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Vocabulary terms to know vocabulary terms to know 1.Biome 2.Climate 3.Latitude 4.Altitude 5.Permafrost 6.Epiphyte 7. Understory 8. Canopy 9. Emergent Layer.

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Presentation on theme: "Vocabulary terms to know vocabulary terms to know 1.Biome 2.Climate 3.Latitude 4.Altitude 5.Permafrost 6.Epiphyte 7. Understory 8. Canopy 9. Emergent Layer."— Presentation transcript:

1 vocabulary terms to know vocabulary terms to know 1.Biome 2.Climate 3.Latitude 4.Altitude 5.Permafrost 6.Epiphyte 7. Understory 8. Canopy 9. Emergent Layer

2 Chapter 6 Remember to write the slides that show the clipboard symbol. Examples written in italics do not need to be written down. We will just discuss them, along with the other slides.

3 Copy & answer the following questions on a blank piece of paper: 1. 1.How do you think you did on the ch. 5 test? 2. 2.How long did you study? 3. 3.Have you been to tutoring? 4. 4.What could YOU do to improve your grade? 5. 5.What could we do to help you?

4 Objectives Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Explain how temperature and precipitation determine which plants grow in an area. Explain how temperature and precipitation determine which plants grow in an area. Explain how latitude and altitude affect which plants grow in an area. Explain how latitude and altitude affect which plants grow in an area.

5 Standards SEV2c, d SEV2c, d SEV5c, d SEV5c, d SCSh6d SCSh6d

6 What is a Biome? Large regions characterized by a specific type of climate & certain types of plant and animal communities Large regions characterized by a specific type of climate & certain types of plant and animal communities Made up of many individual ecosystems Made up of many individual ecosystems

7 Biomes and Vegetation Described by their vegetation because plants that grow in an area determine the other organisms that can live there Described by their vegetation because plants that grow in an area determine the other organisms that can live there Plants have characteristics, specialized structures, or adaptations (size, shape, color) that allow them to survive in that biome. Plants have characteristics, specialized structures, or adaptations (size, shape, color) that allow them to survive in that biome. For example, plants in the tundra tend to be short because they cannot obtain enough water to grow larger. For example, plants in the tundra tend to be short because they cannot obtain enough water to grow larger.

8 The Worlds Major Terrestrial Biomes

9 Biomes and Climate Climate is the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time. Climate is the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time. Main factor is determining which plants can grow in a certain area, which in turn defines the biome. Main factor is determining which plants can grow in a certain area, which in turn defines the biome. Temperature and precipitation are the two most important factors that determine a regions climate. Temperature and precipitation are the two most important factors that determine a regions climate.

10 Temperature & Precipitation Most organisms are adapted to live within a particular range of temps & wont survive at temps too far above or below their optimal range. Most organisms are adapted to live within a particular range of temps & wont survive at temps too far above or below their optimal range. Precipitation also limits the organisms found in a biome because all organisms need water. Precipitation also limits the organisms found in a biome because all organisms need water. Biomes that do not receive enough rainfall to support large trees support communities dominated by small trees, shrubs, and grasses. Biomes that do not receive enough rainfall to support large trees support communities dominated by small trees, shrubs, and grasses. In biomes where rainfall is not frequent, the vegetation is mostly cactuses and desert shrubs. In extreme cases, lack of rainfall results in no plants, no matter what the temperature is. In biomes where rainfall is not frequent, the vegetation is mostly cactuses and desert shrubs. In extreme cases, lack of rainfall results in no plants, no matter what the temperature is. The higher the temperature & precipitation are, the taller & denser the vegetation is. The higher the temperature & precipitation are, the taller & denser the vegetation is.

