2Review! Match the word and definition. UnitaryConfederationFederalAutocracyOligarchyDemocracyParliamentary DemocracyPresidential DemocracyPeople vote for Parliamentary membersLocal governments hold the powerRule by the peopleRule by a fewRule by oneThe central government holds all the powerPower is shared by central and local governmentsPeople vote for the president separately from the legislature.
4Vocabulary: write voc words on your voc. cards. Knesset: The Israeli ParliamentMonarchy: Rule by a king or a queenAbsolute Monarchy: type of government in which the King, queen, or emperor has unlimited powerTheocracy: a type of government in which God is seen as the true leader and religious leaders serve as the political leadersTheocratic Republic: a type of government which has both religious leaders serving as political leaders and a popularly elected president and legislatureAutocracy: a type of government in which the ruler has absolute power to do whatever he wishes and make and enforce whatever laws he chooses; rule by one
5VocabularyOligarchy: type of government in which a political party or other small group takes over a government and makes all the major decisions; government by the fewDemocracy: a type of government in which people play a much greater role in deciding who the leaders are and what decisions are made; rule by the peopleUnicameral: One legislative houseFederal: a political system in which power is shared between the national (central) and local governmentsSharia Law: The law as stated in Islam's holy book, the Qur'anConstitutional Monarchy: type of government in which the power of the king or queen is limited by a constitution
6VocabularyPresidential: In this type of democratic government, people elect the president and the legislature separately.Totalitarian Dictatorship: The ideas of a single leader are glorified; the government is not responsible to the people and tries to control all aspects of citizens' lives.Confederation: a political system in which the local governments hold all the power and the central government depends on the local governments for its existenceUnitary: in this political system, the central government holds all the power; local governments are under the control of the central government.Parliamentary: a democratic form of government in which the people vote for those who represent the political party they feel best represents their views of how the government should operate (member of parliament)Ayatollah: a Shi’a religious leader
7GPS and E.Q.GPS SS7CG4a. Describe the ways government systems distribute power: unitary, confederation, federal.E.Q. How do government systems distribute power?
8Ways Government Distributes Power UnitaryCentral has all powerRegional AuthorityRegional AuthorityCentral AuthorityRegional AuthorityRegional Authority
9Unitary (Uni- means 1; all power is in 1 place) Power is held by the national (central) government.Local governments, if any, are under the national government’s control.Example: Saudi ArabiaKing Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa
10Regional/Local has all power Ways Government Distributes PowerConfederationRegional/Local has all powerRegional AuthorityRegional AuthorityCentral AuthorityRegional AuthorityRegional Authority
11Confederation The local governments hold all the power. The central government has only as much power as the local governments are willing to give.Nowadays - countries form confederations to band together for a specific purpose.Examplesthe League of Arab StatesOPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)OPEC
12Ways Government Distributes Power Federation / FederalDivided/Shared PowerRegional AuthorityRegional AuthorityCentral AuthorityRegional AuthorityRegional Authority
13FederalPower is shared or divided among different levels of government.The central or national government has more power than the local governments.Example: Israel
14Ways Government Distributes Power All key powers are held by the central governmentState/regional authorities hold most of the powerUnitaryFederalConfederationStrong central governmentWeaker central government
15Sample Test QuestionIn Nigeria’s government, power is divided between Central and regional authorities. This is an example of which government type?A. UnitaryB. ConfederationC. FederalFederalCorresponds toSS6- CG1a, CG4a, CG6aSS7- CG1a , CG4a, CG6a
16CRCT Test Prep pages 98-99282. In a unitary government system, most of the power is in the hands of theA. individual votersB. king and advisorsC. local governmentsD. central governmentD. Central government
17CRCT Test Prep pages 98-99283. Which of the following countries would be a good example of a unitary government?A. IsraelB. LebanonC. Saudi ArabiaD. the United States
18CRCT Test Prep pages 98-99284. In a confederation government system, most of the power is in the hands of theA. legislatureB. Individual votersC. Local governmentsD. Central government
19CRCT Test Prep pages 98-99285. What is a weakness of a confederation government system?A. A confederation is very expensive.B. Confederations are too large to rule effectively.C. A confederation does not share power with its members.D. The central government has only as much power as the local governments are willing to give.
20CRCT Test Prep pages 98-99286. Which Southwest Asian country would be a good example of a federal system of government?A. IranB. IsraelC. KuwaitD. Saudi Arabia
21GPS and E.Q.GPS SS7CG4b. Explain how governments determine citizen participation: autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic.E.Q. How do governments determine citizen participation?
