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Do-Now-Copy AND answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. How do you think you did on the ch. 3 Test? 2. How long did you study?

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Presentation on theme: "Do-Now-Copy AND answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. How do you think you did on the ch. 3 Test? 2. How long did you study?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Do-Now-Copy AND answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. How do you think you did on the ch. 3 Test? 2. How long did you study? 3. What could YOU do to improve your grade? 4. What could WE do to help you?

2 Chapter 4 Vocabulary 1. Gymnosperm 2. Angiosperm 3. Resistance 4. Artificial Selection 5. Adaptation 6. Evolution 7. Natural Selection 8. Biotic Factor 9. Abiotic Factor 10. Archaebacteria 11. Eubacteria

3 Chapter 4 Remember to write the slides that show the clipboard symbol. Examples written in italics do not need to be written down. We will just discuss them, along with the other slides.

4 Objectives Distinguish between the biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem. Describe how a population differs from a species. Explain how habitats are important for organisms.

5 Standards SCSh7c SCSh7c SEV1e SEV1e SEV2a, b, c SEV2a, b, c SEV3a, d SEV3a, d

6 Defining an Ecosystem Communities of organisms & their abiotic environment Communities of organisms & their abiotic environment Examples: Examples: –oak forest-intertidal zone –coral reef-a pond Don t have clear boundaries Don t have clear boundaries –Things move from one ecosystem to another. –Pollen can blow from a forest into a field, soil can wash from a mountain into a lake, & birds migrate from state to state.

7 The Components of an Ecosystem Five basic components: Five basic components: –Energy –Minerals/Nutrients –Water –Oxygen –Living Organisms Most energy comes from the sun Most energy comes from the sun If one part of the ecosystem is destroyed or changes, the entire system will be affected. If one part of the ecosystem is destroyed or changes, the entire system will be affected.

8 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic factors are environmental factors that are living organisms Biotic factors are environmental factors that are living organisms –plants, animals, dead organisms, & the waste products of organisms Abiotic factors are not associated with the activities of living organisms Abiotic factors are not associated with the activities of living organisms –air, water, rocks, temperature, salinity, pressure

9 Organisms Organisms are living things that can carry out life processes independently. Organisms are living things that can carry out life processes independently. Examples Examples –You –Ants –Ivy –Bacteria Species are groups of organisms that are closely related & can mate to produce fertile offspring. Species are groups of organisms that are closely related & can mate to produce fertile offspring. Every organism is a member of a species. Every organism is a member of a species.

10 Populations Populations are groups of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area & interbreed. Populations are groups of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area & interbreed. Example: Example: –all the field mice in a corn field

11 Communities Communities are groups of various species that live in the same habitat & interact with each other. Communities are groups of various species that live in the same habitat & interact with each other. –Every population is part of a community. –The most obvious difference between communities is the types of species they have.

12 Habitat Place where an organism usually lives Place where an organism usually lives Every habitat has specific characteristics that the organisms need to survive. If any of these factors change, the habitat changes. Every habitat has specific characteristics that the organisms need to survive. If any of these factors change, the habitat changes. Organisms are well suited to their natural habitats. Organisms are well suited to their natural habitats. –Animals & plants usually cannot survive for long periods of time away from their natural habitat.

13 Complete your Venn Diagram using the following terms/phrases. Living Things Living Things Nonliving Things Nonliving Things Plants Plants Pressure Pressure Animals Animals Protists Protists Fungi Fungi Water Water Sand Sand Bacteria Bacteria Temperature Temperature Salinity Salinity Speed Speed Mineral Composition Mineral Composition Describes Ecosystems Describes Ecosystems Dead Organisms Dead Organisms Animal Waste Products Animal Waste Products Light Light

14 Do-Now: 1. Contrast the terms organism and species. 2. Contrast population and community. 3. The living components of an ecosystem are _____. 4. The nonliving components of an ecosystem are _____.

15 Objectives Explain the process of evolution by natural selection. Explain the process of evolution by natural selection. Explain the concept of adaptation. Explain the concept of adaptation. Describe the steps by which a population of insects becomes resistant to pesticide. Describe the steps by which a population of insects becomes resistant to pesticide.

