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Aquatic Biodiversity Chapter 8. Core Case Study: Why Should We Care about Coral Reefs? (1) Biodiversity Formation Important ecological and economic services.

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Presentation on theme: "Aquatic Biodiversity Chapter 8. Core Case Study: Why Should We Care about Coral Reefs? (1) Biodiversity Formation Important ecological and economic services."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aquatic Biodiversity Chapter 8

2 Core Case Study: Why Should We Care about Coral Reefs? (1) Biodiversity Formation Important ecological and economic services Moderate atmospheric temperatures Act as natural barriers protecting coasts from erosion Provide habitats Support fishing and tourism businesses Provide jobs and building materials Studied and enjoyed

3 Core Case Study: Why Should We Care about Coral Reefs? (2) Degradation and decline Coastal development Pollution Overfishing Warmer ocean temperatures leading to coral bleaching Increasing ocean acidity

4 A Healthy Coral Reef in the Red Sea

5 8-1 What Is the General Nature of Aquatic Systems? Concept 8-1A Saltwater and freshwater aquatic life zones cover almost three-fourths of the earths surface with oceans dominating the planet. Concept 8-1B The key factors determining biodiversity in aquatic systems are temperature, dissolved oxygen content, availability of food and availability of light and nutrients necessary for photosynthesis.

6 Most of the Earth Is Covered with Water (1) Saltwater: global ocean divided into 4 areas Atlantic Pacific Arctic Indian Freshwater

7 Most of the Earth Is Covered with Water (2) Aquatic life zones Saltwater: marine Oceans and estuaries Coastlands and shorelines Coral reefs Mangrove forests Freshwater Lakes Rivers and streams Inland wetlands

8 The Ocean Planet

9 Fig. 8-2, p. 163 Ocean hemisphereLand–ocean hemisphere

10 Distribution of the Worlds Major Saltwater and Freshwater Sources

11 Most Aquatic Species Live in Top, Middle, or Bottom Layers of Water (1) Plankton Phytoplankton Zooplankton Ultraplankton Nekton Benthos Decomposers

12 Most Aquatic Species Live in Top, Middle, or Bottom Layers of Water (2) Key factors in the distribution of organisms Temperature Dissolved oxygen content Availability of food Availability of light and nutrients needed for photosynthesis in the euphotic, or photic, zone

13 8-2 Why Are Marine Aquatic Systems Important? Concept 8-2 Saltwater ecosystems are irreplaceable reservoirs of biodiversity and provide major ecological and economic services.

14 Oceans Provide Important Ecological and Economic Resources Reservoirs of diversity in three major life zones Coastal zone Usually high NPP Open sea Ocean bottom

15 Major Ecological and Economic Services Provided by Marine Systems

16 Fig. 8-4, p. 165 Marine Ecosystems Economic Services Climate moderation Food CO 2 absorption Animal and pet feed Nutrient cycling Pharmaceuticals Harbors and transportation routes Waste treatment Reduced storm impact (mangroves, barrier islands, coastal wetlands) Coastal habitats for humans Recreation Habitats and nursery areas Employment Genetic resources and biodiversity Oil and natural gas Minerals Scientific information Building materials Ecological Services NATURAL CAPITAL

17 Natural Capital: Major Life Zones and Vertical Zones in an Ocean

18 Fig. 8-5, p. 166 Low tide Coastal Zone Open Sea Depth in meters High tide Sun Sea level 50 Estuarine Zone Euphotic Zone 100 Photosynthesis Continental shelf 200 Bathyal Zone 500 1,000 Twilight 1,500 Water temperature drops rapidly between the euphotic zone and the abyssal zone in an area called the thermocline. Abyssal Zone 2,000 3,000 4,000 Darkness 5,000 10, Water temperature (°C)

19 Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands Are Highly Productive (1) Estuaries and coastal wetlands River mouths Inlets Bays Sounds Salt marshes Mangrove forests Seagrass Beds Support a variety of marine species Stabilize shorelines Reduce wave impact

20 Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands Are Highly Productive (2) Important ecological and economic services Coastal aquatic systems maintain water quality by filtering Toxic pollutants Excess plant nutrients Sediments Absorb other pollutants Provide food, timber, fuelwood, and habitats Reduce storm damage and coast erosion

