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Ch. 7 Vocabulary 1. Wetland 2. Plankton 3. Nekton 4. Benthos 5. Littoral Zone 6. Benthic Zone 7. Eutrophication.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 7 Vocabulary 1. Wetland 2. Plankton 3. Nekton 4. Benthos 5. Littoral Zone 6. Benthic Zone 7. Eutrophication."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 7 Vocabulary 1. Wetland 2. Plankton 3. Nekton 4. Benthos 5. Littoral Zone 6. Benthic Zone 7. Eutrophication

2 COPY & ANSWER on a SEPARATE PIECE OF PAPER How do you think you did on the Biome Test? Honestly, how long did you study outside of class? Have you been to tutoring since the last test? What could YOU do to improve your grade? What could we do to help you?

3 Chapter 7 Aquatic Ecosystems Remember to write the slides that show the clipboard symbol. Examples written in italics do not need to be written down. We will just discuss them, along with the other slides.

4 Objectives Describe the factors that determine where an organism lives in an aquatic ecosystem. Describe the factors that determine where an organism lives in an aquatic ecosystem. Describe the littoral zone and the benthic zone that make up a lake or pond. Describe the littoral zone and the benthic zone that make up a lake or pond. Describe two environmental functions of wetlands. Describe two environmental functions of wetlands. Describe one threat against river ecosystems. Describe one threat against river ecosystems.

5 Standards SCSh2a, b SCSh2a, b SCSh3a, c SCSh3a, c SCSh6b, c SCSh6b, c SEV2d SEV2d

6 Aquatic Ecosystems Types of organisms determined by salinity Types of organisms determined by salinity Divided into freshwater & marine Divided into freshwater & marine

7 Characteristics of Aquatic Ecosystems Factors such as temp., sunlight, O 2, & nutrients determine which organisms live in which area of the water. Factors such as temp., sunlight, O 2, & nutrients determine which organisms live in which area of the water. Organisms grouped by location & adaptations Organisms grouped by location & adaptations 3 groups of aquatic organisms: 3 groups of aquatic organisms: –Plankton-mostly microscopic animals (zooplankton) or plants (phytoplankton) that float freely –Nekton-swim actively –Benthos -bottom-dwelling organisms, often attached to hard surfaces. ***Decomposers are also aquatic organisms.

8 Freshwater Ecosystem Foldable Create 4 squares on your paper. Create 4 squares on your paper. Label them: Lakes & Ponds, Marshes, Swamps, Rivers & Streams Label them: Lakes & Ponds, Marshes, Swamps, Rivers & Streams Define any terms highlighted in the section. Define any terms highlighted in the section. Read each section & take notes on your foldable. Read each section & take notes on your foldable.

9 Lakes & Ponds Form naturally where groundwater reaches the Earth s surface Form naturally where groundwater reaches the Earth s surface Types of organisms depend on the amount of sunlight Types of organisms depend on the amount of sunlight Create artificial lakes by damming flowing rivers & streams to use them for power, irrigation, water storage, & recreation Create artificial lakes by damming flowing rivers & streams to use them for power, irrigation, water storage, & recreation

10 Life in a Lake Animals have adaptations that help them obtain what they need to survive. Animals have adaptations that help them obtain what they need to survive. –For example, water beetles use the hairs under their bodies to trap surface air so that they can breathe during their dives for food. –In regions where lakes partially freeze in the winter, amphibians burrow into the littoral mud to avoid freezing temperatures.

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12 How Nutrients Affect Lakes Eutrophication-increase in the amount of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem Eutrophication-increase in the amount of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem –Increase in plants/algae growth=increase in bacteria that feed on decaying organisms These bacteria use the O 2 dissolved in the lake s waters. Eventually the reduced amount of O 2 kills oxygen loving organisms. These bacteria use the O 2 dissolved in the lake s waters. Eventually the reduced amount of O 2 kills oxygen loving organisms. –A lake that has large amounts of plant growth due to nutrients is known as a eutrophic lake. –Lakes naturally become eutrophic over a long period of time. –Can be accelerated by runoff that can carry sewage, fertilizers, or animal wastes from land into bodies of water

13 Freshwater Wetlands Areas of land that are covered with fresh water part of the year Areas of land that are covered with fresh water part of the year 2 types of freshwater wetlands: 2 types of freshwater wetlands: –Marshes –Swamps Most located in the SE US Most located in the SE US –largest is Florida Everglades

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15 Know at least 4 of these. Know at least 4 of these.

