2The NorthThe Northern states were very industrial. In other words, there were MANY factories and plants in the Northern Region of the United States.Because of all this industry, there were many jobs. Many immigrants found work in these factories.
3Working conditions in these factories were often unhealthy and unsafe. The workdays were LONG and the wages were low.This picture shows how poor the immigrants were.
4POPULATION OF THE NORTH POPULATION OF THE SOUTHIn 1860, there were about 7,752,043 AmericansThere were about 3,950,521 slavesThere were only about 480,032 immigrantsIn 1860, the North had about 15,092,263 AmericansThere were 3,543,847 Immigrants during this time also.
5What About the South?Most Southerners owned small farms but did NOT own slaves.COTTON, which was grown on large plantations, was the reason for most of the South’s wealth.In 1860, about 4,000,000 slaves did all the backbreaking work of picking and cleaning the cotton.The South produced about 2/3 of the world’s supply of cotton.
6Why did the South not have many immigrants? The North had plenty of jobs for the immigrants because of so much industry.The South used slaves
9Abolitionists Definition: WHO? Someone who wanted to end slavery in the United StatesWHO?Many different people across the United States spoke out against slavery
10William Lloyd Garrison Angelina and Sarah Grimke (sisters)They were daughters of a South Carolina judge and plantation owner.They saw the evils of slavery first hand growing up on the plantation.They moved North where they could work openly to end slaveryThey were the first women in history to speak out publicly for the abolitionist causeWilliam Lloyd GarrisonA famous abolitionistHe began a newspaper called The Liberator in BostonIt spoke out against slavery and it was very controversial
11Who was Moses?Harriett Tubman was nicknamed Moses because of all the slaves she set free as a conductor on the Underground Railroad.Was the Underground Railroad a real railroad?NO! It was a system of secret routes that escaping slaves used to follow to freedom
13Different Viewpoints on Slavery NORTHMany saw slavery as unjust and terrible crueltyOne man said that slavery allowed them NO hope for improvement nor protection against abuseSOUTHThe South believed that cotton made up about ½ of all goods exported from the U.S.Some also argued that slaves were better off than immigrants
14That year, Missouri asked to join the Union as a slave state. In 1819, the Union (United States) was evenly divided between slave states and free states.That year, Missouri asked to join the Union as a slave state.In order to maintain a balance between free states and slave states, Congress passed the Missouri Compromise.This compromise created an imaginary line from east to west through the Louisiana Territory.Slavery would be allowed in all states south of the line. It would be forbidden in all states north except for MissouriMissouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine was admitted as a free state.
16The Compromise of 1850California would be admitted as a free state, which would benefit the North.In return, the North would obey the Fugitive Slave LawThe Fugitive Slave Law required police in free states help capture slave escaping from slave states
17A House DividedUncle Tom’s Cabin-Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe-protested the Fugitive Slave LawThe Dred Scott DecisionKansas-Nebraska ActJohn Brown’s Raid
20Abraham Lincoln Lawyer in Illinois Republican Served 4 years in the state legislatureOne term as a representative in CongressHe firmly opposed slavery“If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong.”He ran for Senate but lost to Stephen Douglas who supported states’ rights.
21The Election of 1860Lincoln and Douglas ran against each other again for U. S. President.Lincoln was the only candidate who firmly opposed slavery. ( there were 4 candidates)To preserve the Union, Lincoln pledged to leave slavery alone where it already existed.BUT, if no new slave states were admitted to the Union, the South would lose its political power.
22If Lincoln was elected, many Southern states had talked about seceding. Secede-means to leave the UnionWhen Lincoln won, he didn’t believe that any state would secede.However, South Carolina voted to secede followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas. They formed a new Union called the Confederate States of America. They chose Jefferson Davis as their president
24Abraham Lincoln believed it was unconstitutional for the Southern states to secede. He was determined to hold the country togetherHe promised to “hold, occupy, and possess” all federal property in the Southern States!
25Fort Sumter, South Carolina The people of South Carolina believed they were people of the Confederate States of AmericaThey wanted the U.S. flag taken down from Fort Sumter and the Confederate Flag flown in its place.On April 12, 1861, Confederate guns were fired at Northern ships approaching the fort at 4:30 a.m.This was the beginning of the Civil War!!
