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3/2/12- Do-Now: Copy AND answer the questions. 1.How do you think you did on the cell division test? 2.How long did you study for it (out of class)? 3.Did.

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Presentation on theme: "3/2/12- Do-Now: Copy AND answer the questions. 1.How do you think you did on the cell division test? 2.How long did you study for it (out of class)? 3.Did."— Presentation transcript:

1 3/2/12- Do-Now: Copy AND answer the questions. 1.How do you think you did on the cell division test? 2.How long did you study for it (out of class)? 3.Did you fully complete the 2 review sheets? 4.What could YOU do to improve your grade? 5.What could I do to help you?

2 Genetics Vocab 1.Law of Independent Assortment 2.Dominant 3.Recessive 4.Heredity 5.Traits 6.Law of Segregation 7.Genotype 8.Phenotype 9. Alleles 10. Heterozygous 11. Homozygous 12. Probability 13. Monohybrid (Cross) 14. Punnett Square 15. Dihybrid (Cross) 16. Complete Dominance 17. Incomplete Dominance 18. Codominance 19. Molecular Genetics

3 3/5/12Pick up the back 10. Heterozygous 11. Homozygous 12. Probability 13. Monohybrid (Cross) 14. Punnett Square 15. Dihybrid (Cross) 16. CompleteDominance 17. Incomplete Dominance 18. Codominance 19. Molecular Genetics Finish defining Vocab Week 9 Prefix/Suffix vocab Complete Word Search Puzzle

4 Genetics: The Science of Heredity A Priest-Scientist Gregor Mendel

5 Who was Gregor Mendel? Austrian monk Lived 1822 to 1884 Grew on the family farm High school teacher Gardener of monastery where he lived as a monk Did experiments on pea plants Kept careful records & used mathematics to make sense of what he observed

6 Heredity Heredity is the passing of traits from parents to offspring. Mendel experimented with heredity of certain traits found in peas. Mendel studied each trait separately and discovered certain patterns in the way traits are inherited in peas. Mendels work has become the basis of genetics, the study of heredity.

7 Mendels Pea Experiments Mendel chose pea plants because their traits were easy to see and distinguish. He crossed plants with two different traits, for example purple flowers with white flowers. He started his experiments with purebred plants. Purebred plants ALWAYS produce offspring with the same trait as the parent. For example, if the parent is tall, all offspring will be tall. If the parent is short, all offspring will be short.

8 Some Pea Traits that Mendel Studied

9 F 1 Generation Mendel called the parent plants the P generation. He called the offspring from the parents the F 1 generation. F is from the Latin word, filial, which means son. When Mendel crossed pure pea plants with purple flowers with pure pea plants with white flowers, all the F 1 generation had purple flowers. P Generation F 1 Generation

10 F 2 Generation When he crossed the F 1 generation peas with one another, only some of the offspring had purple flowers. These formed the F 2 generation. Mendel found that in the F 2 generation, ¾ of the plants had purple flowers and ¼ of them had white flowers (3:1 ratio). F 1 Generation F 2 Generation

11 Review 1.Who was Gregory Mendel? 2.Why did he choose peas for his experiments? 3.What is heredity? 4.What is genetics? 5.What is a purebred plant? 6.What is the P generation? 7.What is the F 1 generation? 8.What is the F 2 generation?

12 3/6/12- Do-Now: -Take out and complete the Crossword Puzzle (on back of yesterdays Wordsearch) -Take out HW: Vocabulary Practice -Genetics Vocabulary Quiz tomorrow Study vocab, Vocab Practice handout, & Crossword!

13 3/6/12Take out Practice Vocab from yesterday Take out 1 Clean Sheet Title it Ch 11 Review Questions -P266, #1-6

14 Understanding Mendels Experiments

15 Dominant and Recessive Traits It seemed to Mendel, that for each characteristic in peas, one trait was stronger than the other. He called the stronger one, the dominant trait. He called the hidden one, the recessive trait.

16 Genes and Alleles The traits of peas (and yours) are controlled by factors that scientists call genes. You inherit your genes from your parents. The different forms of a gene are called alleles. You inherit a combination of two alleles from your parents.

17 Dominant and Recessive Traits in Peas For each of the 7 traits that Mendel studied in peas, there is a dominant allele and a recessive allele. If a plant inherits both a dominant allele and a recessive allele, the dominant allele masks the recessive allele.