22How Governments Determine Citizen Participation High ParticipationHigh ParticipationSelect Citizens’ ParticipationGeneral Citizens’ ParticipationGovernment PowerCitizen ParticipationGovernment PowerGovernment PowerCitizen ParticipationLow or No ParticipationLow or No ParticipationLow or No ParticipationAutocraticOligarchicDemocracy
23Autocratic One person possesses unlimited power. How Governments Determine Citizen ParticipationAutocraticOne person possesses unlimited power.The citizen has limited, if any, role in government.
24How Governments Determine Citizen Participation AutocraticThe oldest form of government.One of the most common forms of government.Maintain power through inheritance or ruthless use of military and police power.Remy, Richard C., United States Government- Democracy in Action (Columbus, OH: Glencoe, McGraw-Hill, 2006)24
25How Governments Determine Citizen Participation Forms of Autocratic Govts.Absolute or Totalitarian DictatorshipIdeas of a single leader glorified.Government tries to control all aspects of social and economic life.Government is not responsible to the people.People lack the power to limit their rulers.Examples- Hitler, Mussolini, StalinRemy, Richard C., United States Government- Democracy in Action (Columbus, OH: Glencoe, McGraw-Hill, 2006)25
26How Governments Determine Citizen Participation Forms of Autocratic Govts.Absolute MonarchyKing, queen, or emperor exercises the supreme powers of government/unlimited power.Position is usually inherited.People lack the power to limit their rulers.Absolute monarchs are rare today but from the 1400s to the 1700s they ruled most of Western Europe.Examples- King of Saudi Arabia.Remy, Richard C., United States Government- Democracy in Action (Columbus, OH: Glencoe, McGraw-Hill, 2006)26
28Oligarchy Government by the few. How Governments Determine Citizen ParticipationOligarchyGovernment by the few.Sometimes a small group exercises control, especially for corrupt and selfish purposes.The citizen has a very limited role.
29How Governments Determine Citizen Participation OligarchyThe group gets its power from military power, social power, wealth, religion or a combination.Political opposition is usually suppressed- sometimes violently.Examples:Syria – ruling political party makes most decisionsIran – small group of religious and political leaders makes many of the decisionsRemy, Richard C., United States Government- Democracy in Action (Columbus, OH: Glencoe, McGraw-Hill, 2006)29
30How Governments Determine Citizen Participation Autocracy & OligarchySometimes claim they rule for the people.In reality, the people have very little say in both types of government.Examples- May hold elections with only one candidate or control the results in various ways.Examples- Even when these governments have a legislature or national assembly, they often only approve decisions made by the leaders.Remy, Richard C., United States Government- Democracy in Action (Columbus, OH: Glencoe, McGraw-Hill, 2006)30
31How Governments Determine Citizen Participation DemocracyPeople play a greater role in deciding who the leaders are and what decisions are made.Decisions are often made by majority vote, but laws are in place to protect individuals.Examples- IsraelRemy, Richard C., United States Government- Democracy in Action (Columbus, OH: Glencoe, McGraw-Hill, 2006)31
32OAS Database Question - Corresponds to Sample Test QuestionWhat is a basic way citizens of a democratic nation can influence the government?A. votingB. workingC. obeying lawsD. consuming goodsvotingOAS Database Question - Corresponds toSS6- CG1b, CG4b, CG6bSS7- CG1b , CG4b, CG6b
33CRCT Test Prep pages287. Who makes most of the important governmental decisions in an autocracy?A. the rulerB. the peopleC. the court systemD. the elected legislatureA. The ruler
34CRCT Test Prep pages288. Which Southwest Asian country could be described as an autocracy?A. IraqB. IsraelC. TurkeyD. Saudi Arabia
35CRCT Test Prep pages289. Who makes most of the important governmental decisions in an oligarchy?A. the kingB. the peopleC. the legislatureD. a small group of powerful leadersD. A small group of powerful leaders
36CRCT Test Prep pages290. Why do the individual voters have more power in a democracy than they do in an autocracy or an oligarchy?A. kings are always cruel rulers.B. The voters get to choose the people who make the laws.C. All of the power stays in the hands of the local governments.D. Voters in democratic countries always choose qualified leaders.
37CRCT Test Prep pages291. Which Southwest Asian country has a democratic form of government?A. IranB. IsraelC. KuwaitD. Saudi Arabia
38CRCT Test Prep pages292. If the Saudi royal family controls the government of Saudi Arabia, and the king is the ruler, what type of government is this?A. unitaryB. federationC. confederationD. parliamentary
39CRCT Test Prep pages293. If the Saudi royal family controls the government of Saudi Arabia, and the king is the ruler, which best describes Saudi Arabia’s government?A. democracyB. dictatorshipC. monarchyD. oligarchy
40GPS and E.Q.GPS SS7CG4c. Describe the 2 predominate forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential.E.Q. How do parliamentary and presidential democracies compare?
