Presentation on theme: "How do you think you did on the ch. 3 Test? How long did you study?"— Presentation transcript:
1Do-Now-Copy AND answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. How do you think you did on the ch. 3 Test?How long did you study?What could YOU do to improve your grade?What could WE do to help you?
6Defining an EcosystemCommunities of organisms & their abiotic environmentExamples:oak forest -intertidal zonecoral reef -a pondDon’t have clear boundariesThings move from one ecosystem to another.Pollen can blow from a forest into a field, soil can wash from a mountain into a lake, & birds migrate from state to state.
7The Components of an Ecosystem Five basic components:EnergyMinerals/NutrientsWaterOxygenLiving OrganismsMost energy comes from the sunIf one part of the ecosystem is destroyed or changes, the entire system will be affected.
8Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic factors are environmental factors that are living organismsplants, animals, dead organisms, & the waste products of organismsAbiotic factors are not associated with the activities of living organismsair, water, rocks, temperature, salinity, pressure
9OrganismsOrganisms are living things that can carry out life processes independently.ExamplesYouAntsIvyBacteriaSpecies are groups of organisms that are closely related & can mate to produce fertile offspring.Every organism is a member of a species.
10PopulationsPopulations are groups of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area & interbreed.Example:all the field mice in a corn field
11CommunitiesCommunities are groups of various species that live in the same habitat & interact with each other.Every population is part of a community.The most obvious difference between communities is the types of species they have.
12Habitat Place where an organism usually lives Every habitat has specific characteristics that the organisms need to survive. If any of these factors change, the habitat changes.Organisms are well suited to their natural habitats.Animals & plants usually cannot survive for long periods of time away from their natural habitat.
13Complete your Venn Diagram using the following terms/phrases. TemperatureSalinitySpeedMineral CompositionDescribes EcosystemsDead OrganismsAnimal Waste ProductsLightLiving ThingsNonliving ThingsPlantsPressureAnimalsProtistsFungiWaterSandBacteria
14Do-Now:Contrast the terms organism and species.Contrast population and community.The living components of an ecosystem are _____.The nonliving components of an ecosystem are _____.
15Objectives Explain the process of evolution by natural selection. Explain the concept of adaptation.Describe the steps by which a population of insects becomes resistant to pesticide.
16StandardsSCSh7c, d, eSCSh8bSCSh9c, dSEV 2aSEV3a, b, d
17Evolution by Natural Selection Darwin observed that organisms in a population differ slightly in form, function, & behavior (some of these differences are hereditary).Proposed that environment has a strong influence over which individuals survive to produce offspringDarwin proposed that over many generations, natural selection causes the characteristics of populations to change.Natural selection is the process by which individuals that have favorable variations & are better adapted to their environment survive & reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do.Evolution is a change in the characteristics of a population from one generation to the next.Adaptation is the process of becoming adapted to an environment. It is an anatomical, physiological, or behavioral change that improves a population’s ability to survive.
20CoevolutionThe process of two species evolving in response to long-term interactions with each other is called coevolution.Example:Hawaiian honeycreeper, which has a long, curved beak to reach nectar at the base of a flower. The flower has structures that ensure that the bird gets some pollen on its head.When the bird moves the next flower, some of the pollen will be transferred, helping it to reproduce.The honeycreeper’s adaptation is along, curved beak.The plant has two adaptations:The first is the sweet nectar, which attracts the birds.The second is the flower structure that forces pollen onto the bird’s head when the bird sips nectar.
21Evolution by Artificial Selection Artificial selection is the selective breeding of organisms, by humans, for specific desirable characteristics.Examples:Dogs have been bred for certain characteristics.Fruits, grains, & vegetables are also produced by artificial selection. Humans save seeds from the largest, & sweetest fruits. By selecting for these traits, farmers direct the evolution of crop plants to produce larger, sweeter fruit.
22Evolution of Resistance Resistance is the ability of an organism to tolerate a chemical or disease-causing agent.Examples:An organism may be resistant to a chemical when it contains a gene that allows it to break down a chemical into harmless substances.Humans promote the evolution of resistant populations by trying to control pests & bacteria with chemicals.
24Describe the steps by which a population of insects becomes resistant to pesticide. What is artificial selection? Describe an example of it.The perfect one word to define evolution is “____”.“Survival of the fittest” refers to the theory of __________________.
25Seat Work-You do NOT need to write the questions, but your answers should be in COMPLETE sentences.
26Do-Now:Why is it that prescribing antibiotics to humans every time they have a disease will not help eliminate bacterial diseases?What factors of an ecosystem are NOT part of a community?Study for your 4-1 & 4-2 QUIZ!!!!
27ObjectivesName the six kingdoms of organisms and identify two characteristics of each.Explain the importance of bacteria and fungi in the environment.Describe the importance of protists in the ocean environment.Describe how angiosperms and animals depend on each other.Explain why insects are such successful animals.