18 Some Pea Traits that Mendel Studied

19 Understanding Mendels Experiments Part I 2 alleles for purple PP 1 allele for purple. 1 allele for white Pp 2 alleles for white pp

20 Understanding Mendels Experiment Part II 1 allele for purple 1 allele for white 2 alleles for purple PP 1 allele for purple 1 allele for white Pp 2 alleles for white pp Pp

21 Review 1.What did Mendel find to be the same with all 7 traits of the pea plant that he studied? 2.What are genes? 3. What are dominant alleles? 4.What are recessive alleles? 5.What happens if a pea plant inherits two dominant allele of the same gene? 6.What happens if a pea plant inherits a dominant allele and a recessive allele of the same gene? 7.What happens if the pea plant inherits two recessive alleles of the same gene?

22 Lesson 3 Probability and Genetics

23 Probability Probability is the likelihood that a particular event will occur. The laws of probability determine what is likely to occur, not what does occur. Mendel was the first scientist that applied the principles of probability to genetics.

24 Punnett Square Punnett square is a table that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result when two organisms cross. Using Punnett square, geneticists can predict the probability of occurrence of a particular trait. The allele that each parent will pass to its offspring is based on chance, just like tossing a coin.

25 Genotypes and Phenotypes Genotype: Indicates the alleles that the organism has inherited regarding a particular trait. Phenotype: The actual visible trait of the organism. Genotype Phenotype

26 Homozygous and Heterozygous Homozygous: An organism with two identical alleles for a trait (a purebred organism). Heterozygous: An organism that has two different alleles for a trait (a hybrid organism).

27 Codominance In codominance, the alleles are neither dominant, nor recessive. Neither allele is masked by the other. Roan Cow Is both white and red

28 Incomplete Dominance Occurs when one allele is not completely dominant over another The heterozygous phenotype is somewhere in between the two homozygous phenotypes. Ex.-Red flowering plant crossed with white flowering plant yields pink flowering offspring

29 Complete Dominance Occurs when one allele is completely dominant over another allele The offspring will look like the dominant allele. Ex.-Homozygous tall pea plants mated with short pea plants will yield a tall offspring.

30 3/6/12 Ch 11 Review Questions Take out 1 Clean Sheet Title it Ch 11 Review Questions -P266, #1-6 -p269, #1-5 -p274, #1-5

31 3/7/12- Get out Notes, Vocab Handout, & Probability Activity from yesterday. Do-Now: 1.What is probability? 2.What is the Punnett Square? How is it helpful to geneticists? 3.What is a genotype? 4.What is a phenotype? 5.What is a homozygous organism? 6.What is a heterozygous organism? 7.Explain codominance. 8. What is incomplete dominance? 9. Explain complete dominance.

32 10/3/11-You do NOT need your book. Do-Now: Copy the week 8 vocab list from the board.

33 Genetics Review heredityThe study of heredity. Gregor Mendel (1860s) principles geneticsbreeding garden peasGregor Mendel (1860s) discovered the fundamental principles of genetics by breeding garden peas.

34 Genetics AllelesAlleles genes. 1.Alternative forms of genes. 2. Homozygous alleles are exactly the same. Dominant alleles – capitalized 3.Dominant alleles – capitalized (TTtall pea plants (TT - tall pea plants) a. Homozygous dominant Recessive alleles - lowercase 4.Recessive alleles - lowercase tt dwarf pea plants (tt - dwarf pea plants) a. Homozygous recessive HeterozygousTttall pea plants 5.Heterozygous (different) (Tt - tall pea plants)

35 Phenotype Outward appearanceOutward appearance Physical characteristicsPhysical characteristics Examples:Examples: 1.tall pea plant 2.dwarf pea plant

36 Genotype Arrangement of genes that produces the phenotypeArrangement of genes that produces the phenotype Example:Example: 1.tall pea plant (homozygous dominant) TT = tall (homozygous dominant) 2.dwarf pea plant (homozygous recessive) tt = dwarf (homozygous recessive) 3.tall pea plant (heterozygous) Tt = tall (heterozygous)

37 Practice! Practice! Practice!!! In pea plants the Tall (T) allele is dominant over the dwarf (t) allele.

38 Practice! Practice! Practice!!! In pea plants the Tall (T) allele is dominant over the dwarf (t) allele. 1. What is the genotype of a homozygous tall plant?

39 Practice! Practice! Practice!!! In pea plants the Tall (T) allele is dominant over the dwarf (t) allele. 2. What is the genotype of a homozygous short plant?

40 Practice! Practice! Practice!!! In pea plants the Tall (T) allele is dominant over the dwarf (t) allele. 3. What is the genotype of a heterozygous tall plant?

