1 Ch. 7 Vocabulary Wetland Plankton Nekton Benthos 5. Littoral Zone 6. Benthic Zone 7. Eutrophication
2 COPY & ANSWER on a SEPARATE PIECE OF PAPER. How do you think you did on the Biome Test?Honestly, how long did you study outside of class?Have you been to tutoring since the last test?What could YOU do to improve your grade?What could we do to help you?
3 Chapter 7 Aquatic Ecosystems Remember to write the slides that show the clipboard symbol. Examples written in italics do not need to be written down. We will just discuss them, along with the other slides.
4 ObjectivesDescribe the factors that determine where an organism lives in an aquatic ecosystem.Describe the littoral zone and the benthic zone that make up a lake or pond.Describe two environmental functions of wetlands.Describe one threat against river ecosystems.
6 Aquatic Ecosystems Types of organisms determined by salinity Divided into freshwater & marine
7 Characteristics of Aquatic Ecosystems Factors such as temp., sunlight, O2, & nutrients determine which organisms live in which area of the water.Organisms grouped by location & adaptations3 groups of aquatic organisms:Plankton-mostly microscopic animals (zooplankton) or plants (phytoplankton)that float freelyNekton-swim activelyBenthos -bottom-dwelling organisms, often attached to hard surfaces.***Decomposers are also aquatic organisms.
8 Freshwater Ecosystem Foldable Create 4 squares on your paper.Label them: Lakes & Ponds, Marshes, Swamps, Rivers & StreamsDefine any terms highlighted in the section.Read each section & take notes on your foldable.
9 Lakes & PondsForm naturally where groundwater reaches the Earth’s surfaceTypes of organisms depend on the amount of sunlightCreate artificial lakes by damming flowing rivers & streams to use them for power, irrigation, water storage, & recreation
10 Life in a LakeAnimals have adaptations that help them obtain what they need to survive.For example, water beetles use the hairs under their bodies to trap surface air so that they can breathe during their dives for food.In regions where lakes partially freeze in the winter, amphibians burrow into the littoral mud to avoid freezing temperatures.
12 How Nutrients Affect Lakes Eutrophication-increase in the amount of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystemIncrease in plants/algae growth=increase in bacteria that feed on decaying organismsThese bacteria use the O2 dissolved in the lake’s waters. Eventually the reduced amount of O2 kills oxygen loving organisms.A lake that has large amounts of plant growth due to nutrients is known as a eutrophic lake.Lakes naturally become eutrophic over a long period of time.Can be accelerated by runoff that can carry sewage, fertilizers, or animal wastes from land into bodies of water
13 Freshwater WetlandsAreas of land that are covered with fresh water part of the year2 types of freshwater wetlands:MarshesSwampsMost located in the SE USlargest is Florida Everglades
16 Marshes Low, flat lands that have little water movement Different types of marshes are classified by salinity.Brackish marshes have slightly salty waterSalt marshes contain saltier water.Benthic zones are nutrient rich & contain plants, many decomposers, & scavengersAttract migratory birds
17 SwampsOccur on flat, poorly drained land, often near streams & are dominated by woody shrubs or water loving trees.Freshwater swamps are the ideal habitat for amphibians because of the continuous moisture.Birds are attracted to hollow trees near or over the water.Reptiles are the predators of the swamp, eating almost any organism that crosses their path.
18 Human Impact on Wetlands Once considered wastelands that are breeding grounds for insectsMany have been drained, filled, & cleared for farms or developmentLaws & the federal government protect many wetlands.Most states now prohibit the destruction of wetlands.
19 RiversUsually cold & full of O2 & runs swiftly through a shallow riverbedAs a river flows down a mountain, it may broaden, become warmer, wider, slower, & decrease in O2.A river changes with the land & the climate through which it flows.
20 Rivers in DangerIndustries use river water in manufacturing processes & as receptacles for wastes.People have used rivers to dispose of their sewage and garbage.This has polluted rivers with toxins, which have killed river organisms & made river fish inedible.Runoff puts pesticides & other poisons into rivers & coats riverbeds with toxic sediments.
21 Do-Now:Describe the lifestyle of organisms that are plankton, nekton, and benthos. List one example of each.Define artificial eutrophication.List 2 reasons wetlands are important.
22 Objectives Explain why an estuary is a very productive ecosystem. Compare salt marshes and mangrove swamps.Describe two threats to coral reefs.Describe two threats to ocean organisms.