16 Standards SCSh7c, d, e SCSh7c, d, e SCSh8b SCSh8b SCSh9c, d SCSh9c, d SEV 2a SEV 2a SEV3a, b, d SEV3a, b, d

17 Evolution by Natural Selection Darwin observed that organisms in a population differ slightly in form, function, & behavior (some of these differences are hereditary). Darwin observed that organisms in a population differ slightly in form, function, & behavior (some of these differences are hereditary). –Proposed that environment has a strong influence over which individuals survive to produce offspring –Darwin proposed that over many generations, natural selection causes the characteristics of populations to change. Natural selection is the process by which individuals that have favorable variations & are better adapted to their environment survive & reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do. Natural selection is the process by which individuals that have favorable variations & are better adapted to their environment survive & reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do. Evolution is a change in the characteristics of a population from one generation to the next. Evolution is a change in the characteristics of a population from one generation to the next. Adaptation is the process of becoming adapted to an environment. It is an anatomical, physiological, or behavioral change that improves a population s ability to survive. Adaptation is the process of becoming adapted to an environment. It is an anatomical, physiological, or behavioral change that improves a population s ability to survive.

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20 Coevolution The process of two species evolving in response to long-term interactions with each other is called coevolution. The process of two species evolving in response to long-term interactions with each other is called coevolution. Example: Example: –Hawaiian honeycreeper, which has a long, curved beak to reach nectar at the base of a flower. The flower has structures that ensure that the bird gets some pollen on its head. –When the bird moves the next flower, some of the pollen will be transferred, helping it to reproduce. –The honeycreeper s adaptation is along, curved beak. –The plant has two adaptations: –The first is the sweet nectar, which attracts the birds. –The second is the flower structure that forces pollen onto the bird s head when the bird sips nectar.

21 Evolution by Artificial Selection Artificial selection is the selective breeding of organisms, by humans, for specific desirable characteristics. Artificial selection is the selective breeding of organisms, by humans, for specific desirable characteristics. Examples: Examples: –Dogs have been bred for certain characteristics. –Fruits, grains, & vegetables are also produced by artificial selection. Humans save seeds from the largest, & sweetest fruits. By selecting for these traits, farmers direct the evolution of crop plants to produce larger, sweeter fruit.

22 Evolution of Resistance Resistance is the ability of an organism to tolerate a chemical or disease-causing agent. Resistance is the ability of an organism to tolerate a chemical or disease-causing agent. Examples: Examples: –An organism may be resistant to a chemical when it contains a gene that allows it to break down a chemical into harmless substances. –Humans promote the evolution of resistant populations by trying to control pests & bacteria with chemicals.

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24 1. Describe the steps by which a population of insects becomes resistant to pesticide. 2. What is artificial selection? Describe an example of it. 3. The perfect one word to define evolution is ____. 4. Survival of the fittest refers to the theory of __________________.

25 Seat Work-You do NOT need to write the questions, but your answers should be in COMPLETE sentences. P. 102 #1-4 P. 102 #1-4 P. 107 #1-4 P. 107 #1-4

26 Do-Now: 1. Why is it that prescribing antibiotics to humans every time they have a disease will not help eliminate bacterial diseases? 2. What factors of an ecosystem are NOT part of a community? Study for your 4-1 & 4-2 QUIZ!!!!

27 Objectives Name the six kingdoms of organisms and identify two characteristics of each. Name the six kingdoms of organisms and identify two characteristics of each. Explain the importance of bacteria and fungi in the environment. Explain the importance of bacteria and fungi in the environment. Describe the importance of protists in the ocean environment. Describe the importance of protists in the ocean environment. Describe how angiosperms and animals depend on each other. Describe how angiosperms and animals depend on each other. Explain why insects are such successful animals. Explain why insects are such successful animals.