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12 Latitude & Altitude Latitude is the distance north or south from the equator, & is expressed in degrees. Latitude is the distance north or south from the equator, & is expressed in degrees. Altitude is the height of an object above a reference point, such as sea level or the Earths surface. Altitude is the height of an object above a reference point, such as sea level or the Earths surface. Climate varies with latitude & altitude. Climate varies with latitude & altitude. For example, climate gets colder as latitude and altitude increase. This is why it gets colder as you move further up a mountain. For example, climate gets colder as latitude and altitude increase. This is why it gets colder as you move further up a mountain. As latitude and altitude increase, biomes & vegetation change. As latitude and altitude increase, biomes & vegetation change. Trees of tropical rainforests usually grow closer to the equator, while mosses & lichen of the tundra grow closer to the poles. Trees of tropical rainforests usually grow closer to the equator, while mosses & lichen of the tundra grow closer to the poles. The temperate region includes biomes such as temperate forests and grasslands, which usually have moderate temperatures & fertile soil that is ideal for agriculture. The temperate region includes biomes such as temperate forests and grasslands, which usually have moderate temperatures & fertile soil that is ideal for agriculture.

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14 1. 1.Distinguish between latitude & altitude Contrast weather & climate Large regions characterized by a specific type of climate & certain types of plant & animal communities are called _____.

15 Objectives List three characteristics of tropical rain forests. List three characteristics of tropical rain forests. Name and describe the main layers of a tropical rain forest. Name and describe the main layers of a tropical rain forest. Describe one plant in a temperate deciduous forest and an adaptation that helps the plant survive. Describe one plant in a temperate deciduous forest and an adaptation that helps the plant survive. Describe one adaptation that may help an animal survive in the taiga. Describe one adaptation that may help an animal survive in the taiga. Name two threats to the worlds forest biomes. Name two threats to the worlds forest biomes.

16 Standards SEV2c SEV2c SCSh9a, c, d SCSh9a, c, d SCSh1a, b SCSh1a, b SCSh3c SCSh3c SCSh4a SCSh4a SCSh6a-d SCSh6a-d

17 Forest Biomes Most widespread & the most diverse Most widespread & the most diverse Found where temps are mild to hot & where rainfall is plenty Found where temps are mild to hot & where rainfall is plenty 3 main forest biomes of the world: tropical, temperate, & coniferous 3 main forest biomes of the world: tropical, temperate, & coniferous

18 Tropical Rain Forests Forests or jungles near the equator. Forests or jungles near the equator. Large amounts of rain & constant temps Large amounts of rain & constant temps Greatest known diversity of organisms Greatest known diversity of organisms Help regulate world climate Help regulate world climate Play vital roles in the nitrogen, oxygen, & carbon cycles Play vital roles in the nitrogen, oxygen, & carbon cycles Are humid, warm, and get strong sunlight which allows them to maintain a fairly constant temp that is ideal for a variety of plants & animals Are humid, warm, and get strong sunlight which allows them to maintain a fairly constant temp that is ideal for a variety of plants & animals

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20 Nutrients in Tropical Rain Forests Most nutrients are within the plants, not the soil. Most nutrients are within the plants, not the soil. Decomposers on the forest floor break down dead organisms & return the nutrients to the soil, but plants quickly absorb the nutrients. Decomposers on the forest floor break down dead organisms & return the nutrients to the soil, but plants quickly absorb the nutrients. Some trees support fungi that feed on dead organic matter on the rain-forest floor. In this relationship, the fungi transfer the nutrients form the dead matter directly to the tree. Some trees support fungi that feed on dead organic matter on the rain-forest floor. In this relationship, the fungi transfer the nutrients form the dead matter directly to the tree. Nutrients from dead organic matter are removed so efficiently that runoff from rain forests is often as pure as distilled water. Nutrients from dead organic matter are removed so efficiently that runoff from rain forests is often as pure as distilled water. Most tropical soils that are cleared of plants for agriculture lack nutrients & cant support crops for more than a few years. Most tropical soils that are cleared of plants for agriculture lack nutrients & cant support crops for more than a few years. Many of the trees form above ground roots called buttresses or braces that grow sideways from the tree to provide it with extra support in the thin soil. Many of the trees form above ground roots called buttresses or braces that grow sideways from the tree to provide it with extra support in the thin soil.

