Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Reconstruction1865-1877 16171819 2/3 of all wealth in Confederate states gone (much in the value of former slaves, $3 Billion) 40-50% of all."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 12 Reconstruction
2/3 of all wealth in Confederate states gone (much in the value of former slaves, $3 Billion) 40-50% of all livestock killed 50% of all farm machinery destroyed Infrastructure (roads, bridges, railroads, industry) in utter ruins
slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the United StatesNeither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Congressenforce The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
Total War 3
South after war 1
Aftermath of the War Reconstruction – Plan for rebuilding the South after the Civil War.
President Lincolns Plan 10% PLAN Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863) He didnt consult Congress regarding Reconstruction. Pardon to all When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized.
Aftermath of the War Freedmens Bureau – Gov. Agency given the task of feeding and clothing war refugees. The Bureau also helped formerly enslaved people find work on plantations, organized courts, and schools (4,000).
Remained loyal to the United States during the Civil War. Lincoln chose him as his VP to help with the Souths Reconstruction and to help win him re-election in Supported Lincolns Plan, but would be engaged in a power struggle with Congress over who would lead Reconstruction.
Johnsons Plan A pardon to all Southerners who take the loyalty oath. He believed in the 10% quota established by Lincoln. o Excluded former Confederate officers and the very wealthy from the pardon. When Congress returned from recess they found new members who had been pardoned by President Johnson. In 1866, Johnson attacked the Congressional Republicans Plan for Reconstruction, but they were elected to Congress by a 3 to 1 margin.
gentle Johnsons plan to readmit the South was considered too gentle. Amnesty: Presidential pardon Rebels sign an oath of allegianceRebels sign an oath of allegiance 10% of the population10% of the population Even high ranking Confederate officialsEven high ranking Confederate officials Write new state Constitutions approve the 13th Amendmentapprove the 13th Amendment reject secession and states rightsreject secession and states rights submit to U.S. Government authoritysubmit to U.S. Government authority No mention of: Education for freedmenEducation for freedmen Citizenship and voting rightsCitizenship and voting rights
gentle Johnsons plan to readmit the South was considered too gentle. Amnesty: Presidential pardon Rebels sign an oath of allegianceRebels sign an oath of allegiance 10% of the population10% of the population Even high ranking Confederate officialsEven high ranking Confederate officials Write new state Constitutions approve the 13th Amendmentapprove the 13th Amendment reject secession and states rightsreject secession and states rights submit to U.S. Government authoritysubmit to U.S. Government authority No mention of Education for freedmenEducation for freedmen Citizenship and voting rightsCitizenship and voting rights
13th Amendment Abolished slavery (1865) 14th Amendment Provided citizenship & equal protection under the law. (1868) 15th Amendment Provided the right to vote for all men which included white and black men. (1870) A victory for democracy! Giving the Black man the right to vote was truly revolutionary……..A victory for democracy!
No state shall make or enforce any law which deprives any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law equal protection of the lawsAll persons born in the U.S. are citizens of this country and the state they reside in. No state shall make or enforce any law which deprives any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person with its jurisdiction to the equal protection of the laws. Congress enforce The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
Women's rights supporters refused to support the 14th Amendment giving African American men citizenship unless women were added to it. Abolitionists would not support womens rights
Congressional Acts Military Reconstruction Act 1867 – Wiped out Johnsons Plan and split the South into 5 military districts under control of Union military generals. To prevent Johnson from interfering in Congressional business they passed 2 acts: 1. Command of the Army Act - Orders from the President had to go past General Grant. 2. Tenure in Office Act - Required Senate approval for removal of government appointed officials.
Military Reconstructi on Each number indicates the Military Districts
ASSIGNMENT…. Create a Frame comparing and contrasting the three plans for Reconstruction that we just talked about Be sure to fill in all areas of the Frame for a complete grade (ex. Dont leave the is about or so what sections blank!)
Plans compared Amnesty : Presidential pardonAmnesty : Presidential pardon oath of allegiance ---50% high ranking Confederate officials lose voting rights if you dont sign oath Write new state Constitutions:Write new state Constitutions: Ratify: 13, 14 & 15 Amendments reject secession and states rights submit to U.S. Government authority Help for Freedmen:Help for Freedmen: Freedmens Bureau for education 40 acres and a mule Divide the South into 5 military districts Reconstruction Act of 1867-(Harsh) Reconstruction Act of (Harsh)
Impeachment In 1868 Johnson fired one of his Cabinet members, and 3 days later the House of Representatives voted for impeachment, or high crimes committed by a person holding political office.
The Senate Trial After an 11 week trial Johnson was acquitted by a vote of (one short of required 2/3 vote).
ELECTION OF 1868 Election of 1868 – Johnson did not run for re-election which left Union general U.S. Grant as the Republican nominee for president Grant won easily as did Republicans in Congress Black Codes – In the South, they began passing laws which limited the rights of the newly freed African- Americans : needed licenses to work outside of agriculture, couldnt gather in groups after dark, couldnt live in cities, could be whipped for not working, hard enough.