21 View of an Estuary from Space

22 Some Components and Interactions in a Salt Marsh Ecosystem in a Temperate Area

23 Fig. 8-7a, p. 167 Herring gulls Peregrine falcon Snowy egret Cordgrass Short-billed dowitcher Marsh periwinkle Phytoplankton Smelt Zooplankton and small crustaceans Soft-shelled clam Clamworm Bacteria Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All consumers and producers to decomposers

24 Fig. 8-7b, p. 167

25 Mangrove Forest in Daintree National Park in Queensland, Australia

26 Rocky and Sandy Shores Host Different Types of Organisms Intertidal zone Rocky shores Sandy shores: barrier beaches Organism adaptations necessary to deal with daily salinity and moisture changes Importance of sand dunes

27 Living between the Tides

28 Fig. 8-9, p. 169 Rocky Shore Beach Sea star Hermit crab Shore crab High tide Periwinkle Sea urchin Anemone Mussel Low tide Sculpin Barnacles KelpSea lettuce Monterey flatworm Beach flea Nudibranch Peanut worm Tiger beetle Barrier Beach Blue crabClam Dwarf olive High tide Sandpiper Ghost shrimp Silversides Low tide Mole shrimp White sand macoma Sand dollar Moon snail

29 Beach flea Peanut worm Tiger beetle Barrier Beach Blue crab Clam Dwarf olive High tide Sandpiper Ghost shrimp Silversides Low tide Mole shrimp White sand macoma Sand dollar Moon snail Fig. 8-9, p. 169 Rocky Shore Beach Sea star Hermit crab Shore crab High tide Periwinkle Sea urchin Anemone Mussel Low tide Sculpin Barnacles Kelp Sea lettuce Monterey flatworm Nudibranch Stepped Art

30 Primary and Secondary Dunes

31 Fig. 8-10, p. 170 OceanBeachPrimary Dune TroughSecondary Dune Back DuneBay or Lagoon Recreation, no building Walkways, no building Limited recreation and walkways Walkways, no building Most suitable for development Recreation Grasses or shrubs Bay shore Taller shrubs Taller shrubs and trees

32 Coral Reefs Are Amazing Centers of Biodiversity Marine equivalent of tropical rain forests Habitats for one-fourth of all marine species

33 Natural Capital: Some Components and Interactions in a Coral Reef Ecosystem

34 Fig. 8-11, p. 171 Gray reef shark Sea nettle Green sea turtle Blue tang Fairy basslet Parrot fish Sergeant major Hard corals Algae Brittle star Banded coral shrimp Phytoplankton Symbiotic algae Coney Zooplankton Blackcap basslet Sponges Moray eel Bacteria Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All consumers and producers to decomposers

35 The Open Sea and Ocean Floor Host a Variety of Species Vertical zones of the open sea Euphotic zone Bathyal zone Abyssal zone: receives marine snow Deposit feeders Filter feeders Upwellings Primary productivity and NPP

36 Animation: Ocean provinces

37 Video: Elephant seals

38 Video: Florida reefs

39 Video: Giant clam

40 Video: Reef fish (Bahamas)

41 Video: Schooling fish

42 Video: Sea anemones

43 Video: Sea lions

44 Video: Sting rays

45 8-3 How Have Human Activities Affected Marine Ecosystems? Concept 8-3 Human activities threaten aquatic biodiversity and disrupt ecological and economic services provided by saltwater systems.

46 Human Activities Are Disrupting and Degrading Marine Systems Major threats to marine systems Coastal development Overfishing Runoff of nonpoint source pollution Point source pollution Habitat destruction Introduction of invasive species Climate change from human activities Pollution of coastal wetlands and estuaries

47 Case Study: The Chesapeake Bayan Estuary in Trouble (1) Largest estuary in the US; polluted since 1960 Population increased Point and nonpoint sources raised pollution Phosphate and nitrate levels too high

48 Case Study: The Chesapeake Bayan Estuary in Trouble (2) Overfishing 1983: Chesapeake Bay Program Update on recovery of the Bay Should we introduce an Asian oyster?