41 Practice! Practice! Practice!!! In pea plants the Tall (T) allele is dominant over the dwarf (t) allele. 4. A plant has a genotype of Tt. What is its phenotype?

42 Practice! Practice! Practice!!! In pea plants the Tall (T) allele is dominant over the dwarf (t) allele. 5. A plant has a genotype of tt, what is its phenotype?

43 Practice! Practice! Practice!!! In pea plants the Tall (T) allele is dominant over the dwarf (t) allele. 6. What are the two alleles for the height of a pea plant?

44 Answers: 1. TT 2. tt 3. Tt 4. Tall 5. short 6. T (tall) and t (short)

45 3/8/12 Ch 11 Review Questions Take out 1 Clean Sheet Title it Ch 11 Review Questions -P266, #1-6 -p269, #1-5 -p274, #1-5

46 Punnett square Punnett square combinationsgametesA Punnett square is used to show the possible combinations of gametes.

47 P generation Breed the P generation tall (TT) (x) dwarf (tt) pea plantstall (TT) (x) dwarf (tt) pea plants t t TT

48 tall (TT) (x) dwarf (tt) pea plants t t TT Tt All Tt = tall (heterozygous tall) produces the F 1 generation

49 F 1 generation Breed the F 1 generation tall (Tt) (x) tall (Tt) pea plantstall (Tt) (x) tall (Tt) pea plants T t Tt

50 tall (Tt) (x) tall (Tt) pea plants TT Tt ttT t Tt produces the F 2 generation 1/4 (25%) = TT 1/2 (50%) = Tt 1/4 (25%) = tt 1:2:1 genotype 3:1 phenotype 3:1 phenotype

51 Monohybrid Cross single trait.A breeding experiment that tracks the inheritance of a single trait. Mendels principle of segregationMendels principle of segregation gamete (meiosis). a.pairs of genes separate during gamete formation (meiosis). gametes b.the fusion of gametes at fertilization pairs genes once again.

52 Monohybrid Cross ExampleheterozygotesExample:Cross between two heterozygotes for brown eyes (Bb) BB = brown eyes Bb = brown eyes bb = blue eyes B b Bb Bb x Bb male gametes female gametes

53 Monohybrid Cross BB Bb bbB b Bb Bb x Bb 1/4 = BB - brown eyed 1/2 = Bb - brown eyed 1/4 = bb - blue eyed 1:2:1 genotype 3:1 phenotype

54 3/8/12 Take out Punnett Square work from yesterday Take out 1 Clean Sheet Title it Ch 11 Review Questions -P266, #1-6 Write down what you did in your Do Now

55 Ch 11 Review Questions Take out 1 Clean Sheet Title it Ch 11 Review Questions -P266, #1-6 -p269, #1-5 -p274, #1-5

56 Practice! Practice! Practice!!!! In cocker spaniels black (B) is dominant to red (rust) (b). 1. What would be the phenotypic ratio of a cross between a true breeding black crossed with a true-breeding rust?

57 Step 1. Write the genotypes of the parents True breeding Black

58 Step 1. Write the genotypes of the parents True breeding Black BB

59 Step 1. Write the genotypes of the parents True breeding Black BB True breeding rust

60 Step 1. Write the genotypes of the parents True breeding Black - BB True breeding rust – bb

61 Step 2 – List the possible gametes from each parent BBbb BB bb

62 Step 3 Draw punnett square and place the gametes on the sides. BBbb BB b b B B bb

63 Step 4 Fill in the punnett square to find the possible zygotes BBbb BB b b B B bb B B B B b b b b

64 Step 5 Determine the genotypic and Phenotypic ratios BBbb BB b b B B bb B B B B b b b b Phenotype 100% Black Genotype 100% Bb

65 Review! Review!! Review!!!!! Step 5 Determine the genotypic and phenotypic ratios Step 4 Fill in the Punnett square to find the possible zygotes Step 3 Draw Punnett square and place the gametes on the sides. Step 2 – List the possible gametes from each parent Step 1. Write the genotypes of the parents

66 Practice! Practice! Practice!!!! In cocker spaniels black (B) is dominant to red (rust) (b). 2. What would be the phenotypic ratio of a heterozygous black and a true-breeding rust? 3. Two black cocker spaniels have eight puppies: 5 black and 3 red. What are the genotypes of the two parents?

67 Practice! Practice! Practice!!!! In dogs wire hair (W) is dominant to smooth (w) hair. 4. A true-breeding wire hair is crossed with a heterozygous wire hair. What will be the phenotypic ratio of the offspring? What percentage of puppies will be homozygous for wire hair?