16 Marshes Low, flat lands that have little water movement Low, flat lands that have little water movement Different types of marshes are classified by salinity. Different types of marshes are classified by salinity. –Brackish marshes have slightly salty water –Salt marshes contain saltier water. Benthic zones are nutrient rich & contain plants, many decomposers, & scavengers Benthic zones are nutrient rich & contain plants, many decomposers, & scavengers Attract migratory birds Attract migratory birds

17 Swamps Occur on flat, poorly drained land, often near streams & are dominated by woody shrubs or water loving trees. Occur on flat, poorly drained land, often near streams & are dominated by woody shrubs or water loving trees. –Freshwater swamps are the ideal habitat for amphibians because of the continuous moisture. –Birds are attracted to hollow trees near or over the water. –Reptiles are the predators of the swamp, eating almost any organism that crosses their path.

18 Human Impact on Wetlands Once considered wastelands that are breeding grounds for insects Once considered wastelands that are breeding grounds for insects Many have been drained, filled, & cleared for farms or development Many have been drained, filled, & cleared for farms or development Laws & the federal government protect many wetlands. Laws & the federal government protect many wetlands. Most states now prohibit the destruction of wetlands. Most states now prohibit the destruction of wetlands.

19 Rivers Usually cold & full of O 2 & runs swiftly through a shallow riverbed Usually cold & full of O 2 & runs swiftly through a shallow riverbed As a river flows down a mountain, it may broaden, become warmer, wider, slower, & decrease in O 2. As a river flows down a mountain, it may broaden, become warmer, wider, slower, & decrease in O 2. A river changes with the land & the climate through which it flows. A river changes with the land & the climate through which it flows.

20 Rivers in Danger Industries use river water in manufacturing processes & as receptacles for wastes. Industries use river water in manufacturing processes & as receptacles for wastes. People have used rivers to dispose of their sewage and garbage. People have used rivers to dispose of their sewage and garbage. –This has polluted rivers with toxins, which have killed river organisms & made river fish inedible. Runoff puts pesticides & other poisons into rivers & coats riverbeds with toxic sediments. Runoff puts pesticides & other poisons into rivers & coats riverbeds with toxic sediments.

21 Do-Now: Describe the lifestyle of organisms that are plankton, nekton, and benthos. List one example of each Define artificial eutrophication List 2 reasons wetlands are important.

22 Objectives Explain why an estuary is a very productive ecosystem. Explain why an estuary is a very productive ecosystem. Compare salt marshes and mangrove swamps. Compare salt marshes and mangrove swamps. Describe two threats to coral reefs. Describe two threats to coral reefs. Describe two threats to ocean organisms. Describe two threats to ocean organisms.

23 Standards SCSh2a, b SCSh2a, b SCSh3b, c, e SCSh3b, c, e SCSh4a SCSh4a SCSh5a SCSh5a SCSh6a, b, d SCSh6a, b, d SCSh9b SCSh9b SEV2d SEV2d SEV5a SEV5a

24 What does this quote mean to you? Buoyed by water, he can fly in any direction-up, down, sideways-by merely flipping his hand. Under water, man becomes an archangel. --Jacques Cousteau

25 Marine Ecosystems Organisms coastal areas adapt to changes in water level & salinity. Organisms coastal areas adapt to changes in water level & salinity. Organisms in the open ocean adapt to changes in temp. & the amount of sunlight & nutrients available. Organisms in the open ocean adapt to changes in temp. & the amount of sunlight & nutrients available.

26 Coastal Wetlands Coastal areas covered by salt water all/part time Coastal areas covered by salt water all/part time Provide habitat & nesting areas for fish/wildlife Provide habitat & nesting areas for fish/wildlife Absorb excess rain (protects from flooding) Absorb excess rain (protects from flooding) Filter out pollutants & sediments Filter out pollutants & sediments Recreational areas (boating, fishing, & hunting) Recreational areas (boating, fishing, & hunting)

27 Estuaries Area where fresh water (rivers/rain) mixes with salt water (ocean) Area where fresh water (rivers/rain) mixes with salt water (ocean) Currents form & cause mineral/nutrient rich mud to fall to the bottom making in available to producers. Currents form & cause mineral/nutrient rich mud to fall to the bottom making in available to producers. Very productive Very productive

28 Threats to Estuaries Were used as places to dump waste. Were used as places to dump waste. –Those filled with waste could then be used as building sites. The pollutants that damage estuaries include sewage, pesticides, fertilizers, & toxic chemicals. The pollutants that damage estuaries include sewage, pesticides, fertilizers, & toxic chemicals. –Most of these pollutants break down over time, but estuaries cannot cope with the amounts produced by dense human populations.

