2Introduction Politics and government matter. Americans are apathetic about politics and government.American youth are not likely to be informed about government and politics and rarely participate in politics.
6GovernmentDefinition: Government is the institutions and processes through which public policies are made for society.This definition leads to two basic questions:How should we govern?What should government do?Governments typically maintain a national defense, provide services, collect taxes, and preserve order.
7Politics Definition: Also consider Lasswell’s definition: Politics is the process by which we select our governmental leaders and what policies they produce—politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues.Also consider Lasswell’s definition:Who gets what, when and how.
8The Policymaking System The process by which policy comes into being and evolves over timeThe six items are hyperlinked to their own slide. A return button is also on the slide.
10Linkage InstitutionsDefinition: Linkage institutions are the political channels through which people’s concerns become political issues on the policy agenda.Political PartiesElectionsNews & Entertainment MediaInterest Groups
11Policy AgendaDefinition: The policy agenda are issues that attract the serious attention of public officials.Political issues arise when people disagree about a problem and how to fix it.Some issues will be considered, and others will not.A government’s policy agenda changes regularly.
12Policymaking Institutions Definition: Policymaking institutions are the branches of government charged with taking action on political issues.Legislature (Congress)Executive (President)Courts (Federal and State)Bureaucracies (Federal and State)
13Policies Impact People Public Policy: a choice that government makes in response to a political issue.
14Policies Impact People Impacts of Policies:Does it solve the problem?Does it create more problems?Depending on the answer, policy impacts carry the political system back to its point of origin: the concerns of people.
15DemocracyDefinition: Democracy is a system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public’s preferences.Components of Traditional Democratic Theory:Equality in votingEffective participationEnlightened understandingCitizen control of the agendaInclusion
16Theories of U.S. Democracy Pluralist TheoryA theory of government and policies emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policiesGroups will work togetherPublic interest will prevail through bargaining and compromise
17Theories of U.S. Democracy Elite and Class TheoryA theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organizationNot all groups equalPolicies benefit those with money and power
18Theories of U.S. Democracy HyperpluralismA theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened.Groups control policy and prevent government from actingDifficulty in coordinating policy implementationConfusing and contradictory policies result from politicians trying to placate every group
19Challenges to Democracy Increased Technical ExpertiseLimited Participation in GovernmentEscalating Campaign CostsDiverse Political Interests (policy gridlock)
20American Political Culture and Democracy Political Culture: An overall set of values widely shared within a society.American culture is diverse and comprised of:LibertyEgalitarianismIndividualismLaissez-fairePopulism
21Questions About Democracy PeopleAre people knowledgeable about policy?Do they apply what the know when they vote?Do elections facilitate political participation?InstitutionsIs Congress a representative institution?Does the president look after the general welfare?
22Questions About Democracy Linkage InstitutionsDo interest groups help the process, or do they get in the way?Do political parties offer clear consistent choices for voters or do they intentionally obscure their positions?Do media help citizens understand choices?
23How Active is American Government? It spends about $3.1 trillion annuallyIt employs over 2.2 million peopleIt owns one-third of the landIt occupies 2.6 billion square feet of office spaceIt owns and operates 400,000 nonmilitary vehicles
24Questions about the Scope of Government Constitution and FederalismWhat role does the Constitution’s authors foresee for the federal government?Does the Constitution favor government with a broad scope?Why did functions of federal government increase?Has a more active government constrained or protected civil rights and liberties?
25Questions about the Scope of Government Public and Linkage InstitutionsDoes the public favor a large, active government?Do competing political parties force government to provide more public services?Do elections control the scope of government?Does pressure from interest groups create a bigger government?Has the media helped control the size of government and its policies?
26Questions about the Scope of Government Elected InstitutionsHas the president been a driving force behind increasing the scope and power of government?Can the president control a large government?Is Congress predisposed to support big government?Is Congress too responsive to the public and interest groups?
27Questions about the Scope of Government Nonelected InstitutionsAre the federal courts too active in policy making, intruding on the authority of other branches of government?Is the bureaucracy constantly try to expand its budget or is it simply reflecting the desires of elected officials?Is the federal bureaucracy too large and thus wasteful and inefficient in the implementation of policy?