28Standards SCSh2a, b SCSh3a, c, d, e SCSh4a SCSh6a, b, c SCSh9c SEV2a, b
29The Diversity of Living Things 6 kingdoms based on different characteristicsGet food in different waysmade up of different types of cellsThe cells of animals, plants, fungi, & protists all contain a nucleus (eukaryotes). Bacteria don’t (prokaryotes).The cells of bacteria, fungi, & plants all have cell walls. Animals don’t.
306 Kingdom Posters Group member names in bottom right corner Title-”Kingdom _____”Number of Cells: unicellular, multicellular or bothNutrition: autotrophic, heterotrophic or bothCell Wall Present: yes or noHabitat: describe where the organisms call live (terrestrial, aquatic, marine, etc.)Examples: at least 3 examples
32BacteriaExtremely small, single-celled organisms that usually have a cell wall & reproduce by binary fissionLack nuclei (prokaryotic)2 main kinds of bacteria:archaebacteria (ancient bacteria)Eubacteria (true bacteria)Live in every habitat on Earth
33Bacteria & the Environment Some kinds of bacteria break down the remains & wastes of other organisms & return the nutrients to the soil.Others recycle nutrients, like nitrogen & phosphorus.Certain bacteria can convert nitrogen from the air into a form that plants can use. This conversion is important because nitrogen is the main component of proteins & genetic material.Bacteria also allow many organisms, including humans, to extract certain nutrients from their food.The bacterium, Escherichia coli or E. coli, is found in the intestines of humans & other animals & helps digest food & release vitamins that humans need.
34Fungi Cells have nuclei, rigid cell walls, & no chlorophyll Mushroom=reproductive structure onlyMost of fungus is underground network of fibers that absorb food from decaying organisms in the soil.Fungi get food by releasing chemicals that help break down organic matter, & then absorbing the nutrients (heterotrophic).Pros: decomposers, used to produce food products & some beveragesCons: cause disease, rot buildings, cause food to spoil
35Protists Diverse organisms that belong to kingdom Protista. “Junk-drawer” of classificationThey are divided into three groups:Plant like protists=ALGAE (autotrophs)Animal like protists=PROTOZOANS (heterotrophs)Fungus like protists=SLIME & WATER MOLDS (heterotrophs)
36PlantsPlants are multicellular organisms that make their own food (autotrophs) & have cell walls.Divided into 2 groups:Nonvascular (no xylem or phloem)Vascular (has xylem & phloem)
37Nonvascular PlantsThe first land plants had no vascular tissue, & swimming sperm. They therefore had to live in damp places & couldn’t grow very large.Their descendents alive today are small plants such as mosses.Ferns & club mosses were the first vascular plants, with some of the ferns being as large as small trees.
38Vascular Plants Gymnosperms Gymnosperms are woody vascular see plants whose seeds are not enclosed by an ovary or fruit.Conifers (pine trees) are gymnosperms that bear cones.Much of our lumber & paper comes from gymnosperms.Adaptations allow them to live in drier conditions than lower plantsProduce pollen, which protects & moves sperm between plantsProduce seeds, which protect developing plants from drying outNeedle-like leaves also lose little water
39Vascular Plants Angiosperms Angiosperms are flowering plants that produce seeds within fruit. Most land plants are angiosperms.The flower is the reproductive structure of the plant. Some angiosperms, like grasses, have small flowers, that use wind to disperse their pollen.Other angiosperms have large flowers to attract insects and birds. Many flowering plants depend on animals to disperse their seeds & carry their pollen.Most land animals are dependent on flowering plants.Most of the food we eat, such as wheat, rice, beans, oranges, & lettuce comes from flowering plants.Building materials and fibers, such as oak & cotton, also come from flowering plants.
40Animals Can’t make their own food (heterotrophic) Animal cells have no cell walls, making their bodies soft & flexible. Some animals have evolved hard exoskeletons.Animals are more mobile than plants. All animals move around in their environment during at least one stage in their lives.Divided into 2 groups:Invertebrates (no backbone)Vertebrates (have a backbone)
41Invertebrates No backbones More insects exist on Earth than any other type of animal.Insects are successful for many reasons: they have a waterproof skeleton, can move & reproduce quickly, most insects can fly, & their small size allows them to live on little food & to hide from enemies in small places.
42Vertebrates Have a backbone 1st were fish, but most live on land now mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, & fish1st were fish, but most live on land now1st LAND vertebrates were reptiles (ectotherms).Birds are warm-blooded with feathers.Mammals are warm-blooded vertebrates that have fur & feed their young milk.Birds & mammals have the ability to maintain a high body temperature which allows them to live in cold areas (endotherms).
43Do-Now:List the 6 kingdoms of living organisms.The Chihuahua is a dog that exists because of _________ selection.Fungi and bacteria are important to the environment because they _________.Phytoplankton are important protists because they are a source of _________ & _________.