Presentation on theme: "The War Between the States The Civil War The North The Northern states were very industrial. In other words, there were MANY factories and plants in."— Presentation transcript:
The War Between the States The Civil War
The North The Northern states were very industrial. In other words, there were MANY factories and plants in the Northern Region of the United States. Because of all this industry, there were many jobs. Many immigrants found work in these factories.
Working conditions in these factories were often unhealthy and unsafe. The workdays were LONG and the wages were low. –This picture shows how poor the immigrants were.
POPULATION OF THE NORTH In 1860, the North had about 15,092,263 Americans There were 3,543,847 Immigrants during this time also. POPULATION OF THE SOUTH In 1860, there were about 7,752,043 Americans There were about 3,950,521 slaves There were only about 480,032 immigrants
What About the South? Most Southerners owned small farms but did NOT own slaves. COTTON, which was grown on large plantations, was the reason for most of the Souths wealth. In 1860, about 4,000,000 slaves did all the backbreaking work of picking and cleaning the cotton. The South produced about 2/3 of the worlds supply of cotton.
Why did the South not have many immigrants? The North had plenty of jobs for the immigrants because of so much industry. The South used slaves
COTTON IS KING
Abolitionists Definition: Someone who wanted to end slavery in the United States WHO? Many different people across the United States spoke out against slavery
William Lloyd Garrison –A famous abolitionist –He began a newspaper called The Liberator in Boston –It spoke out against slavery and it was very controversial Angelina and Sarah Grimke (sisters) They were daughters of a South Carolina judge and plantation owner. They saw the evils of slavery first hand growing up on the plantation. They moved North where they could work openly to end slavery They were the first women in history to speak out publicly for the abolitionist cause
Who was Moses? Harriett Tubman was nicknamed Moses because of all the slaves she set free as a conductor on the Underground Railroad. Was the Underground Railroad a real railroad? –NO! It was a system of secret routes that escaping slaves used to follow to freedom
Harriett Tubman William Lloyd Garrison
Different Viewpoints on Slavery SOUTH The South believed that cotton made up about ½ of all goods exported from the U.S. Some also argued that slaves were better off than immigrants NORTH Many saw slavery as unjust and terrible cruelty One man said that slavery allowed them NO hope for improvement nor protection against abuse
In 1819, the Union (United States) was evenly divided between slave states and free states. That year, Missouri asked to join the Union as a slave state. In order to maintain a balance between free states and slave states, Congress passed the Missouri Compromise. –This compromise created an imaginary line from east to west through the Louisiana Territory. –Slavery would be allowed in all states south of the line. It would be forbidden in all states north except for Missouri –Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine was admitted as a free state.
The Compromise of 1850 California would be admitted as a free state, which would benefit the North. In return, the North would obey the Fugitive Slave Law –The Fugitive Slave Law required police in free states help capture slave escaping from slave states
A House Divided Uncle Toms Cabin-Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe-protested the Fugitive Slave Law The Dred Scott Decision Kansas-Nebraska Act John Browns Raid
Abraham Lincoln Lawyer in Illinois Republican Served 4 years in the state legislature One term as a representative in Congress He firmly opposed slavery –If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong. –He ran for Senate but lost to Stephen Douglas who supported states rights.
The Election of 1860 Lincoln and Douglas ran against each other again for U. S. President. Lincoln was the only candidate who firmly opposed slavery. ( there were 4 candidates) To preserve the Union, Lincoln pledged to leave slavery alone where it already existed. BUT, if no new slave states were admitted to the Union, the South would lose its political power.
If Lincoln was elected, many Southern states had talked about seceding. Secede-means to leave the Union When Lincoln won, he didnt believe that any state would secede. However, South Carolina voted to secede followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas. They formed a new Union called the Confederate States of America. They chose Jefferson Davis as their president
Jefferson Davis Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln believed it was unconstitutional for the Southern states to secede. He was determined to hold the country together He promised to hold, occupy, and possess all federal property in the Southern States!
Fort Sumter, South Carolina The people of South Carolina believed they were people of the Confederate States of America They wanted the U.S. flag taken down from Fort Sumter and the Confederate Flag flown in its place. On April 12, 1861, Confederate guns were fired at Northern ships approaching the fort at 4:30 a.m. This was the beginning of the Civil War!!