Grant as President During Reconstruction many Northerners moved South to take positions in the government and to help the Freedmen. Carpetbaggers – Northern newcomers to the South seen as intruders trying to make profits Scalawags – White Southerners who worked with Republicans and supported Reconstruction African Americans began taking positions in Congressional seats and serving as representatives; called Black Republicanism by the Democrats
The Ku Klux Klan refers to a secret society or an inner circle Organized in 1867, in Pulaski, Tennessee by Nathan Bedford Forrest and other Confederate veterans. Represented the ghosts of dead Confederate soldiers Through violence and intimidation they disrupted Reconstruction as much as they could. The Ku Klux Klan refers to a secret society or an inner circle Organized in 1867, in Pulaski, Tennessee by Nathan Bedford Forrest and other Confederate veterans. Represented the ghosts of dead Confederate soldiers Through violence and intimidation they disrupted Reconstruction as much as they could.
The Invisible Empire of the South
0 to to to to or more Lynchings of Whites/Blacks
Spreading Terror The Ku Klux Klan Goals: Goals: The Klan sought to eliminate the Republican Party in the South by intimidating voters. They wanted to keep African Americans as submissive laborers. Methods: Methods: They planted burning crosses on the lawns of their victims and tortured, kidnapped, or murdered them.
Federal Response to the Klan The Federal Response President Grants own War On Terrorism. The Enforcement Act of 1870 banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting. Other laws banned the KKK and used the military to protect voters and voting places. However, As federal troops withdrew from the South, black suffrage all but ended due to the renewed activities of the KKK and other groups.
Grant as President Grant believed his job was to carry out the laws and leave the development of laws to Congress Grant easily won re-election to the Presidency in 1872, but scandals marred his 2 nd term.
Compromise of 1877 With Grants reputation damaged by the scandals, Republicans went with Rutherford B Hayes and the Democrats went with Samuel Tilden in the Presidential election of Rutherford B. Hayes Samuel Tilden
1876 Presidential Election
total electoral votes, need 185 to win Election Tilden did not receive enough electoral votes. Special Commission gives votes to Hayes. Hayes wins the election Democrats refuse to recognize Hayes as President 1876 Election Tilden did not receive enough electoral votes. Special Commission gives votes to Hayes. Hayes wins the election Democrats refuse to recognize Hayes as President * *Disputed Electoral votes
The election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 are referred to as the Corrupt Bargain. The Democrats and Republicans work out a deal to recognize Hayes as President In return, President Hayes must end Reconstruction and pull the Union troops out of the South. Once this happened, there was no protection for the Freedmen and the South regained power within their states and socially as much as possible go back to the way it was before the abolition of slavery. Rutherford B. Hayes Samuel Tilden
Hayes as President New South – a term used for the creation of a new industrially strong economy in the former Confederate states. Northern financers and powerful Southerners laid 40,000 miles of railroad tracks, built iron and steel factories, and made tobacco and cotton big business. Despite industrialization the South remained agrarian and African-Americans were stripped of political power and forced into unfair labor conditions
Sharecropping Blacks sign contracts to live on and work white landowners property. They paid their rent for the land they farmed and lived on the crops they produced.
Sharecroppers Advantages Part of a business venture Raised their social status Received 1/3 to 1/2 of crop when harvested Raised their self esteem Disadvantages Blacks stay in the South Some landowners refused to honor the contract Blacks poor and in debt A form of Economic slavery
social reality. After Reconstruction, 1865 to 1876, there were several ways that Southern states kept Blacks from voting and segregated, or separating people by the color of their skin in public facilities. Jim Crow laws, laws at the local and state level which segregated whites from blacks and kept African Americans as 2nd class citizens and barred them from voting through: Poll Taxes Literacy Tests Grandfather Clause
1.Corruption: Some Reconstruction legislatures & Grants administration symbolized corruption & poor government. 2.The economy: Reconstruction legislatures taxed and spent heavily, putting the southern states deeper into debt. 3.Violence: As federal troops withdrew from the South, some white Democrats used violence and intimidation to prevent freedmen from voting. This tactic allowed white Southerners to regain control of the state governments. 4.The Democrats return to power: The pardoned ex- Confederates combined with other white Southerners to form a new bloc of Democratic voters known as the Solid South. They blocked Reconstruction policies. 5.The Country: The Civil War was over and many Americans wanted to return to what the country was doing before the war. Five main factors that contributed to the end of Reconstruction.
Successes and Failures of Reconstruction SUCCESSESFAILURES Union is restored. Many white southerners bitter towards U.S. & Republicans. Souths economy grows and new wealth is created in the North. The South is slow to industrialize. 14 th and 15 th amendments guarantee Blacks citizenship, equal protection, and suffrage. After US troops are withdrawn, southern state governments and terrorist organizations effectively deny Blacks the right to vote. Freedmens Bureau and other organizations help many black families obtain housing, jobs, and schooling. Many black and white southerners remain caught in a cycle of poverty. Southern states adopt a system of mandatory education. Racist attitudes toward African Americans continue, in both the South and the North.