49 Chesapeake Bay

50 Video: ABC News: Beach pollution

51 8-4 Why Are Freshwater Ecosystems Important? Concept 8-4 Freshwater ecosystems provide major ecological and economic services and are irreplaceable reservoirs of biodiversity.

52 Water Stands in Some Freshwater Systems and Flows in Others (1) Standing (lentic) bodies of freshwater Lakes Ponds Inland wetlands Flowing (lotic) systems of freshwater Streams Rivers

53 Water Stands in Some Freshwater Systems and Flows in Others (2) Formation of lakes Four zones based on depth and distance from shore Littoral zone Limnetic zone Profundal zone Benthic zone

54 Major Ecological and Economic Services Provided by Freshwater Systems

55 Fig. 8-14, p. 174 NATURAL CAPITAL Freshwater Systems Ecological Services Economic Services Climate moderationFood Nutrient cycling Drinking water Waste treatment Irrigation water Flood control Hydroelectricity Groundwater recharge Habitats for many species Transportation corridors Genetic resources and biodiversity Recreation Scientific information Employment

56 Distinct Zones of Life in a Fairly Deep Temperate Zone Lake

57 Fig. 8-15, p. 175 Sunlight Painted turtle Blue-winged teal Green frog Muskrat Pond snail Littoral zone Plankton Limnetic zone Profundal zone Diving beetle Benthic zone Northern pike Yellow perch Bloodworms

58 Some Lakes Have More Nutrients Than Others Oligotrophic lakes Low levels of nutrients and low NPP Eutrophic lakes High levels of nutrients and high NPP Mesotrophic lakes Cultural eutrophication leads to hypereutrophic lakes

59 The Effect of Nutrient Enrichment on a Lake

60 Fig. 8-16a, p. 175 Stepped Art

61 Freshwater Streams and Rivers Carry Water from the Mountains to the Oceans Surface water Runoff Watershed, drainage basin Three aquatic life zones Source zone Transition zone Floodplain zone

62 Three Zones in the Downhill Flow of Water

63 Fig. 8-17, p. 176 Lake Glacier Rain and snow Rapids Waterfall Tributary Flood plain Oxbow lake Salt marsh Delta Deposited sediment Source Zone Ocean Transition Zone Water Sediment Floodplain Zone

64 Waterfall Lake Glacier Rain and snow Rapids Source Zone Fig. 8-17, p. 176 Transition Zone Tributary Flood plain Oxbow lake Salt marsh Delta Deposited sediment Ocean Water Sediment Floodplain Zone Stepped Art

65 Case Study: Dams, Deltas, Wetlands, Hurricanes, and New Orleans Coastal deltas, mangrove forests, and coastal wetlands: natural protection against storms Dams and levees reduce sediments in deltas: significance? New Orleans, Louisiana, and Hurricane Katrina: August 29, 2005 Global warming, sea rise, and New Orleans

66 New Orleans, Louisiana, (U.S.) and Hurricane Katrina

67 Projection of New Orleans if the Sea Level Rises 0.9 Meter

68 Freshwater Inland Wetlands Are Vital Sponges (1) Marshes Swamps Prairie potholes Floodplains Arctic tundra in summer

69 Freshwater Inland Wetlands Are Vital Sponges (2) Provide free ecological and economic services Filter and degrade toxic wastes Reduce flooding and erosion Help to replenish streams and recharge groundwater aquifers Biodiversity Food and timber Recreation areas

70 Active Figure: Lake zonation

71 Animation: Lake turnover

72 Animation: Trophic natures of lakes

73 Video: River flyover

74 8-5 How Have Human Activities Affected Freshwater Ecosystems? Concept 8-5 Human activities threaten biodiversity and disrupt ecological and economic services provided by freshwater lakes, rivers, and wetlands.

75 Human Activities Are Disrupting and Degrading Freshwater Systems Impact of dams and canals on rivers Impact of flood control levees and dikes along rivers Impact of pollutants from cities and farms on rivers Impact of drained wetlands

76 Case Study: Inland Wetland Losses in the United States Loss of wetlands has led to Increased flood and drought damage Lost due to Growing crops Mining Forestry Oil and gas extraction Building highways Urban development


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