41Parliamentary Democracy People elect legislature or parliament (law-makers).Executive leaders (prime ministers or premiers) are chosen in different ways in different countries.Leaders may be voted out before the end of their term if their political party loses power.In Israel, the political party in Parliament with the most members chooses the prime minister.
42Presidential Democracy Also called Congressional Form of Government.President is chosen separately from legislature (lawmakers)President is chief executive and head of state.It is the duty of the president to see that the laws passed by the legislature are enforced.Presidents do not lose their job if their political party loses power.
43Main Difference Between Presidential and Parliamentary Democracies Parliamentary: voters elect Parliament (legislature).Presidential: voters elect Congress (legislature) AND President.
45OAS Database Question - Corresponds to Sample Test QuestionIn which system of government does the legislature select the executive leader of the government?A. democraticB. communistC. parliamentaryD. TotalitarianparliamentaryOAS Database Question - Corresponds toSS6- CG1c, CG4c, CG6cSS7- CG1c , CG4c, CG6c
46OAS Database Question - Corresponds to Sample Test QuestionWhich statement about Israel’s parliamentary system of government today is true?A. Members of both houses of Parliament are elected for life.B. The queen decides which laws Parliament will debate.C. Members of Parliament do not belong to political parties.D. The prime minister is not directly chosen by voters.DOAS Database Question - Corresponds toSS6- CG1c, CG4c, CG6cSS7- CG1c , CG4c, CG6c
47CRCT Test Prep pages294. Which branch of government is responsible for making and carrying out the laws in a parliamentary system of government?A. executiveB. judicialC. legislativeD. the monarch
48CRCT Test Prep pages295. The leader of a parliamentary system is often called theA. kingB. president.C. governor.D. prime minister.D. Prime minister.
49CRCT Test Prep pages296. The leader of a parliamentary system is chosen by?A. the kingB. a popular vote of the peopleC. a decision of the national courtsD. the political party with the most representatives in the legislatureD. The political party with the most representatives in the legislature
50CRCT Test Prep pages297. The Head of State in a parliamentary system is often a person who hasA. no actual power.B. a veto for laws passed by the legislature.C. the most power in the national government.D. a ceremonial role without much actual power.D. A ceremonial role without much actual power.
51CRCT Test Prep pages298. In a presidential system of government, how is a president chosen?A. by a decision of the national courtsB. by a majority vote of the legislatureC. in a separate vote from the one that chooses the legislatureD. by the political party with the most representatives in the legislatureC. In a separate vote from the one that chooses the legislature
52CRCT Test Prep pages299. What is the role of the president regarding the laws passed by the legislature?A. The president must enforce those laws.B. The president can change the laws he doesn’t like.C. The president sends the laws to the states for approval.D. Laws passed by the legislature do not have to go to the president for approval.
54GPS and E.Q.GPS: SS7CG5a. The student will compare the parliamentary democracy of the State of Israel, the monarchy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the theocracy of the Islamic Republic of Iran.E.Q.: How do the governments of Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Iran compare?
55Israel - Type of leader Israel is a parliamentary democracy. The president is head of state and serves in a primarily ceremonial role (Shimon Peres).The prime minister is the head of government (Benjamin Netanyahu).
56Israel – Becoming the leader President is elected by the Knesset (parliament).After election, President nominates a member of the Knesset to become the Prime Minister (following a vote of confidence from the Knesset)
57Israel – Role of Citizen Citizens over 18 can vote for members of the unicameral legislature called the Knesset.
58Israel – Personal Freedoms Freedom of Speech – YesFreedom of the Press - Yes
59Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia is by far the largest country of the Arabian Peninsula.Non-Muslims are not allowed to enter Mecca, Islam’s holiest city.
60Saudi ArabiaIn the 1920s a local ruler from the Saud family of central Arabia conquered his neighbors and in 1932 created the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Members of the Saud family have ruled the country ever since.Riyadh, a city near the center of the country, became the capital.
61Saudi Arabia – Form of Government The government of Saudi Arabia is an Islamic Absolute Monarchy ruled by the sons and grandsons of the first king, Abd Al Aziz Al Saud.
62Saudi Arabia – Form of Government Saudi Arabia’s government has no written constitution or elected legislature. However, its basic law of government proclaims that the Qur’an is the constitution of the country which is governed on the basis of the Sharia (Islamic Law).
63Saudi Arabia – Title of Leader King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud is the current King of Saudi Arabia and Head of the House of Saud.Most government officials are relatives of the king.The king may ask members of his family, Islamic scholars, and tribal leaders for advice on important decisions.Personal wealth: $18 billion!!!
