2The word federal denotes alliances between independent sovereignties. Federalism is a system in which the power to govern is shared between national, state, and local governments.If a conflict exists between the state and federal government, the supremacy clause mandates that federal laws are supreme.
3The U.S. federal system has five basic characteristics: * Federalism provides a division of legal authority between state and national governments. Overlap occurs, but two legally distinct spheres of government exist.* The states are subordinate to the national government in such areas as management of foreign affairs and regulation of interstate commerce.* Federalism enables positive cooperation between state and national governments in programs pertaining to education, interstate highway construction, environmental protection and health, unemployment, and social security concerns.* The U.S. Supreme Court serves as legal arbiter of the federal system in regard to conflicting claims of state and national governments.* The two levels of government exercise direct authority simultaneously over people within their territory. Dual citizenship exists under federalism, and individuals can claim a wide range of rights and privileges from both state and national governments
5The national government and state governments share powers. Shared powers between the national government and state governments are called concurrent powers.Current powers of the national government and state governments include the ability to:Collect taxesBuild roadsBorrow moneyEstablish courtsMake and enforce lawsCharter banks and corporationsSpend money for the general welfareTake private property for public purposes, with just compensation
6The enumerated powers are a list of specific responsibilities found in Article 1Section 8 of the United States Constitution, which iterates the authority granted to the United States Congress.Congress may exercise only those powers that are granted to it by the Constitution, limited by the Bill of Rights and the other protection found in the Constitution.
7"Implied powers" are powers not given to the government directly through the constitution, but are implied."Implied powers" are those powers authorized by a legal document which, while not stated, are deemed to be implied by powers expressly stated.These powers fall under the Elastic Clause in Section 8 of Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution.
8What state governments may not have the power to do: May not enter into treaties with other countriesMay not print moneyMay not tax imports or exportsMay not Impair obligations of contractsMay not suspend a person's rights without due process
9What the federal government can not do: May not violate the Bill of RightsMay not impose export taxes among statesMay not use money from the Treasury without the passage and approval of an appropriations billMay not change state boundaries.
10The state or federal government can not: Grant titles of nobilityPermit slavery (13th Amendment)Deny citizens the right to vote due to race, color, or previous servitude (15th Amendment)Deny citizens the right to vote because of gender (19th Amendment)
11The balance of power is given to the states and national government. Each has to answer to the 3 branches of government.
12The Supremacy Clause is a clause in the United States Constitution, article VI, paragraph 2. The clause establishes the Constitution, Federal Statutes, and U.S. treaties as "the supreme law of the land".The text establishes these as the highest form of law in the American legal system, mandating that state judges uphold them, even if state laws or constitutions conflict.
13The Constitution grants 3 types of power to the national government: expressed, implied, and inherent powers.Delegated powers (all of the aforementioned) are the powers given to national government by the Constitution.
14The expressed powers are those powers directly stated in the Constitution by the founders. They are found in the first three articles of the Constitution.
15Implied powers are powers that the government requires to carry out the expressed constitutional powers.The basis for these is the “elastic clause” in Article 1 Section 8.
16Inherent powers are those powers the government exercises simply because it’s the government. Controlling immigration is one of these.
17Reserved powers are those powers that belong strictly to the states. Those powers “not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by the states.”
18Article VI contains the supremacy clause, establishing that the Constitution, laws passed by Congress, and treaties of the U.S. are the supreme law of the land.
19The national government must do three things for the states: (1 The national government must do three things for the states: (1.) must guarantee a republican form of government; (2.) protect from invasion and domestic violence; and (3.) respect the territorial integrity of each state.
20How does Congress admit a state to the Union? Step one: Congress passes an enabling act – when signed by the Pres. allows the people of a territory interested in becoming a state to prepare a constitution.
21Step two to becoming a state: After the constitution has been drafted is approved by popular vote in the area, it is submitted to Congress.
22Step three to becoming a state: after approval of the constitution, if Congress is still agreeable, it passes an act admitting the territory as a state.
23Each new state admitted to the Union must meet certain conditions imposed by Congress or the President. (Arizona had to change its constitution, Ohio could not tax the sale of federal lands.)Once admitted, each state is equal to every other state and has the right to run its own internal affairs.