29 Salt Marshes Maritime habitats characterized by grasses, & other plants that have adapted to continual, periodic flooding Maritime habitats characterized by grasses, & other plants that have adapted to continual, periodic flooding Absorb pollutants to help protect inland areas Absorb pollutants to help protect inland areas

30 Mangrove Swamps Have mangrove trees Have mangrove trees Protect coastline from erosion & reduce the damage from storms Protect coastline from erosion & reduce the damage from storms Habitat Habitat Have been filled with waste & destroyed in many parts of the world Have been filled with waste & destroyed in many parts of the world

31 Rocky & Sandy Shores Rocky shores Rocky shores –more plants & animals than sandy shores Sandy shores Sandy shores –dry out when the tide goes out & many organisms that live between sand grains eat the plankton left stranded on the sand A Barrier island is a long ridge of sand or narrow island that lies parallel to the shore & helps protect the mainland. A Barrier island is a long ridge of sand or narrow island that lies parallel to the shore & helps protect the mainland. –What are some examples of Barrier Islands in Glynn County?

32 Coral Reefs Limestone ridges found in tropical climates & composed of coral fragments that are deposited around organic remains Limestone ridges found in tropical climates & composed of coral fragments that are deposited around organic remains Thousands of plants/animals live in the crevices of coral reefs (DIVERSITY!!!) Thousands of plants/animals live in the crevices of coral reefs (DIVERSITY!!!) Predators that use stinging tentacles to capture small animals that float/swim close to the reef Predators that use stinging tentacles to capture small animals that float/swim close to the reef

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34 Disappearing Coral Reefs Productive ecosystems Productive ecosystems Very fragile Very fragile –Sensitive to changes in temperature –If water is too muddy, polluted, or too high in nutrients, the algae that live within the corals will either die or grow out control. If the algae grows out of control, it may kill the corals. –Oil spills, sewage, pesticides, & silt runoff have also been linked to coral-reef destruction. –Not able to repair itself after chunks of coral are destroyed Overfishing can devastate fish populations, upsetting the balance of the reef s ecosystem. Overfishing can devastate fish populations, upsetting the balance of the reef s ecosystem. Grows very slowly Grows very slowly

35 Oceans Sunlight that is usable by plants for photosynthesis penetrates about 100m into the ocean. Sunlight that is usable by plants for photosynthesis penetrates about 100m into the ocean. Most ocean life is concentrated in the shallow coastal waters. Most ocean life is concentrated in the shallow coastal waters.

36 Plants and Animals of the Oceans The types of organisms that may be found in the layers of the ocean at various depths is dependent on available sunlight. The types of organisms that may be found in the layers of the ocean at various depths is dependent on available sunlight. –In open ocean, phytoplankton grow only where there is enough light/nutrients least productive of all ecosystems least productive of all ecosystems –The depths of the ocean are very dark, so most food at the ocean floor consists of dead organisms that fall from the surface. –Decomposers, filter feeders, & the organisms that eat them live in the deep areas of the ocean.

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38 Threats to Oceans Pollution Pollution –Runoff from fertilized fields & industrial waste & sewage being discharged into rivers Overfishing & certain fishing methods are destroying some fish populations. Overfishing & certain fishing methods are destroying some fish populations. –Marine mammals can get caught & drown in the nets. Some ships discard fishing lines (Illegal!) into the ocean where they can strangle/kill marine organisms. Some ships discard fishing lines (Illegal!) into the ocean where they can strangle/kill marine organisms.

39 Arctic and Antarctic Ecosystems The Arctic The Arctic –rich in nutrients from the surrounding landmasses –supports large populations of plankton –The arctic ecosystems at the North and South Poles depend on marine ecosystems because nearly all the food comes from the ocean. The Antarctic The Antarctic –Only continent never colonized by humans –Used mainly for research –Plankton form the basis of food web

40 Reading Quiz How are salt marshes different than mangrove swamps? List two things that could damage coral reefs What are the primary producers of the open ocean? Name two threats oceans face.

41 Do-Now: Where are swamps usually found? You are likely to find cattails, reeds, and other plants in the ____ zone of a lake The 2 main types of freshwater wetlands are ___ & ___ In estuaries, fresh & salt water mix, forming a _______ ______ Where is most marine life found? (Choose one: Deep ocean? Shallow, coastal waters?, Vents? Marshes?)

42 Farm-Raised Salmon Activity Procedure Section: Use the front page of the packet to answer this Come up with at least THREE questions you have List at least THREE places/resources you could use.

43 Farm-Raised Salmon Activity Analysis Section: EXPLAIN at least THREE advantages & at least THREE disadvantages Refute means to show it isnt correct. You should have information to refute at least TWO things in the article. Write the correct information down that you found and cite your sources EXPLAIN at least three pieces of information you found that gives the fish farmers point of view.


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