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2//12-Pick up your book. **Take out your GATTACA & EOCT Review Wksts.** Copy & answer the following questions on a blank sheet of paper. 1. How do you.

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Presentation on theme: "2//12-Pick up your book. **Take out your GATTACA & EOCT Review Wksts.** Copy & answer the following questions on a blank sheet of paper. 1. How do you."— Presentation transcript:

1 2//12-Pick up your book. **Take out your GATTACA & EOCT Review Wksts.** Copy & answer the following questions on a blank sheet of paper. 1. How do you think you did on the DNA Test? 2. Honestly, how long did you study? 3. What could YOU do to improve your grade? 4. What could I/WE do to help you?

2 2/17/12- Copy & answer the following questions on a blank sheet of paper. 1. How do you think you did on the DNA Test? 2. Honestly, how long did you study? 3. What could YOU do to improve your grade? 4. What could I/WE do to help you?

3 2/22/12-Define the following: 14-1 Vocab 1. Karyotype 2. Sex chromosome 3. Autosome 4. Pedigree 10-2 Vocab 5. Mitosis 6. Chromatid 7. Centromere 8. Cell Cycle 9. Interphase 11-4 Vocab 10. Meiosis 11. Diploid 12. Haploid

4 2/24/12-Pick up your book. Do-Now: Complete the word search puzzle (back of yesterdays crossword).

5 Cell Reproduction Mitosis and Meiosis

6 Cell Reproduction Chromosome Structure Chromosome Structure Rod shaped, made of DNA proteins Rod shaped, made of DNA proteins HISTONES are proteins that help in the packaging of DNA and maintain the shape of the HISTONES are proteins that help in the packaging of DNA and maintain the shape of thechromosome. NONHISTONE proteins control the activity of specific regions of DNA. NONHISTONE proteins control the activity of specific regions of DNA. Individual chromosomes consist of 2 identical halves called CHROMATIDS Individual chromosomes consist of 2 identical halves called CHROMATIDS The center of the chromosome is the CENTROMERE. It holds the 2 chromatids together. The center of the chromosome is the CENTROMERE. It holds the 2 chromatids together.

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8 There are 2 types of chromosomes SEX CHROMOSOMES-determine the sex of an organism SEX CHROMOSOMES-determine the sex of an organism In humans, sex chromosomes are either X or Y In humans, sex chromosomes are either X or Y FEMALES=XX FEMALES=XX MALES=XY MALES=XY

9 Types of chromosomes, cont. AUTOSOMES-all other chromosomes AUTOSOMES-all other chromosomes Humans have 46 chromosomes total 44 autosomes, 2 sex chromosomes Humans have 46 chromosomes total 44 autosomes, 2 sex chromosomes Organisms get 1 copy of each autosome from a parent-making 2 copies called HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES. They are the same size, shape, and carry the same info. Organisms get 1 copy of each autosome from a parent-making 2 copies called HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES. They are the same size, shape, and carry the same info.

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11 A KARYOTYPE is used to examine an individuals chromosomes.

12 VERY IMPORTANT VOCAB!! Cells that have 2 sets of chromosomes are DIPLOID (2n). Cells that have 2 sets of chromosomes are DIPLOID (2n). HAPLOID (n) cells have only 1 set of chromosomes. HAPLOID (n) cells have only 1 set of chromosomes. Sperm and egg cells are haploid cells. Sperm and egg cells are haploid cells.

13 Quick Quiz 1. What are the 2 parts of the chromosome? 2. What are the two types of chromosomes in your body 3. How many chromosomes do your body cells contain? Your sex cells? 4. Cells that have one set of chromosomes are ______________. Cells that have two sets are ______________.

14 2/23/12-Have out EOCT p1 &2 Do-Now: Pick up and complete the chromosome crossword puzzle. #1 Down should read Humans have 22 pairs Study over yesterdays notes…

15 Cell Division in Prokaryotes Divide asexually by BINARY FISSION Divide asexually by BINARY FISSION Produce identical offspring Produce identical offspring 3 stages 3 stages DNA is copied DNA is copied Cell begins to divide Cell begins to divide 2 identical haploid cells are formed 2 identical haploid cells are formed

16 Cell Division in Eukaryotes MITOSIS-cell division that results in 2 new cells with identical genetic material to the original cell MITOSIS-cell division that results in 2 new cells with identical genetic material to the original cell The CELL CYCLE is the repeating set of events that make up the life of a cell. CELL DIVISION is one phase and INTERPHASE is the time between divisions. The CELL CYCLE is the repeating set of events that make up the life of a cell. CELL DIVISION is one phase and INTERPHASE is the time between divisions.