21 Layers of the Rain Forest Different types of plants grow in different layers. Different types of plants grow in different layers. There are 4 main layers of the rain forest: There are 4 main layers of the rain forest: Emergent LayerEmergent Layer Upper CanopyUpper Canopy Lower LayerLower Layer UnderstoryUnderstory

22 The emergent layer is the top foliage layer in a forest where the trees extend above surrounding trees. The emergent layer is the top foliage layer in a forest where the trees extend above surrounding trees. Trees in this layer grow and emerge into direct sunlight reaching heights of 60 to 70 m and can measure up to 5 m around. Trees in this layer grow and emerge into direct sunlight reaching heights of 60 to 70 m and can measure up to 5 m around. Animals such as eagles, bats, monkeys, and snakes live in the emergent layer. Animals such as eagles, bats, monkeys, and snakes live in the emergent layer.

23 The canopy is the layers of treetops that shade the forest floor, & is considered to be the primary layer of the rain forest. The canopy is the layers of treetops that shade the forest floor, & is considered to be the primary layer of the rain forest. The tall trees, more than 30 m tall, form a dense layer that absorbs up to 95 percent of the sunlight. The tall trees, more than 30 m tall, form a dense layer that absorbs up to 95 percent of the sunlight. The canopy can be split into & upper & lower canopy with the lower canopy receiving less sunlight. The canopy can be split into & upper & lower canopy with the lower canopy receiving less sunlight. Epiphytes are plants that use another plant for support but not for nourishment, & are located on high trees in the canopy. Epiphytes are plants that use another plant for support but not for nourishment, & are located on high trees in the canopy. Growing on tall trees in allows them to reach the sunlight needed for photosynthesis, & to absorb the water & nutrients that run down the tree after it rains. Growing on tall trees in allows them to reach the sunlight needed for photosynthesis, & to absorb the water & nutrients that run down the tree after it rains. Most animals that live in the rain forest live in the canopy because they depend on the abundant flowers & fruits that grow there. Most animals that live in the rain forest live in the canopy because they depend on the abundant flowers & fruits that grow there.

24 The understory is the foliage layer that is beneath & shaded by the main canopy of a forest. The understory is the foliage layer that is beneath & shaded by the main canopy of a forest. Little light reaches this layer allowing only trees & shrubs adapted to shade to grow there. Little light reaches this layer allowing only trees & shrubs adapted to shade to grow there. Most plants in the understory do not grow more that 3.5 m tall. Most plants in the understory do not grow more that 3.5 m tall. Herbs with large flat leaves that grow on the forest floor capture the small amount of light that penetrates the understory. Herbs with large flat leaves that grow on the forest floor capture the small amount of light that penetrates the understory.

25 Species Diversity The diversity of rain-forest vegetation has led to the evolution of a diverse community of animals. The diversity of rain-forest vegetation has led to the evolution of a diverse community of animals. Most rainforest animals are specialists that use specific resources in particular ways to avoid competition and have adapted amazing ways to capture prey & avoid predators. Most rainforest animals are specialists that use specific resources in particular ways to avoid competition and have adapted amazing ways to capture prey & avoid predators. Insects use camouflage to avoid predators & may be shaped like leaves or twigs. Insects use camouflage to avoid predators & may be shaped like leaves or twigs.

26 All pictures taken in Costa Rica 2005

27 Threats to Rain Forests Every minute of every day, 100 acres of tropical rainforest are cleared for logging operations, agriculture, & oil exploration. Every minute of every day, 100 acres of tropical rainforest are cleared for logging operations, agriculture, & oil exploration. Exotic-pet trading robs the rain forests of rare & valuable plant & animal species only found there. Exotic-pet trading robs the rain forests of rare & valuable plant & animal species only found there. Habitat destruction occurs when land inhabited by an organism is destroyed or altered. Habitat destruction occurs when land inhabited by an organism is destroyed or altered. An estimated 50 million native peoples live in tropical rain forests & are also threatened by habitat destruction. An estimated 50 million native peoples live in tropical rain forests & are also threatened by habitat destruction. Because they obtain nearly everything they need form the forest, the loss of their habitat could force them to leave their homes and move into cities. Because they obtain nearly everything they need form the forest, the loss of their habitat could force them to leave their homes and move into cities. This drastic change of lifestyle may then cause the native peoples too lose their culture & traditions. This drastic change of lifestyle may then cause the native peoples too lose their culture & traditions.