68 Practice! Practice! Practice!!!! In dogs wire hair (W) is dominant to smooth (w) hair. 5. In a cross between a wire hair and a smooth hair 6 puppies were produced. 4 puppies had wire hair and two puppies had smooth hair. What were the genotypes of the parents?

69 Practice Problems Complete a Punnett Square for each of the following: T = tall plant t = short plant P = purple flowers p = white flowers 1.PP x pp 4. Pp x pp 2.Tt x TT5. tt x TT 3.Pp x PP 6. Tt x tt

70 Ch 11 Review Questions Take out 1 Clean Sheet Title it Ch 11 Review Questions -P266, #1-6 -p269, #1-5 -p274, #1-5

71 10/4/11-Set out your HW to be checked. You do NOT need your book. Do-Now: Complete the Genetics CW Puzzle.

72 3/13/12-Set your HW out to be checked. Do-Now: Complete the monohybrid cross. 1.GgxGg (Green seeds are dominant over yellow.) 2.A hybrid tall plant crossed with a pure bred short plant (Tall is dominant.) 3.A heterozygous brown haired man crossed with a blonde woman (Brown is dominant.) **Punnett Square Quiz tomorrow, Test Thursday

73 Dihybrid Cross two traits.A breeding experiment that tracks the inheritance of two traits. Mendels principle of independent assortmentMendels principle of independent assortment (metaphase I) -each pair of alleles segregates independently during gamete formation (metaphase I)

74 Dihybrid Cross Example:roundyellowExample:cross between round and yellow heterozygous pea seeds. R= round r= wrinkled Y= yellow y= green RY Ry rY ry RY Ry rY ry RY Ry rY ry x RY Ry rY ry possible gametes produced RrYyRrYy RrYy x RrYy

75 Dihybrid Cross RYRyrYry RYRy rY ry

76 RRYY RRYy RrYY RrYy RRYy RRyy RrYy Rryy RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy Round/Yellow: 9 Round/green: 3 wrinkled/Yellow: 3 wrinkled/green: 1 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio RYRyrYryRY Ry rY ry

77 3/14/12Take out HW #11-14 Create (monohybrid) Punnett squares for the following, assuming that red flowers are dominant over white flowers. 1.RRxrr 2.Homozygous red flowering plant crossed with a heterozygous flowering plant 3.Heterozygous flowering plant crossed with a white flowering plant 4.Homozygous dominant flowering plant crossed with a heterozygous dominant flowering plant

78 Incomplete Dominance F1 hybrids in betweenphenotypesF1 hybrids have an appearance somewhat in between the phenotypes of the two parental varieties. Example:snapdragons (flower)Example: snapdragons (flower) red (RR) x white (rr) RR = red flower rr = white flower r r RR

79 Incomplete Dominance Rr r r RR All Rr = pink (heterozygous pink) produces the F 1 generation

80 Codominance Two allelesmultiple alleles heterozygous individualsTwo alleles are expressed (multiple alleles) in heterozygous individuals. Example: bloodExample: blood 1.type A= I A I A or I A i 2.type B= I B I B or I B i 3.type AB= I A I B 4.type O= ii

81 Codominance Example:Example:homozygous male B (I B I B ) x heterozygous female A (I A i) IAIBIAIB IAIBIAIB IBiIBiIBiIBi 1/2 = I A I B 1/2 = I B i IAIA IBIB IBIB i

82 Codominance Example:Example: male O (ii) x female AB (I A I B ) IAiIAiIBiIBi IAiIAiIBiIBi 1/2 = I A i 1/2 = I B i i IAIA IBIB i

83 Codominance QuestionQuestion:If a boy has a blood type O and his sister has blood type AB, what are the genotypes and phenotypes of their parents. boy - type O (ii) X girl - type AB (I A I B )

84 Codominance Answer:Answer: IAIBIAIB ii Parents: genotypes genotypes = I A i and I B i phenotypes phenotypes = A and B IBIB IAIA i i

85 Ch 11 Review Questions Take out 1 Clean Sheet Title it Ch 11 Review Questions -P266, #1-6 -p269, #1-5 -p274, #1-5

86 3/15/12-Pass back ½ sheet. Do-Now: 1.Set out your HW to be checked 2.Complete the ½ sheet 3.Study over your Review Sheet.

87 10/6/11-Set out your HW to be checked. Do-Now: 1. Mendels nickname was _____. 2. Contrast complete, incomplete & codominance. List an example of each. 3. How are monohybrid & dihybrid crosses different?