The NORTH The North believed that they would win because they had a larger population and more resources than the south. They could build and supply a better army. They were also better able to feed an army because they grew most of the countrys food. The North had most of the railroads, and they could be used for moving soldiers and supplies
The SOUTH The South thought they would win because after the Union surrendered at Fort Sumter, 11 more states joined the Confederacy. The South had many well-trained officers Many Southerners grew up riding horses and using guns to hunt Southerners would fight fiercely because they believed they were fighting to protect their homes and their way of life
The Civil War did not happen just because of slavery. It began as a fight for states rights. The dispute of slavery indirectly became a focus because the slave states believed it was their right if they wanted slavery. Both sides thought it would be a QUICK war. But, do you know how long it lasted………………..
The Civil War lasted from April 1861 to April 1865 About 1.5 million people fought for the North About 1 million people fought for the South
Confederate Leader Confederate Leader General Robert E. Lee The Union asked him to lead their army, but he was from Richmond Virginia. He told them he could not betray his homeland. Well respected and skilled Fought in the Mexican War
The Union Leader General Ulysses S. Grant
First Battle at Manassas July, 1861 Also referred to as The 1 st Battle of Bull Run A Union army marched south from Washington- to capture Richmond-The Confederate Capitol. The 2 armies fought at a stream named Bull Run. Soon, they all grew tired, but General Thomas Jonathan Jackson led Confederate Troops and stood there like a STONEWALL, refusing to surrender. The Confederate troops regained morale, and the Confederate Army won. General Jackson was from then on referred to as Stonewall Jackson.
General Stonewall Jackson
Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 Deadliest day of the war The two armies suffered at least 23,000 casualties. The Union army stopped Gen. Lee from invading Maryland The Confederate Army retreated-meaning they gave in and lost this battle Video clip Video clip
Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863 In the beginning of the war, Lincolns only concern was to keep the Union together. He was not going to free enslave people. As the war progressed, he changed his mind! So, Lincoln decided to pass the Emancipation Proclamation. Emancipate means to free enslaved people
The proclamation declared that slaves in the Confederacy were free. What do you think the Confederates thought about this? Well, they IGNORED IT!!!!
Battle of Vicksburg July, 1863 Town in Mississippi General Grants army surrounded Vicksburg and fired cannons into the town for 6 weeks!!!!! On July 4, 1863, Vicksburg surrendered. This gave the Union control of the Mississippi River This cut off Texas and Arkansas from the rest of the South.
Gettysburg July, 1863 General Lee decided it was time to invade the Union again! He marched his army into Pennsylvania. The Union Army met Lees soldiers near the town of Gettysburg The battle lasted for two days! On the 3 rd day, Lee ordered a final attack.
About 14,000 Confederate soldiers charged across the open fields towards the union. Well, they were ready for them!!!!! They killed or wounded about half of the Confederate soldiers. Lee and his weakened army were forced to retreat. The two battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg were the turning points of the war
Gettysburg A Challenged Nation A Challenged Nation
Assignment time! Read in your Social Studies book pages Then, complete page 30 in your workbook
The Union They tried to force the South to surrender by destroying southerners resources By the end of 1863, the Union had many victories, but the Confederate armies were STILL fighting hard. The North HAD to destroy the Souths ability to fight
Lincoln had General Ulysses S. Grant to fight hard. Grant ordered William Tecumseh Sherman to lead the army into Tennessee Sherman planned to attack Atlanta Georgia-a MAJOR Confederate city.
The Atlanta Campaign May 1864 Atlanta was a center for southern supplies, factories, and railroads. Union Soldiers marched into Atlanta in May, 1864 Confederates fought back all summer! They were able to use mountains and rivers as defenses. But, the Unions larger army finally captured Atlanta in September. Sherman sent a telegraph to Lincoln that simply said, Atlanta is ours, and fairly won.
Shermans March to Sea Shermans soldiers marched from Atlanta to Savannah They destroyed everything along the way that southerners needed for war. Sherman used TOTAL WAR to make southerners basicly worn out! Total war-the strategy of destroying the enemys resources. March to Sea March to Sea
Use your Social Studies book! Turn to page and read: –Grant and Lee –Lees Surrender –Complete page 31 on workbook
Why did Lee have to surrender? He could not get more supplies, soldiers were deserting, and he was almost surrounded