28 Standards SCSh2a, b SCSh2a, b SCSh3a, c, d, e SCSh3a, c, d, e SCSh4a SCSh4a SCSh6a, b, c SCSh6a, b, c SCSh9c SCSh9c SEV2a, b SEV2a, b

29 The Diversity of Living Things 6 kingdoms based on different characteristics 6 kingdoms based on different characteristics –Get food in different ways –made up of different types of cells The cells of animals, plants, fungi, & protists all contain a nucleus (eukaryotes). Bacteria don t (prokaryotes). The cells of animals, plants, fungi, & protists all contain a nucleus (eukaryotes). Bacteria don t (prokaryotes). The cells of bacteria, fungi, & plants all have cell walls. Animals don t. The cells of bacteria, fungi, & plants all have cell walls. Animals don t.

30 6 Kingdom Posters Group member names in bottom right corner Group member names in bottom right corner Title-Kingdom _____ Title-Kingdom _____ Number of Cells: unicellular, multicellular or both Number of Cells: unicellular, multicellular or both Nutrition: autotrophic, heterotrophic or both Nutrition: autotrophic, heterotrophic or both Cell Wall Present: yes or no Cell Wall Present: yes or no Habitat: describe where the organisms call live (terrestrial, aquatic, marine, etc.) Habitat: describe where the organisms call live (terrestrial, aquatic, marine, etc.) Examples: at least 3 examples Examples: at least 3 examples

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32 Bacteria Extremely small, single-celled organisms that usually have a cell wall & reproduce by binary fission Extremely small, single-celled organisms that usually have a cell wall & reproduce by binary fission Lack nuclei (prokaryotic) Lack nuclei (prokaryotic) 2 main kinds of bacteria: 2 main kinds of bacteria: –archaebacteria (ancient bacteria) –Eubacteria (true bacteria) Live in every habitat on Earth Live in every habitat on Earth

33 Bacteria & the Environment Some kinds of bacteria break down the remains & wastes of other organisms & return the nutrients to the soil. Some kinds of bacteria break down the remains & wastes of other organisms & return the nutrients to the soil. Others recycle nutrients, like nitrogen & phosphorus. Others recycle nutrients, like nitrogen & phosphorus. Certain bacteria can convert nitrogen from the air into a form that plants can use. This conversion is important because nitrogen is the main component of proteins & genetic material. Certain bacteria can convert nitrogen from the air into a form that plants can use. This conversion is important because nitrogen is the main component of proteins & genetic material. Bacteria also allow many organisms, including humans, to extract certain nutrients from their food. Bacteria also allow many organisms, including humans, to extract certain nutrients from their food. The bacterium, Escherichia coli or E. coli, is found in the intestines of humans & other animals & helps digest food & release vitamins that humans need. The bacterium, Escherichia coli or E. coli, is found in the intestines of humans & other animals & helps digest food & release vitamins that humans need.

34 Fungi Cells have nuclei, rigid cell walls, & no chlorophyll Cells have nuclei, rigid cell walls, & no chlorophyll Mushroom=reproductive structure only Mushroom=reproductive structure only Most of fungus is underground network of fibers that absorb food from decaying organisms in the soil. Most of fungus is underground network of fibers that absorb food from decaying organisms in the soil. Fungi get food by releasing chemicals that help break down organic matter, & then absorbing the nutrients (heterotrophic). Fungi get food by releasing chemicals that help break down organic matter, & then absorbing the nutrients (heterotrophic). Pros: decomposers, used to produce food products & some beverages Pros: decomposers, used to produce food products & some beverages Cons: cause disease, rot buildings, cause food to spoil Cons: cause disease, rot buildings, cause food to spoil

35 Protists Diverse organisms that belong to kingdom Protista. Diverse organisms that belong to kingdom Protista. Junk-drawer of classification Junk-drawer of classification They are divided into three groups: They are divided into three groups: –Plant like protists=ALGAE (autotrophs) –Animal like protists=PROTOZOANS (heterotrophs) –Fungus like protists=SLIME & WATER MOLDS (heterotrophs)

36 Plants Plants are multicellular organisms that make their own food (autotrophs) & have cell walls. Plants are multicellular organisms that make their own food (autotrophs) & have cell walls. Divided into 2 groups: Divided into 2 groups: –Nonvascular (no xylem or phloem) –Vascular (has xylem & phloem)

37 Nonvascular Plants The first land plants had no vascular tissue, & swimming sperm. They therefore had to live in damp places & couldn t grow very large. The first land plants had no vascular tissue, & swimming sperm. They therefore had to live in damp places & couldn t grow very large. Their descendents alive today are small plants such as mosses. Their descendents alive today are small plants such as mosses. Ferns & club mosses were the first vascular plants, with some of the ferns being as large as small trees. Ferns & club mosses were the first vascular plants, with some of the ferns being as large as small trees.