88 10/6/11-Pick up your book. Do-Now: Diabetes is a recessive trait. It possible for two parents that do not have diabetes to have a child that does. Show a Punnett square (with all geno-/pheno- types) to prove it. Punnett Square Quiz, Video, Review Sheet TEST TOMORROW!!!!!!

89 3/16/12- Do-Now: Match the term to its meaning. 1.Cracy 2.Demos 3.Dia 4.Dis 5.Ego 6.Epi 7.Frater 8.Geo 9.Graph 10.Idem a.Same b.Rule c.Across/through d.Write/record e.People f.Not/apart g.Earth h.I/Self i.Upon/over j.brother

90 3/16/12- Do-Now: Copy AND answer the questions. 1.How do you think you did on the cell division test? 2.How long did you study for it (out of class)? 3.Did you fully complete the 2 review sheets? 4.What could YOU do to improve your grade? 5.What could I do to help you?

91 3/16/12- Do-Now: Match the term to its meaning. 1.Mortis 2.Nomen 3.Olig 4.Pater 5.Ped 6.Peri 7.Philo 8.Polis 9.Porto 10.Post a.Father b.foot c.death d.few e.name f.city g.after h.carry i.around j.love

92 Genetic Disorders & Mutations Vocabulary 1.Mutations 2.Frameshift mutations 3.Point mutation 4.Polyploidy 5.Selective breeding 6.Genetic engineering 7.Restriction enzyme 8.Gel electrophoresis 9.Recombinant DNA 10.Transgenic 11. Clone 12. sex-linked genes 13. Nondisjunction 14.DNA fingerprinting

93 Lesson 4 Chromosome Theory

94 What are Chromosomes Chromosomes are made of chromatin. Chromatin is found in the nucleus of cells and is made of about 40% DNA and 60% Protein. The DNA of a chromosome is a very long, double stranded fiber that extends unbroken through the entire length of the chromosome. The amount of information a chromosome contains would fill about 280 printed books of 1000 pages each. Chromosomes come in different sizes.

95 The Number of Chromosomes Most cells in different organisms have between 10 to 50 chromosomes in their nucleus. Humans have 46, which consists of 23 pairs. Each chromosome in a pair is nearly identical to the other chromosome in the pair. Humans that have even one missing or one extra chromosome usually die before birth or have serious defects. Down Syndrome happens when a person is born with an extra copy of chromosome number 21.

96 The Number of Chromosomes in Different Organisms Humans: 46 Dogs: 78 Silkworms: 56 Hamster: 44

97 DNA DNA was discovered in 1869 by a German chemist named Friedrich Miescher. In 1953, two scientists, James Watson and Francis Crick put together the information discovered by many scientists over the years and came up with the structure of the DNA molecule as a double helix. (helix means spiral)

98 The Structure of DNA The DNA molecule is made of smaller molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made of 3 smaller molecules: a sugar, a phosphate, a nitrogen base. There are 4 different nitrogen bases in a DNA molecule: 1.Adenine (A) 2.Guanine (G) 3.Cytosine (C) 4.Thymine (T)

99 Nitrogen Bases of the DNA Each nitrogen base of a DNA molecule forms a pair with only one other nitrogen base: Adenine (A) always pairs with Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) always pairs with Guanine (G)

100 Genes and DNA The sequence of 3 nucleotides on the DNA molecule code for the production of a specific amino acid, the building block of proteins. The genetic code is the same in almost all organisms. Humans have 60,000 genes. The chromosome theory states that when the DNA that makes up chromosomes is transferred from parents to offspring, the information encoded in the genes is also transferred. code for one amino acid

101 Review 1.What are chromosomes made of? 2.Explain the number of chromosomes in different organisms. 3.Why is a DNA molecule called a double helix? 4.What are nucleotides? 5.How do nitrogen bases in the DNA molecule pair up with each other? 6.What is a gene?

102 Protein Production

103 Proteins Proteins are the tools of heredity. Cells use the information in their DNA to produce particular proteins. Proteins affect what the cells will be like: You will have arms rather than fins. You will have two eyes rather than three. You will have hair rather than feathers.

104 Genes are Codes for Proteins The sequence of 3 nucleotides on the DNA molecule code for the production of a specific amino acid, the building block of proteins. Each three nucleotides code for one amino acid (protein building block) Hundreds or millions of these three-nucleotide codes make up a gene, that is the code for a specific protein. Nucleotide DNA

105 RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) One type of RNA is like the messenger that takes the genetic information from the DNA inside the nucleus to the Ribosome inside the cytoplasm. Proteins are made on ribosomes in the cytoplasm using information from RNA. There are three types of RNA.