28SummaryYoung people are apathetic about government and politics, even though they affect everyone.Democratic government, which is how the United States is governed, consists of those institutions that make policy for the benefit of the people.What government should do to benefit the people is a topic central to questions of American government.
30Constitution Definition Sets the broad rules of the game A constitution is a nation’s basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens.Sets the broad rules of the gameThe rules are not neutral; some participants and policy options have advantages over others.
31Origins of the Constitution The Road to RevolutionColonists faced tax increases after the French and Indian War.Colonists lacked direct representation in parliament.Colonial leaders formed the Continental Congress to address abuses of the English Crown.
33Origins of the Constitution Declaring IndependenceIn May and June 1776, the Continental Congress debated resolutions for independence.The Declaration of Independence, which listed the colonists grievances against the British, is adopted on July 4, 1776.Politically, the Declaration was a polemic, announcing and justifying revolution.
34Origins of the Constitution The English Heritage: The Power of IdeasNatural rights: rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governmentConsent of the governed: government derives its authority by sanction of the peopleLimited Government: certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect natural rights of citizens
36Origins of the Constitution Winning IndependenceIn 1783, the American colonies prevailed in their war against England.The “Conservative” RevolutionRestored rights the colonists felt they had lostNot a major change of lifestyles
37The Government That Failed The Articles of ConfederationThe first document to govern the United States, it was adopted in 1777 and ratified in 1781.It established a confederation, a “league of friendship and perpetual union” among 13 states and former colonies.Congress had few powers; there was no president or national court system.All government power rested in the states.
38The Government That Failed Changes in the StatesLiberalized voting laws increased political participation and power among a new middle class.An expanding economic middle class of farmers and craft workers counterbalanced the power of the old elite of professionals and wealthy merchants.Ideas of equality spread and democracy took hold.
40The Government That Failed Economic TurmoilPostwar depression left farmers unable to pay debtsState legislatures sympathetic to farmers and passed laws that favored debtors over creditorsShays’ RebellionSeries of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.Economic elite concerned about Articles’ inability to limit these violations of individual’s property rights
41The Government That Failed The Aborted Annapolis MeetingAn attempt to discuss changes to the Articles of Confederation in September 1786Attended by only 12 delegates from 5 statesCalled for a meeting in May 1787 to further discuss changes—the Constitutional Convention
42Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention Gentlemen in Philadelphia55 men from 12 of the 13 statesMostly wealthy planters and merchantsMost were college graduates with some political experienceMany were coastal residents from the larger cities, not the rural areas
43The Philadelphia Convention Philosophy into ActionHuman Nature, which is self-interestedPolitical Conflict, which leads to factionsObjects of Government, including the preservation of propertyNature of Government, which sets power against power so that no one faction rises above and overwhelms another
44The Agenda in Philadelphia The Equality IssuesEquality and Representation of the StatesNew Jersey Plan—equal representation in statesVirginia Plan—population-based representationConnecticut CompromiseSlaveryThree-fifths compromisePolitical Equality and voting left to states
46The Agenda in Philadelphia The Economic IssuesStates had tariffs on products from other statesPaper money was basically worthlessCongress couldn’t raise moneyActions taken:Powers of Congress to be strengthenedPowers of states to be limited
48The Agenda in Philadelphia The Individual Rights IssuesSome were written into the Constitution:Prohibits suspension of writ of habeas corpusNo bills of attainderNo ex post facto lawsReligious qualifications for holding office prohibitedStrict rules of evidence for conviction of treasonRight to trial by jury in criminal casesSome were not specifiedFreedom of speech and expressionRights of the accused
49The Madisonian ModelTo prevent a tyranny of the majority, Madison proposed a government of:Limiting Majority ControlSeparating PowersCreating Checks and BalancesEstablishing a Federal System
52The Madisonian Model The Constitutional Republic Republic: A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make lawsFavors the status quo – change is slowThe End of the BeginningThe document was approved, but not unanimously. Now it had to be ratified.
54Ratifying the Constitution Federalist PapersA collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name “Publius” to defend the ConstitutionBill of RightsThe first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns about the lack of basic liberties
56Ratifying the Constitution RatificationLacking majority support, the Federalists specified that the Constitution be ratified by state conventions, not state legislatures.Delaware first ratified the Constitution on December 7, 1787.New Hampshire’s approval (the ninth state to ratify) made the Constitution official six months later.