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18 Interphase Made of 3 phases Made of 3 phases G1 PHASE-offspring cells grow to mature size G1 PHASE-offspring cells grow to mature size S PHASE-DNA is copied (REPLICATION) S PHASE-DNA is copied (REPLICATION) G2 PHASE-cell prepares for division G2 PHASE-cell prepares for division *Cells can exit the cell cycle and enter the G0 PHASE where DNA isnt copied and cells dont divide. Nervous system cells stop dividing at maturity.*

19 Mitosis During mitosis, the M PHASE, the nucleus of the cell divides. During mitosis, the M PHASE, the nucleus of the cell divides. 4 phases of mitosis (Interphase is before and after mitosis/cytokinesis.) 4 phases of mitosis (Interphase is before and after mitosis/cytokinesis.) PROPHASE PROPHASE METAPHASE METAPHASE ANAPHASE ANAPHASE TELOPHASE TELOPHASE

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21 PROPHASE DNA coils into chromosomes DNA coils into chromosomes Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear Dark spots appear (CENTROSOMES), which contain the CENTRIOLES (plants DO NOT have centrioles) Dark spots appear (CENTROSOMES), which contain the CENTRIOLES (plants DO NOT have centrioles) SPINDLE FIBERS radiate from the centrosomes SPINDLE FIBERS radiate from the centrosomes

22 METAPHASE Chromosomes move to the MIDDLE of the cell

23 2/24/12-Do-Now: Complete the word search puzzle (back of yesterdays crossword). Study your Week 7 VocabularyPrefix/Suffix

24 ANAPHASE Chromatids of each chromosome separate at centromere & move toward opposite sides of the dividing cell Chromatids of each chromosome separate at centromere & move toward opposite sides of the dividing cell

25 TELOPHASE Spindle fibers disappear Chromosomes uncoil Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes Nucleolus reforms Telophase is almost the opposite of prophase.

26 CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS occurs when the cytoplasm starts to divide. It starts when telophase is complete. CYTOKINESIS occurs when the cytoplasm starts to divide. It starts when telophase is complete. In animal cells, the cell membrane pinches in (CLEAVAGE FURROW) & separates the dividing cell into 2 new cells. In animal cells, the cell membrane pinches in (CLEAVAGE FURROW) & separates the dividing cell into 2 new cells. In plant cells, the membrane bound cell wall forms (CELL PLATE) & separates the cell into 2 new cells. In plant cells, the membrane bound cell wall forms (CELL PLATE) & separates the cell into 2 new cells.

27 Cytokinesis in animal cells

28 Cytokinesis in plant cells

29 Ticket to Leave How does cell reproduction occur in prokaryotes? How does cell reproduction occur in prokaryotes? What is the cell cycle? What is the cell cycle? List and briefly describe the four steps of mitosis. List and briefly describe the four steps of mitosis. ***QUIZ !!!!***

30 2/27/12-Get out Mitosis Foldable. Study for Week 7 Vocab (Rescheduled to today) Do-Now: Do-Now: 1. What is the relationship between prophase and telophase? 2. The phase where the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell is _____. 3. When the chromatids split from one another and move to opposite poles of the cell, ____ is occurring. 4. List the 3 parts of Interphase & describe what happens during each. ***QUIZ TUESDAYCell Division Notes!!!!!!***

31 Review MatchingWk 7 Give the meaning of the following: 1. Amphi- 2. Ab- 3. Archos 4. -cide 5. Corpus 6. Pheno- 7. Anthro- 8. Ad- 9. Audio- 10. Circum-

32 Meiosis Cell division in SEX cells Cell division in SEX cells Produces haploid (n) reproductive cells called GAMETES Produces haploid (n) reproductive cells called GAMETES Human gametes are SPERM & EGG Human gametes are SPERM & EGG Each contain 23 chromosomes Each contain 23 chromosomes Fusion of sperm (n) & egg (n) forms a ZYGOTE (2n) that contains 46 chromosomes Fusion of sperm (n) & egg (n) forms a ZYGOTE (2n) that contains 46 chromosomes **Cells begin meiosis just like mitosisits just that cells divide TWICE in meiosis**

33 Meiosis I

34 Meiosis II

35 DNA REPLICATION During replication, the DNA of a 2n (diploid) cell is copied. During replication, the DNA of a 2n (diploid) cell is copied. This only occurs before MEIOSIS I. This only occurs before MEIOSIS I.

36 Meiosis I PROPHASE I PROPHASE I DNA coils, spindle fibers appear DNA coils, spindle fibers appear HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES pair up-called SYNAPSIS (doesnt happen during mitosis) HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES pair up-called SYNAPSIS (doesnt happen during mitosis) Portions of chromatids break off and attach to nearby chromatid on the homologous pair- called CROSSING OVER Portions of chromatids break off and attach to nearby chromatid on the homologous pair- called CROSSING OVER Allows for genetic info exchange between mother/father chromosomes giving a new mixture of genetic info-called GENETIC RECOMBINATION Allows for genetic info exchange between mother/father chromosomes giving a new mixture of genetic info-called GENETIC RECOMBINATION