28 Temperate Forests Cool, humid weather Cool, humid weather Abundant rainfall Abundant rainfall Tree branches are draped with mosses, trunks are covered with lichens, & the forest floor is covered with ferns. Tree branches are draped with mosses, trunks are covered with lichens, & the forest floor is covered with ferns. North America, Australia, & New Zealand North America, Australia, & New Zealand Although located north of most other rain forests, the temperate rain forest of the Pacific Northwest still maintains a moderate temperature year round. Although located north of most other rain forests, the temperate rain forest of the Pacific Northwest still maintains a moderate temperature year round. It rarely freezes because the nearby Pacific Ocean waters keep temperatures mild by blowing cool ocean water over the forest. It rarely freezes because the nearby Pacific Ocean waters keep temperatures mild by blowing cool ocean water over the forest. As the ocean winds meet the costal Olympic Mountains, a large amount of rainfall is produced which keeps the temperature cool & moist. As the ocean winds meet the costal Olympic Mountains, a large amount of rainfall is produced which keeps the temperature cool & moist.

29 Temperate Deciduous Forests Have trees that shed their leaves in the fall Have trees that shed their leaves in the fall Located between 30º & 50º north latitude Located between 30º & 50º north latitude Extreme temperature range Extreme temperature range Summer temps soaring to 35ºC and winter temps often falling below freezing Summer temps soaring to 35ºC and winter temps often falling below freezing 75 to 125 cm of precipitation annually 75 to 125 cm of precipitation annually Helps to decompose dead organic matter contributing to the rich soils of the forest Helps to decompose dead organic matter contributing to the rich soils of the forest

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31 Plants of Deciduous Forests Grow in layers with tall trees dominating the canopy while shrubs cover the understory Grow in layers with tall trees dominating the canopy while shrubs cover the understory More light reaches deciduous forest floors than rain forests floors allowing more plants to grow. More light reaches deciduous forest floors than rain forests floors allowing more plants to grow. Plants are adapted to survive seasonal changes. Plants are adapted to survive seasonal changes. In the fall and winter, trees shed their leaves and seeds go dormant under the insulation of the soil. In the fall and winter, trees shed their leaves and seeds go dormant under the insulation of the soil. With the returning warmth in the spring, the trees grow new leaves & seeds germinate. With the returning warmth in the spring, the trees grow new leaves & seeds germinate.

32 Animals of Deciduous Forests Animals are adapted to use forest plants for both food & shelter Animals are adapted to use forest plants for both food & shelter Birds cant survive the harsh winter of the deciduous forests so they migrate for warmer weather & better availability of food. Birds cant survive the harsh winter of the deciduous forests so they migrate for warmer weather & better availability of food. Other animals reduce their activity so that they dont need as much food for energy Other animals reduce their activity so that they dont need as much food for energy

33 Taiga Region of evergreen, coniferous forest below the arctic & subarctic tundra Region of evergreen, coniferous forest below the arctic & subarctic tundra Long winters & little vegetation Long winters & little vegetation Short growing season Short growing season As short as 50 days with most plant growth occurring during the summer months because of nearly constant daylight & larger amounts of precipitation As short as 50 days with most plant growth occurring during the summer months because of nearly constant daylight & larger amounts of precipitation

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35 Plants of the Taiga A conifer is a tree that has seeds that develop in cones. A conifer is a tree that has seeds that develop in cones. Arrow shape of leaf & waxy coating helps to retain water Arrow shape of leaf & waxy coating helps to retain water Shape helps shed snow to the ground & not get weighed down Shape helps shed snow to the ground & not get weighed down Needles contain substances that make the soil acidic when they fall to the ground preventing plants from growing on the floor Needles contain substances that make the soil acidic when they fall to the ground preventing plants from growing on the floor Soil forms slowly because the climate & acidity slow decomposition. Soil forms slowly because the climate & acidity slow decomposition.