23 Standards SCSh2a, b SCSh3b, c, e SCSh4a SCSh5a SCSh6a, b, d SCSh9b SEV2dSEV5a
24 What does this quote mean to you? “Buoyed by water, he can fly in any direction-up, down, sideways-by merely flipping his hand. Under water, man becomes an archangel.” --Jacques Cousteau
25 Marine EcosystemsOrganisms coastal areas adapt to changes in water level & salinity.Organisms in the open ocean adapt to changes in temp. & the amount of sunlight & nutrients available.
26 Coastal Wetlands Coastal areas covered by salt water all/part time Provide habitat & nesting areas for fish/wildlifeAbsorb excess rain (protects from flooding)Filter out pollutants & sedimentsRecreational areas (boating, fishing, & hunting)
27 EstuariesArea where fresh water (rivers/rain) mixes with salt water (ocean)Currents form & cause mineral/nutrient rich mud to fall to the bottom making in available to producers.Very productive
28 Threats to Estuaries Were used as places to dump waste. Those filled with waste could then be used as building sites.The pollutants that damage estuaries include sewage, pesticides, fertilizers, & toxic chemicals.Most of these pollutants break down over time, but estuaries cannot cope with the amounts produced by dense human populations.
29 Salt MarshesMaritime habitats characterized by grasses, & other plants that have adapted to continual, periodic floodingAbsorb pollutants to help protect inland areas
30 Mangrove Swamps Have mangrove trees Protect coastline from erosion & reduce the damage from stormsHabitatHave been filled with waste & destroyed in many parts of the world
31 Rocky & Sandy Shores Rocky shores Sandy shores more plants & animals than sandy shoresSandy shoresdry out when the tide goes out & many organisms that live between sand grains eat the plankton left stranded on the sandA Barrier island is a long ridge of sand or narrow island that lies parallel to the shore & helps protect the mainland.What are some examples of Barrier Islands in Glynn County?
32 Coral ReefsLimestone ridges found in tropical climates & composed of coral fragments that are deposited around organic remainsThousands of plants/animals live in the crevices of coral reefs (DIVERSITY!!!)Predators that use stinging tentacles to capture small animals that float/swim close to the reef
34 Disappearing Coral Reefs Productive ecosystemsVery fragileSensitive to changes in temperatureIf water is too muddy, polluted, or too high in nutrients, the algae that live within the corals will either die or grow out control. If the algae grows out of control, it may kill the corals.Oil spills, sewage, pesticides, & silt runoff have also been linked to coral-reef destruction.Not able to repair itself after chunks of coral are destroyedOverfishing can devastate fish populations, upsetting the balance of the reef’s ecosystem.Grows very slowly
35 OceansSunlight that is usable by plants for photosynthesis penetrates about 100m into the ocean.Most ocean life is concentrated in the shallow coastal waters.
36 Plants and Animals of the Oceans The types of organisms that may be found in the layers of the ocean at various depths is dependent on available sunlight.In open ocean, phytoplankton grow only where there is enough light/nutrientsleast productive of all ecosystemsThe depths of the ocean are very dark, so most food at the ocean floor consists of dead organisms that fall from the surface.Decomposers, filter feeders, & the organisms that eat them live in the deep areas of the ocean.
38 Threats to Oceans Pollution Runoff from fertilized fields & industrial waste & sewage being discharged into riversOverfishing & certain fishing methods are destroying some fish populations.Marine mammals can get caught & drown in the nets.Some ships discard fishing lines (Illegal!) into the ocean where they can strangle/kill marine organisms.
39 Arctic and Antarctic Ecosystems The Arcticrich in nutrients from the surrounding landmassessupports large populations of planktonThe arctic ecosystems at the North and South Poles depend on marine ecosystems because nearly all the food comes from the ocean.The AntarcticOnly continent never colonized by humansUsed mainly for researchPlankton form the basis of food web
40 Reading Quiz How are salt marshes different than mangrove swamps? List two things that could damage coral reefs.What are the primary producers of the open ocean?Name two threats oceans face.
41 Do-Now:Where are swamps usually found?You are likely to find cattails, reeds, and other plants in the ____ zone of a lake.The 2 main types of freshwater wetlands are ___ & ___.In estuaries, fresh & salt water mix, forming a _______ ______.Where is most marine life found?(Choose one: Deep ocean? Shallow, coastal waters?, Vents? Marshes?)
42 Farm-Raised Salmon Activity Procedure Section:Use the front page of the packet to answer this.Come up with at least THREE questions you have.List at least THREE places/resources you could use.
43 Farm-Raised Salmon Activity Analysis Section:EXPLAIN at least THREE advantages & at least THREE disadvantages.“Refute” means to show it isn’t correct. You should have information to refute at least TWO things in the article. Write the correct information down that you found and cite your sources.EXPLAIN at least three pieces of information you found that gives the fish farmers’ point of view.