64Saudi Arabia – Becoming the Leader The right of succession is hereditary (passed down through the family).A newly established council selects a successor among the crown princes of the Saudi royal family.The King’s power is limited by Islamic law and he must build consensus among religious leaders and other influential Saudis.
65Saudi Arabia – Role of Citizen (Voting Rights) There are no voting rights or official political parties in this country.The role of the citizen in Saudi Arabia is to obey the King.
66Saudi Arabia – Personal Freedoms Freedom of Speech – NoFreedom of the Press - No
68Iran – Type of LeaderIran is a theocratic republic with a presidential system.The government of Iran is based on Islamic law.The Supreme Leader of Iran, who is a religious leader, is chief of state and has final say on all matters.The Supreme Leader is commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
69Iran – Becoming the Leader The Supreme Leader is selected by the Council of Experts.The Council of Experts, as well as the legislature and president, are elected by popular vote.While the president is head of government, he may be removed by the Supreme Leader at any time.Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
70Iran – Role of CitizenThere is universal suffrage (voting) for everyone over 18.The role of the citizen in Iran is to obey the Supreme Leader.
71Iran – Personal Freedoms Freedom of Speech – NoFreedom of the Press - No
72Copy following chart onto your DRC (Data Retrieval Chart): “Compare Governments”
73DRC: Compare Governments IsraelSaudi ArabiaIranLeaderPresidentPrime Minister(Parliamentary Democracy)King(Monarchy)Supreme Leader(Theocratic Republic)Takes Power by…ElectionHereditarySelected by Council of ExpertsRole of CitizenVoteObeyObey and “Vote”Personal FreedomsFreedom ofSpeech: YesPress: YesSpeech: NoPress: No
74CRCT Test Prep pages300. The Israeli parliament (legislature) is called theA. SenateB. KnessetC. CongressD. House of Representatives
75CRCT Test Prep pages301. What role do religious leaders play in the Israeli government?A. They have some influence in making laws.B. They are not allowed to run for political office.C. Religious leaders always control which candidates are elected.D. They are guaranteed a certain number of representatives in each election.
76CRCT Test Prep pages302. Who is allowed to vote in Israeli elections?A. all citizens 16 years of age or olderB. all citizens 18 years of age or olderC. only men who can prove they are Israeli citizensD. only those who were actually born in the State of IsraelB. All citizens 18 years of age or older
77CRCT Test Prep pages303. How often are elections for the national government held in Israel?A. Elections are held every 6 years.B. Party members are elected for life.C. Religious leaders can require new elections whenever they like.D. Elections are held every 4 years unless the ruling party calls for them to be held sooner.
78CRCT Test Prep pages 104-105 304. Saudi Arabia is ruled by a A. king. B. popularly elected president.C. representative government.D. group of leading religious leaders.A. king
79CRCT Test Prep pages 104-105 305. How long does a monarch rule? A. one elected termB. a term of 10 yearsC. as long as Parliament allows him to ruleD. until he dies or chooses to give up powerD. Until he dies or chooses to give up power
80CRCT Test Prep pages306. What role do the people play in a government that is a monarchy like that of Saudi Arabia?A. They have the power to vote a ruler out of office.B. The people get to approve the laws made by the ruler.C. They are guaranteed certain rights by their written constitution.D. They have little influence, as the ruler makes most decisions.
81CRCT Test Prep pages 104-105 307. What is Sharia law? A. laws made by the king aloneB. laws based on Parliamentary democracyC. laws based on the teachings of the Qur’anD. laws calling for a separation of church and state
82CRCT Test Prep pages308. What is the definition of a “theocracy”??A. a government that sees God as the supreme rulerB. a government that allows people to choose the leadersC. a system in which religious law and civil law are separateD. a system in which only religious leaders are allowed to vote
83CRCT Test Prep pages309. Why is Iran sometimes called a theocratic republic?A. Iran’s religious leaders make all the laws for the country.B. Religious leaders decide which Iranian citizens can vote.C. The people of Iran have no say in choosing their government leaders.D. Iran’s government is led by both an elected parliament and powerful religious leaders.
84CRCT Test Prep pages 104-105 310. What is an Ayatollah? A. a Christian priestB. a Shi’a religious leaderC. The title of a local governorD. a leader of a Jewish congregationD. a Shi’a religious leader
85Middle East Governments Comic Strip Activity Create 3 comic strips: one each ofIsrael, Saudi Arabia, and IranIn each…Identify the title of the leader.Identify how the person becomes the leader.Determine what role the citizen plays in the government.Determine personal freedoms (Freedom of Speech, Freedom of the Press).