36 Animals of the Taiga Many lakes and swamps that in the summer attract birds that feed on insects Many lakes and swamps that in the summer attract birds that feed on insects Many birds migrate Many birds migrate Some animals burrow underground for better insulation Some animals burrow underground for better insulation Some animals have adapted to avoid predation by shedding their brown summer fur & growing white fur that camouflages them in the snow. Some animals have adapted to avoid predation by shedding their brown summer fur & growing white fur that camouflages them in the snow.

37 Mother moose and twin calves Wolves Grizzly bear cubs Caribou Crossing Porcupine All pictures taken in Alaska 2007

38 1. 1.List the 4 layers of plant growth of a tropical rain forest from highest to lowest _______are plants that use another plant for support but not for nourishment, & are located on high trees in the canopy Contrast the conifers of the taiga with deciduous trees.

39 Objectives Describe the difference between tropical and temperate grasslands. Describe the difference between tropical and temperate grasslands. Describe the climate in a chaparral biome. Describe the climate in a chaparral biome. Describe two desert animals and the adaptations that help them survive. Describe two desert animals and the adaptations that help them survive. Describe one threat to the tundra biome. Describe one threat to the tundra biome.

40 Standards SEV2c, d SEV2c, d

41 Grassland, Desert, and Tundra Biomes In climates that have less rainfall, forest biomes are replaced by savanna, grassland, & chaparral biomes. In climates that have less rainfall, forest biomes are replaced by savanna, grassland, & chaparral biomes. As even less rain falls in these biomes, they change into desert & tundra biomes. As even less rain falls in these biomes, they change into desert & tundra biomes. As precipitation decreases in an area, the diversity of the species in the area also decreases. But, the number of individuals of each species present may still be very large. As precipitation decreases in an area, the diversity of the species in the area also decreases. But, the number of individuals of each species present may still be very large.

42 Savannas Plains full of grasses & scattered trees & shrubs that are found in tropical & subtropical habitats Plains full of grasses & scattered trees & shrubs that are found in tropical & subtropical habitats Found mainly in regions with a dry climate Found mainly in regions with a dry climate Receive little precipitation throughout the year, but do have a wet & a dry season Receive little precipitation throughout the year, but do have a wet & a dry season Many animals are only active during the wet season. Many animals are only active during the wet season. Grass fires help to restore nutrients to the soil during the dry season. Grass fires help to restore nutrients to the soil during the dry season.

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44 Plants of the Savanna Must be able to survive prolonged periods without water Must be able to survive prolonged periods without water Some have large horizontal root systems to help them survive the dry season Some have large horizontal root systems to help them survive the dry season These roots enable the plant to grow quickly after a fire. These roots enable the plant to grow quickly after a fire. The grasses have coarse vertical leaves that expose less surface area to help conserve water, while some trees shed their leaves. The grasses have coarse vertical leaves that expose less surface area to help conserve water, while some trees shed their leaves. Almost all have thorns for protection Almost all have thorns for protection

45 Animals of the Savanna Grazing herbivores have migratory ways of life, following the rains to areas of new grass & fresh watering holes. Grazing herbivores have migratory ways of life, following the rains to areas of new grass & fresh watering holes. Predators often stalk these animals for food. Predators often stalk these animals for food. Many give birth only during the rainy season, when food is abundant & the young are more likely to survive. Many give birth only during the rainy season, when food is abundant & the young are more likely to survive. Some species of herbivores reduce competition for food by eating vegetation at different heights than other species do. Some species of herbivores reduce competition for food by eating vegetation at different heights than other species do.

46 Temperate Grasslands Dominated by grasses Dominated by grasses Few trees Few trees Hot summers & cold winters Hot summers & cold winters Intermediate amount of rainfall (between a forest and a desert) Intermediate amount of rainfall (between a forest and a desert) Fertile soil Fertile soil Few remain because many have been replaced by grazing areas & farms growing crops such as corn, soybeans, & wheat. Few remain because many have been replaced by grazing areas & farms growing crops such as corn, soybeans, & wheat. Located on the interiors of continents where too little rain falls for trees to grow Located on the interiors of continents where too little rain falls for trees to grow Prairies of North America Prairies of North America Heavy precipitation is rare, making them susceptible to fires. Heavy precipitation is rare, making them susceptible to fires.