24States have 2 obligations to the national government: conduct and pay for elections of all national government officials, and amending the Constitution.
25Because federalism divides the powers of government, conflicts do arise between the national and state governments.The federal court state, especially the U.S. Supreme Court plays a key role in settling these disputes.
26In 1819, McCulloch vs. Maryland brought up the issue of state vs In 1819, McCulloch vs. Maryland brought up the issue of state vs. national government and who had the most power.Congress chartered The Second Bank of the United States. In 1818, the state of Maryland passed legislation to impose taxes on the bank. James W. McCulloch, the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the bank, refused to pay the tax.The Supreme Court invoked the Necessary and proper Clause in theConstitution, which allowed the Federal government to pass laws not expressly provided for in the Constitution's list of express powers as long as those laws are in useful furtherance of the express powers.
27The Constitution says the states must (1 The Constitution says the states must (1.) give “full faith and credit’ to the laws, records, and court decisions of other states; (2.) give one another’s citizens all the “privileges and immunities” of their own citizens; and(3.) extradite – return to a state – criminals and fugitives who flee across state lines to avoid justice.
28The Constitution says each state must recognize the laws and legal proceedings of other states – “full faith and credit.”This applies only to civil law – laws relating to disputes between individuals, groups, or with the state.
29Some “privileges and immunities” are the right to pass through or live in any state; use the courts; make contracts; buy, sell, and build property; and marry.States can discriminate against non-residents –voting; attending publicly supported institutions; and higher fees to hunt and fish; etc.
30Extradition is the legal procedure through which a person who has fled to another state is returned to the state where the crime took place.
31Congress requires states to decide disputes without the use of force. Interstate compacts are a written agreement between two or more states.Congress must approve interstate compactsStates use these to deal with matters such as pollution, hazardous waste, tolls, and transportation.
32There are two views on how federalism should operate: the states’ rights position and the nationalist position.The states’ rights position favors state and local action in dealing with problems.States’ rights position holds that the Constitution is a compact among the states. The states created the national government and gave it limited powers.Chief Justice Roger B. Taney upheld this view.
33The nationalist position favors national action in dealing with problems. The nationalist position rejects the view that the Constitution is merely a compact between the states. They argue that the people, not the states, created both the state and national government. It stands for the people.McCulloch vs. Maryland upheld this view.
34American federalism has been shaped by the growth in size and power of the national government. A major reason for the change is the Constitution’s flexibility to meet the needs of a modern industrial world.Three Constitutional provisions have helped this expansion: (1.) war powers; (2.) the power to regulate interstate commerce; and (3.) the power to tax and spend.
35The national government has the power to wage war. This involves more than putting troops in the field.The condition of the economy and strength of the educational system can affect the capabilities of a nation’s military.
36The U.S. Supreme Court has interpreted the term commerce to mean all activities having to do with the production, buying, selling, and transporting of goods.The Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbids the racial discrimination in public accommodations.The court felt discrimination restricted the flow of interstate commerce, Congress has the power regulate trade, and therefore Congress can pass laws against racial discrimination.
37Congress may raise taxes and spend money for the general welfare of the people. The Sixteenth Amendment gave Congress the right to tax incomes.This income tax has become the major source of money for the national government.Taxes may be used to regulate businesses, and taxes may be used to influence states to adopt certain kinds of programs.
38The national government uses two major ways to influence state and local governments: providing money through various federal grants, and imposing mandates that take away the ability of state governments to make their own policies.Federal grants are monies given to state programs by the federal government. They may use preemption, restraint, or mandate to make sure the states meet national standards.
39The course of action government takes in response to a problem is called public policy. Public policy is effected two ways by federalism: (1.) how and where new policies are made, and (2.) introduces limits on government policy making.
40Federalism allows states and local areas to serve as proving grounds for new policies to be developed and tested.Sunset laws require periodic checks of government checks of government agencies to see if they are still needed.Sunshine laws prohibit public officials from holding meetings not open to the public.
41Federalism increases a person’s chances to participate in government. The increase in participation has led to more federal programs. This calls for a large bureaucracy – organization of government administrators – to carry out legislation.States have been given more control over state issues; national control exists over other issues.