106 Three types of RNA 1.mRNA (Messenger RNA): Get genetic information from the DNA and take it to the ribosome. On the ribosome, this information determines the types of amino acids that are needed to make proteins. 2.rRNA (Ribosomal RNA): The site where proteins are put together. Ribosomes are made mostly of rRNA. 3.tRNA (Transfer RNA): Carry specific amino acids to the ribosome where they are put together to make proteins.

107 Protein Production

108 10/21/10Do-Now Take out your review sheet answers to be checked. Red eyes (R) & short wings (S) are dominant over white eyes & long wings. Complete the Punnett squares showing geno-/ phenotypes. 1.Rr x Rr 2.SS x ss 3.RrSs x RRss Use any extra time to STUDY for your test!

109 Week 9 Vocab 1.Ideo-Idea 2.Idios-ones own 3.Im-not 4.Legis-law 5.Lexis-word 6.Liber-free/book 7.Locus-place 8.Mania-obsession 9.Meter-measure 10.Mitto-send

110 3/16/12- Take out EOCT p 7-8 Do-Now: COPY & ANSWER on a clean sheet of paper. 1.How do you think you did on the genetics test? 2.How long did you study outside of class? 3.Did you complete the review sheet? 4.What could YOU do to improve your grade? 5.What could we do to help you? **Write down what you did on your Do Now sheet*

111 3/16/12- Do-Now: Match the term to its meaning. 1.Mortis 2.Nomen 3.Olig 4.Pater 5.Ped 6.Peri 7.Philo 8.Polis 9.Porto 10.Post a.Father b.foot c.death d.few e.name f.city g.after h.carry i.around j.love

112 Week 11 Vocab 1.Pedo – child 2.Phobia – fear 3.Phon – sound 4.Photo – light 5.Plac – please 6.Plu – More 7.Pneuma – breath 8.Pop – people 9.Prim- first 10.Psych – mind/soul

113 Define the following 14 terms Mutations 2.Frameshift Mutations 3.Point Mutations 4.Polyploidy Selective Breeding Genetic Engineering 7. Restriction Enzyme 8. Gel Electrophoresis 9. Recombinant DNA Transgenic 11. Clone Sex-Linked Gene 13. Nondisjunction DNA Fingerprinting

114 T. H. Morgan determined that… Males are XY and females are XX Genes may be found on sex chromosomes…SEX LINKED Genes on an X chromosome are X-LINKED. Genes on a Y chromosome are Y-LINKED. Eye color in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) is X-Linked. Only male fruit flies have white eyes.

115 Sex-linked Traits sex chromosomesTraits (genes) located on the sex chromosomes Example:fruit fliesExample:fruit flies redwhite (red-eyed male) X (white-eyed female)

116 Sex-linked Traits Example:fruit fliesExample:fruit flies (red-eyed male) X (white-eyed female) Remember:Y chromosomeRemember: the Y chromosome in males does not carry traits. RR = red eyed Rr = red eyed rr = white eyed Xy = male XX = female XrXr XRXR y XrXr

117 Sex-linked Traits X R X r X r y 1/2 red eyed and female 1/2 white eyed and male XrXr XRXR y XrXr

118 Sex linked traits Examples of sex linked traits are 1. Blood clotting factor – this factor is located on the X chromosome and the dominant allele allows your blood to clot normally. The recessive form does not allow your blood to clot. Two recessive alleles causes the disease hemophilia. Boys are more likely to get the disease because they only have one X.

119 PEDIGREES are used to map out the inheritance patterns of a trait over several generations.

120 Queen Victoria European Royal Families and Hemophilia

121 3/19/12-Take out your Pedigree Handout from Friday (on back of Word Search). Do Now: Using p. 353, answer question #1 AND #3 (only) in your do-now section. You may choose to write the questions with your answers or word your answers into complete sentences. Work on Pedigree if you didnt

122 Read p. 252 about uncontrolled cell growth.

123 Hemophilia: A sex-linked disorder

124 2. Red-green color vision is another sex- linked trait. The dominant allele allows you to see reds and greens. The recessive allele prevents seeing red or green. Boys are most often affected because of having only 1 X chromosome.

125

126 Pedigree for Colorblindness, an X-linked Recessive Trait

127 3. DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY (MD)- weakens and destroys muscle tissue

128 Sex Influenced Traits Influenced by male or female sex hormones Baldness

129 10/25/10 Pick up your book & set out your vocab flashcards to be checked before the bell rings. Do-Now: Read p (ch. 14-2) quietly to yourself.