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48 Plants of Temperate Grasslands The roots system of prairie grasses form dense layers that survive drought & fire allowing the plants to come back from year to year. The roots system of prairie grasses form dense layers that survive drought & fire allowing the plants to come back from year to year. Few trees survive because of the lack of rainfall, fire, & the constant winds. Few trees survive because of the lack of rainfall, fire, & the constant winds. The amount of rainfall determines the types of plants that will grow in that area with varying root depth & grass height. The amount of rainfall determines the types of plants that will grow in that area with varying root depth & grass height.

49 Animals of Temperate Grasslands Some grazing animals have large, flat teeth for chewing the coarse prairie grasses. Some grazing animals have large, flat teeth for chewing the coarse prairie grasses. Others live in underground burrows that protect them from predators on the open grasslands. Others live in underground burrows that protect them from predators on the open grasslands.

50 Threats to Temperate Grasslands Farming & overgrazing Farming & overgrazing Grains crops cant hold the soil in place as well as native grasses can because the roots of crops are shallow, so soil erosion eventually occurs. Grains crops cant hold the soil in place as well as native grasses can because the roots of crops are shallow, so soil erosion eventually occurs. Erosion is also caused as the grasses are constantly eaten & trampled. Erosion is also caused as the grasses are constantly eaten & trampled. Constant use can change the fruitful grasslands into desert-like biomes. Constant use can change the fruitful grasslands into desert-like biomes.

51 Chaparral Temperate woodland biome with vegetation that includes broad leafed evergreen shrubs & is located in areas with hot, dry summers & mild, wet winters. Temperate woodland biome with vegetation that includes broad leafed evergreen shrubs & is located in areas with hot, dry summers & mild, wet winters. Located in the middle latitudes, about 30° north & south of the equator Located in the middle latitudes, about 30° north & south of the equator Primarily in coastal areas that have Mediterranean climates Primarily in coastal areas that have Mediterranean climates

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53 Plants of the Chaparral Most are low-lying, evergreen shrubs & small trees that grow in dense patches Most are low-lying, evergreen shrubs & small trees that grow in dense patches chamise, manzanita, scrub oak, & herbs like sage & bay chamise, manzanita, scrub oak, & herbs like sage & bay Have small, leathery leaves that contain oils that promote burning, allowing natural fires to destroy competing trees Have small, leathery leaves that contain oils that promote burning, allowing natural fires to destroy competing trees Well adapted to fire & can resprout from small bits of surviving plant tissue Well adapted to fire & can resprout from small bits of surviving plant tissue

54 Animals of the Chaparral A common adaptation is camouflage A common adaptation is camouflage Animals such as quail, lizards, chipmunks, and mule deer have a brownish gray coloring that lets them move through the brush without being noticed. Animals such as quail, lizards, chipmunks, and mule deer have a brownish gray coloring that lets them move through the brush without being noticed.

55 Threats to the Chaparral Greatest threat is human development Greatest threat is human development Humans tend to develop lands for commercial & residential use because these biomes get a lot of sun, are near the oceans, & have a mild climate year round. Humans tend to develop lands for commercial & residential use because these biomes get a lot of sun, are near the oceans, & have a mild climate year round.

56 Deserts Have little or no vegetation, long periods without rain, & extreme temperatures Have little or no vegetation, long periods without rain, & extreme temperatures There are hot & cold deserts, but all are the driest places on Earth. There are hot & cold deserts, but all are the driest places on Earth. Usually near large mountain ranges because mountains can block the passage of moisture-filled clouds, limiting precipitation Usually near large mountain ranges because mountains can block the passage of moisture-filled clouds, limiting precipitation