27The NORTHThe North believed that they would win because they had a larger population and more resources than the south. They could build and supply a better army.They were also better able to feed an army because they grew most of the country’s food.The North had most of the railroads, and they could be used for moving soldiers and supplies
28The SOUTHThe South thought they would win because after the Union surrendered at Fort Sumter, 11 more states joined the Confederacy.The South had many well-trained officersMany Southerners grew up riding horses and using guns to huntSoutherners would fight fiercely because they believed they were fighting to protect their homes and their way of life
29The Civil War did not happen just because of slavery. It began as a fight for states’ rights. The dispute of slavery indirectly became a focus because the slave states believed it was their right if they wanted slavery.Both sides thought it would be a QUICK war. But, do you know how long it lasted………………..
30The Civil War lasted from April 1861 to April 1865 About 1.5 million people fought for the NorthAbout 1 million people fought for the South
31Confederate Leader General Robert E. Lee The Union asked him to lead their army, but he was from Richmond Virginia. He told them he could not betray his homeland.Well respected and skilledFought in the Mexican War
33First Battle at Manassas July, 1861 Also referred to as The 1st Battle of Bull RunA Union army marched south from Washington-to capture Richmond-The Confederate Capitol. The 2 armies fought at a stream named “Bull Run”. Soon, they all grew tired, but General Thomas Jonathan Jackson led Confederate Troops and stood there like a STONEWALL, refusing to surrender. The Confederate troops regained morale, and the Confederate Army won. General Jackson was from then on referred to as “Stonewall” Jackson.
35Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 Deadliest day of the warThe two armies suffered at least 23,000 casualties.The Union army stopped Gen. Lee from invading MarylandThe Confederate Army retreated-meaning they gave in and lost this battleVideo clip
36Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863 In the beginning of the war, Lincoln’s only concern was to keep the Union together. He was not going to free enslave people.As the war progressed, he changed his mind!So, Lincoln decided to pass the Emancipation Proclamation.Emancipate means to free enslaved people
37The proclamation declared that slaves in the Confederacy were free. What do you think the Confederates thought about this?Well, they IGNORED IT!!!!
39Battle of Vicksburg July, 1863 Town in MississippiGeneral Grant’s army surrounded Vicksburg and fired cannons into the town for 6 weeks!!!!!On July 4, 1863, Vicksburg surrendered. This gave the Union control of the Mississippi RiverThis cut off Texas and Arkansas from the rest of the South.
40Gettysburg July, 1863General Lee decided it was time to invade the Union again!He marched his army into Pennsylvania.The Union Army met Lee’s soldiers near the town of GettysburgThe battle lasted for two days!On the 3rd day, Lee ordered a final attack.
42About 14,000 Confederate soldiers charged across the open fields towards the union. Well, they were ready for them!!!!!They killed or wounded about half of the Confederate soldiers.Lee and his weakened army were forced to retreat.The two battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg were the turning points of the war
44Assignment time! Read in your Social Studies book pages 184-187. Then, complete page 30 in your workbook
45The UnionThey tried to force the South to surrender by destroying southerner’s resourcesBy the end of 1863, the Union had many victories, but the Confederate armies were STILL fighting hard. The North HAD to destroy the South’s ability to fight
46Lincoln had General Ulysses S. Grant to fight hard. Grant ordered William Tecumseh Sherman to lead the army into TennesseeSherman planned to attack Atlanta Georgia-a MAJOR Confederate city.
47The Atlanta Campaign May 1864 Atlanta was a center for southern supplies, factories, and railroads. Union Soldiers marched into Atlanta in May, 1864Confederates fought back all summer! They were able to use mountains and rivers as defenses.But, the Union’s larger army finally captured Atlanta in September.Sherman sent a telegraph to Lincoln that simply said, “Atlanta is ours, and fairly won.”
48Sherman’s March to SeaSherman’s soldiers marched from Atlanta to SavannahThey destroyed everything along the way that southerners needed for war.Sherman used TOTAL WAR to make southerners basicly worn out!Total war-the strategy of destroying the enemy’s resources.March to Sea
49Use your Social Studies book! Turn to page and read:Grant and LeeLee’s SurrenderComplete page 31 on workbook
50Why did Lee have to surrender? He could not get more supplies, soldiers were deserting, and he was almost surrounded