6 Europe’s Impact on Australia: Aborigines
British took over best water and hunting areas Aborigines were killed, died of disease, or were forced to work for British.

7 Europe’s Impact on Australia: Diseases and Weapons
Disease – British brought smallpox, influenza, and tuberculosis to Australia. ½ of Aborigines died. Weapons – guns gave British advantage over Aboriginal weapons

8 Governments How Citizens Participate
Autocracy: rule by one – no citizen participation Oligarchy: rule by the few – no citizen participation Democracy: rule by the people – citizen participation

9 Country Government System Leadership Citizens’ voting rights
Citizens’ personal freedoms United Kingdom *Unitary *Constitutional Monarchy *Parliamentary Democracy Bicameral (2 houses): *House of Lords *House of Commons Prime minister: Chief executive (day-to-day) Monarch: head of state Vote for parliament Parliament selects prime minister Many freedoms

10 Country Government System Leadership Citizens’ voting rights
Citizens’ personal freedoms Germany * Federal *Parliamentary Democracy Bicameral (2 houses): Bundestag Bundesrat Chancellor: chief executive (day-to-day) President: head of state Vote for parliament Parliament selects chancellor and president Many freedoms Welfare State – government takes care of all who can’t work

11 Country Government System Leadership 2 Chief Executives
Citizen voting rights Citizen personal freedoms Russia *Federal *Parliamentary Democracy Bicameral (2 houses): Federation Council Federal Assembly (Duma) President: head of state – more power (controls military) selects Premier: runs government *Vote for president *Elect Duma (Federation Council not elected) More freedoms than in the past

12 Trade Barriers Tariff: tax on imports
Quota: limit on number or amount of imports Embargo: government order stopping trade with another country

13 Currency Exchange People of different countries exchange currency because Different countries use different currencies. Trading with other countries requires trading for different currencies. Problem: it costs more to do business because banks charge fees for exchanges.

14 How location, climate, and resources affect where people live in Europe
U.K.: small island, Gulf Stream warms climate – ice free ports, international banking, most people live in urban areas, resources – coal, fish Russia: very big country, cold, ports frozen much of year, most people live in urban areas near Europe, resources – gold, oil – hard to get (too big and cold)

15 How location, climate, and resources affect where people live in Europe
Italy: peninsula in Mediterranean Sea – dry warm summers, cool winters, mostly urban, resources – fish and grapes (wine!) Germany: marine climate (warm summers, cold winters), on ocean, many rivers – good for transporting, mostly urban, resources – coal, uranium


17 Portuguese Empire Earliest modern European empire Lasted for centuries
Started with Prince Henry the Navigator He sent explorers to find routes to Asia around Africa Dias discovered Cape of Good Hope da Gama sailed to India Most profitable colony was Brazil

18 Spanish Empire Hoped to find route to Asia across Atlantic Ocean
Sent Christopher Columbus who “discovered” Americas One of largest empires in history Conquered Inca and Aztec civilizations Claimed large areas of N. & S. America – ruled for 300 years Empire stretched to Asia – controlled Philippines

19 British Empire Great Britain = England, Scotland, & Wales
Largest empire in history Controlled Canada, Australia, most of E. Africa, & many islands Controlled North America until 1776 U.S. became independent Canada did not By 1920s ¼ of world’s people were under British control After WWII most of Britain’s territories/colonies became independent

20 French Empire 1600s-1900s – 2nd largest empire in the world
During Napoleon I’s reign, controlled most of Europe Controlled most of Germany, Spain, Italy, islands in the Caribbean Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific, and North Atlantic, parts of Canada, South America, SE Asia, & NW Africa

21 U.K. Colonizes Australia
1606: 1st Europeans to Australia 1770: Capt. James Cook (British) claimed east Australian coast – called it “New South Wales” 1788 – Britain colonized Australia because U.S. became independent