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58 Plants of the Desert Have adaptations for obtaining & conserving water, which allows the plants to live in dry, desert conditions. Have adaptations for obtaining & conserving water, which allows the plants to live in dry, desert conditions. Succulents have thick, fleshy stems & leaves that conserve water. Succulents have thick, fleshy stems & leaves that conserve water. Leaves have waxy coating Leaves have waxy coating Sharp spines Sharp spines Roots spread out just under the surface Roots spread out just under the surface

59 Animals of the Desert Adapted many different ways to prevent water loss Adapted many different ways to prevent water loss Reptiles have thick, scaly skin that prevents water loss. Reptiles have thick, scaly skin that prevents water loss. Amphibians survive by estivating, or burying themselves in the ground and sleeping through the dry season. Amphibians survive by estivating, or burying themselves in the ground and sleeping through the dry season. Insects are covered with body armor that helps them retain water. Insects are covered with body armor that helps them retain water. Most are nocturnal Most are nocturnal

60 Tundra Treeless plain Treeless plain Located in the Arctic or Antarctic Located in the Arctic or Antarctic Very low winter temps Very low winter temps Short, cool summers, so only the top few centimeters of soil thaw Short, cool summers, so only the top few centimeters of soil thaw Permafrost is the permanently frozen layer of soil or subsoil & can be found in the tundra regions. Permafrost is the permanently frozen layer of soil or subsoil & can be found in the tundra regions. Vegetation consists of grasses, lichens, &perennial herbs Vegetation consists of grasses, lichens, &perennial herbs

61 This picture was taken in Alaska Notice the retreating glacier. Why is that happening? The conifers are leaning. The locals said that it was because they were drunken trees. What would really cause them to lean?

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63 Vegetation of the Tundra Mosses & lichens cover rocks Mosses & lichens cover rocks Thin soil, so they have wide, shallow roots to help anchor them Thin soil, so they have wide, shallow roots to help anchor them Most are short, which keeps them out of the wind & helps them absorb heat from the sunlit soil. Most are short, which keeps them out of the wind & helps them absorb heat from the sunlit soil. Woody plants & perennials have evolved dwarf forms that grow flat along the ground. Woody plants & perennials have evolved dwarf forms that grow flat along the ground.

64 This picture was taken in Alaska Notice the lack of tall vegetation & the orange lichens on the rocks.

65 Animals of the Tundra Millions of migratory birds fly to the tundra to breed in the summer when food is abundant. Millions of migratory birds fly to the tundra to breed in the summer when food is abundant. Migrate in search of food and water. Migrate in search of food and water. Hunters prey on migratory caribou, deer, and moose. Hunters prey on migratory caribou, deer, and moose. Burrow underground to avoid the cold. Burrow underground to avoid the cold. Lose their brown summer coat for white fur Lose their brown summer coat for white fur

66 This picture was taken in Alaska What is this thing?

67 Threats to the Tundra One of the most fragile biomes on the planet One of the most fragile biomes on the planet The food chains are relatively simple so they are easily disrupted. The food chains are relatively simple so they are easily disrupted. Until recently these areas have been undisturbed by humans. Until recently these areas have been undisturbed by humans. Oil was located in parts of the tundra, & oil exploration, extraction, & transport has disrupted many habitats (poison food/water). Oil was located in parts of the tundra, & oil exploration, extraction, & transport has disrupted many habitats (poison food/water).

68 1. 1.A forest with the greatest species diversity would be located near the _______ In the tundra, the frozen layer of soil just below the surface is the ______ Many forest biomes are experiencing _____ destruction Plants and animals of a particular biome have ______ that help them to survive.

69 1. 1.The climate of a biome is determined mostly by average ____ & precipitation During harsh winters, animals of the ____ have adaptations such as the ability to change color to avoid predators The ____ layer of the tropical rain forest receives the most sunlight.

70 1. 1.How do animals that live in the desert deal with the (often) dry, hot conditions? 2. 2.What types of plants are typically found in the Taiga? 3. 3.The _____ is found in coastal areas with Mediterranean-style climates.

71 Chapter 6 Review P. 175 #10-18 only P. 176 #24-26 only

72 1. 1.Why are tropical rain forests threatened? 2. 2.Every minute of every day, ____ acres of tropical rain forest are cleared.


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