58Constitutional Change The Informal Process of Constitutional ChangeJudicial InterpretationMarbury v. Madison (1803): judicial reviewChanging Political PracticeTechnologyIncreasing Demands on Policymakers
59The Importance of Flexibility The Constitution is short, with fewer than 8,000 words.It does not prescribe every detail.There is no mention of congressional committees or independent regulatory commissions.The Constitution is not static, but flexible for future generations to determine their own needs.
60Understanding the Constitution The Constitution and DemocracyThe Constitution is rarely described as democratic.There has been a gradual democratization of the Constitution.The Constitution and the Scope of GovernmentMuch of the Constitution reinforces individualism and provides multiple access points for citizens.It also encourages stalemate and limits government.
61SummaryThe Constitution was ratified to strengthen congressional economic powers, even with disagreements over issues of equality.Protection of individual rights guaranteed through the Bill of Rights.Formal and informal changes continue to shape our Madisonian system of government.
63Defining Federalism What is Federalism? Federalism: a way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the land and peopleUnitary governments: a way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central governmentConfederation: The United Nations is a modern example.Intergovernmental Relations: the workings of the federal system- the entire set of interactions among national, state and local governments
65Defining Federalism Why Is Federalism So Important? Decentralizes our politicsMore opportunities to participateDecentralizes our policiesFederal and state governments handle different problems.States regulate drinking ages, marriage, and speed limits.States can solve the same problem in different ways and tend to be policy innovators.
66The Constitutional Basis of Federalism The Division of PowerSupremacy Clause: Article VI of the Constitution states the following are supreme:The U.S. ConstitutionLaws of CongressTreatiesYet, national government cannot usurp state powers.Tenth Amendment
68The Constitutional Basis of Federalism Establishing National SupremacyImplied and enumerated powersMcCulloch v. Maryland (1819)Commerce PowersGibbons v. Ogden (1824)The Civil War ( )The Struggle for Racial EqualityBrown v. Board of Education (1954)
69The Constitutional Basis of Federalism States’ Obligations to Each OtherFull Faith and Credit: Each state must recognize official documents and judgments rendered by other states.Article IV, Section I of ConstitutionPrivileges and Immunities: Citizens of each state have privileges of citizens of other states.Article IV, Section 2 of ConstitutionExtradition: States must return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for punishment.
70Intergovernmental Relations Today Dual FederalismDefinition: a system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policiesLike a layer cakeNarrowly interpreted powers of federal governmentEnded in the 1930s
71Intergovernmental Relations Today Cooperative FederalismDefinition: a system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national governmentLike a marble cakeShared costs and administrationStates follow federal guidelines
72Intergovernmental Relations Today Fiscal FederalismDefinition: the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal systemThe cornerstone of the national government’s relations with state and local governments
74Intergovernmental Relations Today Fiscal Federalism (continued)The Grant System: Distributing the Federal PieCategorical Grants: federal grants that can be used for specific purposes; grants with strings attachedProject Grants: based on meritFormula Grants: amount varies based on formulasBlock Grants: federal grants given more or less automatically to support broad programsGrants are given to states and local governments.
75Intergovernmental Relations Today Fiscal Federalism (continued)The Scramble for Federal Dollars$460 billion in grants every yearGrant distribution follows universalism—a little something for everybody.The Mandate BluesMandates direct states or local governments to comply with federal rules under threat of penalties or as a condition of receipt of a federal grant.Unfunded mandates
76Understanding Federalism Advantages for DemocracyIncreases access to governmentLocal problems can be solved locallyHard for political parties or interest groups to dominate all politicsDisadvantages for DemocracyStates have different levels of serviceLocal interest can counteract national interestsToo many levels of government and too much money
79Understanding Federalism Federalism and the Scope of GovernmentWhat should the scope of national government be relative to the states?National power increased with industrialization, expansion of individual rights, and social services.Most problems require resources afforded to the national, not state governments.
81SummaryAmerican federalism is a governmental system in which power is shared between a central government and the 50 state governments.The United States has moved from dual to cooperative federalism; fiscal federalism.Federalism leads to both advantages and disadvantages to democracy.