22 4 Reasons British Colonized Australia
Relieve overcrowding of British jails Wanted its navy stationed in southern hemisphere Wanted economic base to expand trade Did not want rivals (especially French) to colonize Australia

23 Russian Revolution 1917 – autocracy ruled by Czar Nicholas II.
WWI – Russia lost many soldiers. People were hungry and angry. Nicholas ignored the signs. He & family were put in prison, then executed. Lenin became leader Government became communist (government controls all) Changed name to Soviet Union Quit WWI Gave Russian land to Germany

24 Treaty of Versailles peace treaty after WWI
Germany lost WWI Treaty punished Germany for helping start the war. Germany had to give up land, lose most of military power, and pay $442 billion dollars (today’s $$) Germany became broke. The Treaty of Versailles helped cause WWII because Hitler promised to rebuild military Treaty of Versailles angered Germans Hitler said he would get back Germany’s lost lands

25 Great Depression 1929 Stock Market crash – caused banks to close & people to lose jobs and homes. World-wide depression. Lasted until WWII in 1940s.

26 Nazism National Socialist party – started by Hitler in Germany
Said Jews and Treaty of Versailles caused Germany’s problems Believed in strong, powerful leader and strong military

27 Holocaust Systematic killing of all Jews during WWII by Hitler and Nazis in concentration camps Genocide – planned killing of a race of people 6 million Jews were killed during WWII

28 Cold War Period of mistrust and misunderstanding between the United States and the Soviet Union United States - individuals own businesses Soviet Union – government owns businesses Each side thought the other would take over the world NATO – U.S., Canada, western Europe Warsaw Pact – Soviets and eastern Europe

29 Superpowers – during Cold War
U.S. & Soviet Union both had power to influence world events Both in UN Security Council Both had strong military Both had nuclear weapons Both had spies

30 End of Cold War – Soviet Union had economic collapse – lost ability to control its countries - they got freedom & Russia was country again 11/1989 – Berlin Wall torn down (up since 1960s – separated free west Germany & west Europe from communist east Germany & east Europe) 1990 –Germany reunified No more Cold War

31 Brazil, Mexico, Cuba - Governments
Brazil – presidential democracy; citizens MUST vote Mexico – presidential democracy; citizens 18 and up may vote; president serves 1 six year term Cuba – communist dictatorship; president for life; 1 political party

32 Economics Traditional – custom and habit decide economic questions
Command – government planning group decides economic questions Market – individual buyers & sellers and prices decide economic questions

33 3 Economic Questions What to make? (goods/services)
How to make it? (materials) For whom to make it? (Customer)

34 Climate, Location, Resources - Latin America
Mexico – south of U.S.; Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea; 7 seaports – good for shipping climate varies (desert, mountains, coast); oil, silver, food, tourism - natural resources most live in urban areas

35 Climate, Location, Resources - Latin America
Venezuela– South America; coast on Caribbean Sea & Atlantic Ocean, 4 major seaports – good for shipping climate is hot and humid (cold in mountains) oil - major natural resource most live in urban areas

36 Climate, Location, Resources - Latin America
Brazil – South America; coast on Atlantic Ocean, 7 major seaports – good for shipping to other countries. Hot, humid climate, rainforests Most live BY THE COAST Sugarcane and soybeans - major resources

37 Climate, Location, Resources - Latin America
Cuba – island 90 miles south of Florida; Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Atlantic Ocean surround it Tropical climate but breezy Most live in urban areas Sugarcane - major resource

38 Latin America Culture Spanish and Portuguese are main languages because Spain and Portugal colonized Latin America Portugal took Brazil Main religion is Catholic because Spain and Portugal are mostly Catholic countries

39 Zapatistas Mexico – group of people angry about NAFTA and poor housing and education for indigenous Mexicans (native Americans). Took over several towns in southern Mexico Fought Mexican government

40 Quebec Separatists - want to become independent from Canada
Quebec – French language & customs, Catholic religion – different from rest of Canada (English and Protestant)

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