37 CROSSING OVER

38 METAPHASE I TETRADS (each pair of homologous chromosomes) line up in middle of cell TETRADS (each pair of homologous chromosomes) line up in middle of cell Spindle fibers attach to the homologous chromosomes of the pair Spindle fibers attach to the homologous chromosomes of the pair

39 ANAPHASE I Each homologous chromosome moves to the opposite side of the dividing cell Each homologous chromosome moves to the opposite side of the dividing cell Random separation of the homologous chromosomes is called INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT and it results in genetic variations Random separation of the homologous chromosomes is called INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT and it results in genetic variations

40 TELOPHASE I Chromosomes reach the opposite ends of cell Chromosomes reach the opposite ends of cell Each of the new developing cells will contain a haploid number of chromosomes. Each of the new developing cells will contain a haploid number of chromosomes. CYTOKINESIS I occurs CYTOKINESIS I occurs

41 2/28/12-Take out Directed Reading & Meiosis Notes from yesterday. Do Now: Determine if the following terms/phrases describe mitosis or meiosis. 1. Results in 2 genetically identical cells 2. Results in 4 genetically different cells 3. Produces diploid (2n) cells 4. Produces haploid (n) cells 5. Produces body cells 6. Produces gametes 7. Allows growth and replacement of cells 8. How sexually reproducing organisms make gametes 9. Type of cell division ***Cell Reproduction TestThursday****

42 MEIOSIS II The newly formed cells DO NOT copy their DNA. The newly formed cells DO NOT copy their DNA. PROPHASE II PROPHASE II Spindle fibers form and move chromosomes toward the middle of the cell Spindle fibers form and move chromosomes toward the middle of the cell

43 METAPHASE II Chromosomes move to the midline of the cells- facing opposite side of the cells Chromosomes move to the midline of the cells- facing opposite side of the cells

44 ANAPHASE II Chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of cell Chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of cell

45 TELOPHASE II Nuclear membrane forms around chromosomes in each of the 4 new cells Nuclear membrane forms around chromosomes in each of the 4 new cells CYTOKINESIS II occurs resulting in 4 new cells, each containing HALF the number of chromosomes as the original cell CYTOKINESIS II occurs resulting in 4 new cells, each containing HALF the number of chromosomes as the original cell

46 Formation of Gametes SPERMATOGENESIS- production of sperm cells--2n reproductive cell divides through meiosis to form 4 haploid cells called SPERMATIDS (each will develop into a mature sperm) SPERMATOGENESIS- production of sperm cells--2n reproductive cell divides through meiosis to form 4 haploid cells called SPERMATIDS (each will develop into a mature sperm)

47 Formation of Gametes, cont. OOGENESIS- production of egg cells, 2n reproductive cell divides through meiosis to form ONE mature egg cellthe other three cells are polar bodies and will degenerate (unequally divided cytoplasm)

48 Ticket to Leave What is crossing over? What is crossing over? Meiosis is used to form __________. Meiosis is used to form __________. List the steps of meiosis I & II. List the steps of meiosis I & II. The formation of sperm is called ___________. The formation of sperm is called ___________. The formation of eggs is called __________. The formation of eggs is called __________.

49 2/29/12- Pick up Cell Cycle the back and complete Pick up Cell Cycle the back and complete -Look on the right hand side of paper & use the Word Bank Take out last nights HW on the back of your Meiosis Notes Take out last nights HW on the back of your Meiosis Notes

50 3/1/12- Take out your Chapter 10 Cell Division Review & Study….. Take out your Chapter 10 Cell Division Review & Study….. Work on Week 8Prefix/Suffix vocab. Work on Week 8Prefix/Suffix vocab. 1. Another word for sex cells = __________ 2. The 2 main stages of cell division are called _______ & cytokinesis.

51 2/28/12-You do NOT need a book. Do Now: Determine if the following terms/phrases describe mitosis or meiosis. 1. Results in 2 genetically identical cells 2. Results in 4 genetically different cells 3. Produces diploid (2n) cells 4. Produces haploid (n) cells 5. Produces body cells 6. Produces gametes 7. Allows growth and replacement of cells 8. How sexually reproducing organisms make gametes 9. Type of cell division

52 9/23/11-You do NOT need a book. Do-Now: Take out your Directed Reading to be checked. Give the meaning of the following: 1. Homo7. Hap 2. Hetero8. Kine 3. Typ9. Inter 4. Pheno10. Bi 5. Geno11. Meta 6. Di12. Ana

53 3/2/12 After the Test: Complete the Cell Reproduction Word Puzzle on the back of your CHAPTER 10 Cell Division Review Sheet. Complete the Cell Reproduction Word Puzzle on the back of your CHAPTER 10 Cell Division Review Sheet. There are no words listed. When you find a word that relates to cell division, circle it and write it at the bottom in the table. The person with the most words will get bonus points. There are no words listed. When you find a word that relates to cell division, circle it and write it at the bottom in the table. The person with the most words will get bonus points.


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