130 3/19/12-Pick up your book. Do Now: Set out your vocab & the pedigree wkst. to be checked. Using p. 353, answer question #1 AND #3 (only) in your do-now section. You may choose to write the questions with your answers or word your answers into complete sentences.

131 Read p. 252 about uncontrolled cell growth.

132 MUTATIONS GERM CELL MUTATIONS-occur in gametes, passed on to offspring without affecting parent SOMATIC MUTATIONS-occur in body cells, not usually passed on to offspring

133 TUMORS Develop from rapid, uncontrolled cell division –If they are BENIGN, they rarely pose a threat to life. –If they are MALIGNANT, they will destroy healthy tissues in the body (CANCER).

134 Cancer Types of cancer –CARCINOMAS-grow in skin & liner tissues of body (lung & breast cancer) –SARCOMAS-grow in muscle & bone –LYMPHOMAS-grow in tissues that form blood cells (leukemia)

135 Causes of cancer… 1. CARCINOGENS-any substance that increases the risk of cancer (tobacco, chemicals, Xrays, UV light) –MUTAGENS-agents that cause mutations to occur within a cell

136 2. ONCOGENES-a gene that causes cancer 3. VIRUSES-may have oncogenes or stimulate a cells oncogenes

137 LETHAL MUTATIONS cause death.

138 Read p Some of this is review for you. Answer #1AND #2 only in your classwork and homework section. Read p. 252 about uncontrolled cell growth.

139

140 10/12/11-PSAT Today If you are NOT taking the PSAT, take your seat. Before you leave today, you must turn in your Genetic Disorders & Genetic Technology Internet Activity Wksts. When you finish, any remaining time should be spent working on your Current Event Project.

141 3/20/12- Pass in any Genetic Disorders Internet Activities. Take out Hooded Murder Handout. Do-Now: 1.Contrast germ & somatic cell mutations. 2.Contrast benign & malignant tumors. 3.List & describe the three main types of cancer. 4.List 3 potential causes of cancer.

142 Read p Some of this is review for you. Answer #1AND #2 only in your classwork and homework section. Read p. 252 about uncontrolled cell growth.

143 Chromosome Mutations…ch. 12… 1. DELETION-part of the chromosome is lost because it has broken off (permanently deleted)

144 Chromosome Mutations, cont. 2. INVERSION-a piece of the chromosome breaks off and reattaches to the same chromosome in a flip-flopped position

145 Chromosome Mutations, cont. 3. TRANSLOCATION-a piece of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches to another NONHOMOLOGOUS chromosome

146 Chromosome Mutations, cont. 4. NONDISJUNCTION-failure of a chromosome to separate from its homologue during meiosis *one gamete will receive an extra copy of a chromosome while the other gamete will not have the chromosome at all *DOWN SYNDROME (TRISOMY 21)- results in an extra copy of the 21 st chromosome

147 Human Karyotype showing homologous chromosome pairs This individual has inherited three copies of chromosome 21 and has a condition called Down syndrome.

148 Nondisjunction, cont. KLINEFELTERS SYNDROME- (XXY)- feminine characteristics, mentally impaired, infertile TURNERS SYNDROME- (XO)- female appearance, no sexual maturity, infertile

149 Reading Assignment Read p Review p

150 Complete the following: P. 308 #1, 2, 4, 5 only P. 353 #2, 4 only Read p Some of this is review for you. Answer #1AND #2 only in your classwork and homework section. You may choose to write the questions & your answer OR write your answers using complete sentences. Read p. 252 about uncontrolled cell growth.

151 Read p Some of this is review for you. Answer #1AND #2 only in your classwork and homework section. Read p. 252 about uncontrolled cell growth.

152 Laptop Activity Complete the Genetic Disorders activity. When you have finished, shut down your laptop and return it to the TOP of the laptop cart. If you have nothing else to work on when you have finished with your assignment, PLEASE help me roll pennies!

153 3/21/12 Pass up Genetic Disorder or Genetic Technology Activities.. Do-Now: 1.When part of a chromosome has been broken off and is permanently lost, ___has occurred. 2.What is nondisjunction? List 3 disorders caused by nondisjunction. 3.When a piece of a chromosome breaks off, flips upside down, & reattaches to the same chromosome, ____ has occurred. 4.Define translocation.

154 Multiple Allele Traits- there are more than 2 alleles for each trait- so more phenotypes are possible Example: Blood type – Humans have 3 alleles A, B and O A person could have AA, AO, BB, B0, AB or OO as possible genotypes.