38 Vascular Plants Gymnosperms Gymnosperms are woody vascular see plants whose seeds are not enclosed by an ovary or fruit. Gymnosperms are woody vascular see plants whose seeds are not enclosed by an ovary or fruit. Conifers (pine trees) are gymnosperms that bear cones. Conifers (pine trees) are gymnosperms that bear cones. Much of our lumber & paper comes from gymnosperms. Much of our lumber & paper comes from gymnosperms. Adaptations allow them to live in drier conditions than lower plants Adaptations allow them to live in drier conditions than lower plants Produce pollen, which protects & moves sperm between plantsProduce pollen, which protects & moves sperm between plants Produce seeds, which protect developing plants from drying outProduce seeds, which protect developing plants from drying out Needle-like leaves also lose little waterNeedle-like leaves also lose little water

39 Vascular Plants Angiosperms Angiosperms are flowering plants that produce seeds within fruit. Most land plants are angiosperms. Angiosperms are flowering plants that produce seeds within fruit. Most land plants are angiosperms. The flower is the reproductive structure of the plant. Some angiosperms, like grasses, have small flowers, that use wind to disperse their pollen. The flower is the reproductive structure of the plant. Some angiosperms, like grasses, have small flowers, that use wind to disperse their pollen. Other angiosperms have large flowers to attract insects and birds. Many flowering plants depend on animals to disperse their seeds & carry their pollen. Other angiosperms have large flowers to attract insects and birds. Many flowering plants depend on animals to disperse their seeds & carry their pollen. Most land animals are dependent on flowering plants. Most land animals are dependent on flowering plants. Most of the food we eat, such as wheat, rice, beans, oranges, & lettuce comes from flowering plants. Most of the food we eat, such as wheat, rice, beans, oranges, & lettuce comes from flowering plants. Building materials and fibers, such as oak & cotton, also come from flowering plants. Building materials and fibers, such as oak & cotton, also come from flowering plants.

40 Animals Can t make their own food (heterotrophic) Can t make their own food (heterotrophic) Animal cells have no cell walls, making their bodies soft & flexible. Some animals have evolved hard exoskeletons. Animal cells have no cell walls, making their bodies soft & flexible. Some animals have evolved hard exoskeletons. Animals are more mobile than plants. All animals move around in their environment during at least one stage in their lives. Animals are more mobile than plants. All animals move around in their environment during at least one stage in their lives. Divided into 2 groups: Divided into 2 groups: –Invertebrates (no backbone) –Vertebrates (have a backbone)

41 Invertebrates No backbones No backbones More insects exist on Earth than any other type of animal. More insects exist on Earth than any other type of animal. –Insects are successful for many reasons: they have a waterproof skeleton, can move & reproduce quickly, most insects can fly, & their small size allows them to live on little food & to hide from enemies in small places.

42 Vertebrates Have a backbone Have a backbone –mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, & fish 1st were fish, but most live on land now 1st were fish, but most live on land now 1st LAND vertebrates were reptiles (ectotherms). 1st LAND vertebrates were reptiles (ectotherms). Birds are warm-blooded with feathers. Birds are warm-blooded with feathers. Mammals are warm-blooded vertebrates that have fur & feed their young milk. Mammals are warm-blooded vertebrates that have fur & feed their young milk. Birds & mammals have the ability to maintain a high body temperature which allows them to live in cold areas (endotherms). Birds & mammals have the ability to maintain a high body temperature which allows them to live in cold areas (endotherms).

43 Do-Now: List the 6 kingdoms of living organisms The Chihuahua is a dog that exists because of _________ selection Fungi and bacteria are important to the environment because they _________ Phytoplankton are important protists because they are a source of _________ & _________.


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