155 Possible Genotype Phenotype Produced AA Type A BB Type B AB Type AB AO Type A BO Type B OO Type O

156 AO X BO A B O A O B O O ABAO OO BO Phenotypes Type AB –25% Type A –25% Type B –25% Type O –25%

157 Polygenic or Multiple factors – many genes control one trait Example: skin color is controlled by 6 pairs of genes AA BB CC DD EE FF – would be the genotype of the darkest skin possible aa bb cc dd ee ff – would be the lightest skin Aa Bb cc DD Ee FF would be somewhere in between. \ It is possible to have all shades of skin from black to white Hair color and eye color are similar.

158 Fig , p. 186

159 Other Human Genetic Disorders Cystic fibrosis-(CF)-difficulties with breathing and digestion Sickle cell anemia -forms sickle shaped RBCs because of a defective protein called hemoglobin, leads to lack of O2 & circulatory problems

160 Fig , p. 183

161 HUNINGTONS DISEASE (HD)-forgetfulness, irritability, loss of muscle control, spasms, mental illness, death, a genetic marker has been identified

162 Pedigree for Huntingtons Disease, an Autosomal Dominant Trait

163 Reading Assignment Read p. 273 Review p

164 Complete the following: P. 308 #1, 2, 4, 5 only P. 353 #2, 4 only Read p Some of this is review for you. Answer #1AND #2 only in your classwork and homework section. You may choose to write the questions & your answer OR write your answers using complete sentences. Read p. 252 about uncontrolled cell growth.

165 10/28/10-Pick up your book. Do-Now: 1.What is a multiple allele trait? 2.What is a polygenic trait? 3.Blood type is an example of a ____ trait. 4.Would you get tested for Huntingtons disease now if you had a family history of it? Why or why not?

166 GENETIC SCREENING Examination of a persons genetic make-up –AMNIOCENTSIS-removes amniotic fluid to produce a karyotype –CHORIONIC VILLI SAMPLING- tissue sample from between the uterus and placenta to produce karyotype –Test for PKU (phenylketonuria)-body cant metabolize phenyalinine causing brain damage

167 DNA Technology & Genetic Engineering Used to improve –Agriculture-fertilizers, foods, crops –Medicine-pharmaceutical products and vaccines –Forensics-DNA FINGERPRINTING (the pattern of bands made up of specific fragments from an individuals DNA)

168 HUMAN GENOME PROJECT Determine the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome Map the location of every gene on each chromosome Hoped to improve diagnoses, treatments, and develop cures for about 4,000 human genetic disorders

169 GENE THERAPY-can be used to treat genetic disorders by introducing a gene into a cell or by correcting a gene defect GENETIC COUNSELING-form of medical guidance that informs parents about problems that could affect their offspring

170 Reading Assignment Read p &

171 What do you think? 1. What about the ethical issues of using the HGP? 2. Is cloning ethical? Stem cell research? 3. Could we be playing God? 4. Could health insurance companies deny policies for those programmed to get diseases?

172 Complete the following: P. 308 #1, 2, 4, 5 only P. 353 #2, 4 only Read p Some of this is review for you. Answer #1AND #2 only in your classwork and homework section. You may choose to write the questions & your answer OR write your answers using complete sentences. Read p. 252 about uncontrolled cell growth.

173 3/22/12- You need a pencil. Take out your review sheet/answers. Do-Now: 1.When cancerous cells break away from the tumor and spread throughout the body, __ has occurred. 2.By studying a __, a genetic counselor can study how a trait was inherited over several generations. 3.How is a mutagen different from a mutation? 4.Why is so much research being done on mitosis to find a cure for cancer? 5.A __ is a gene that may cause a cell to become cancerous.

174 3/23/12- Do-Now: Copy AND answer the questions on a clean piece of paper. 1.How do you think you did on the cell division test? 2.How long did you study for it (out of class)? 3.Did you fully complete the 2 review sheets? 4.What could YOU do to improve your grade? 5.What could I do to help you?

175 11/1/10-Pick up your book. Do-Now: 1.Contrast somatic & germ cell mutations. 2.A diagram that shows several generations of a family & the occurrence of a trait is a ___. 3.People with Down syndrome have __ chromosomes. How could a karyotype determine if someone has Down syndrome? 4.Do human clones exist? Why or why not? 5.Contrast benign & malignant tumor. CURRENT EVENT PROJECT DUE TOMORROW!!!!! A lack of planning on your part does not constitute an emergency on mine. It should be printed BEFORE you arrive & is due when the last bell rings.


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