240-50% of all livestock killed 50% of all farm machinery destroyed The South Destroyed2/3 of all wealth in Confederate states gone (much in the value of former slaves, $3 Billion)40-50% of all livestock killed50% of all farm machinery destroyedInfrastructure (roads, bridges, railroads, industry) in utter ruins
313th AMENDMENT Slavery Abolished “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
8Aftermath of the WarReconstruction – Plan for rebuilding the South after the Civil War.
9President Lincoln’s Plan Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863)He didn’t consult Congress regarding Reconstruction.Pardon to allWhen 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized.
10Aftermath of the WarFreedmen’s Bureau – Gov. Agency given the task of feeding and clothing war refugees.The Bureau also helped formerly enslaved people find work on plantations, organized courts, and schools (4,000).
13PRESIDENT ANDREW JOHNSON Remained loyal to the United States during the Civil War.Lincoln chose him as his VP to help with the South’s Reconstruction and to help win him re-election in 1864.Supported Lincoln’s Plan, but would be engaged in a power struggle with Congress over who would lead Reconstruction.
14Johnson’s PlanA pardon to all Southerners who take the loyalty oath. He believed in the 10% quotaestablished by Lincoln.Excluded former Confederate officers and the very wealthy from the pardon.When Congress returned from recess they found new members who had been pardoned by President Johnson.In 1866, Johnson attacked the Congressional Republicans’ Plan for Reconstruction, but they were elected to Congress by a 3 to 1 margin.
15PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION Johnson’s plan to readmit the South was considered too gentle.Amnesty: Presidential pardonRebels sign an oath of allegiance10% of the populationEven high ranking Confederate officialsWrite new state Constitutionsapprove the 13th Amendmentreject secession and state’s rightssubmit to U.S. Government authorityNo mention of:Education for freedmenCitizenship and voting rights
16PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION Johnson’s plan to readmit the South was considered too gentle.Amnesty: Presidential pardonRebels sign an oath of allegiance10% of the populationEven high ranking Confederate officialsWrite new state Constitutionsapprove the 13th Amendmentreject secession and state’s rightssubmit to U.S. Government authorityNo mention ofEducation for freedmenCitizenship and voting rights
1713th Amendment Abolished slavery (1865) CIVIL WAR AMENDMENTS13th Amendment Abolished slavery (1865)14th Amendment Provided citizenship & equal protection under the law. (1868)15th Amendment Provided the right to vote for all men which included white and black men. (1870)Giving the Black man the right to vote was truly revolutionary……..A victory for democracy!
1814th AMENDMENT Rights of Citizens “All persons born in the U.S. are citizens of this country and the state they reside in. No state shall make or enforce any law which deprives any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person with its jurisdiction to the equal protection of the laws.”The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
19Women's’ rights supporters refused to support the 14th Amendment giving African American men citizenship unless women were added to it.Abolitionists would not support women’s rights
20Congressional ActsMilitary Reconstruction Act 1867 – Wiped out Johnson’s Plan and split the South into 5 military districts under control of Union military generals.To prevent Johnson from interfering in Congressional business they passed 2 acts:Command of the Army Act -Orders from the President had to go past General Grant.Tenure in Office Act -Required Senate approval for removal of government appointed officials.
21Military Reconstruction Each number indicates the Military Districts
22ASSIGNMENT….Create a Frame comparing and contrasting the three plans for Reconstruction that we just talked aboutBe sure to fill in all areas of the Frame for a complete grade (ex. Don’t leave the “is about” or “so what” sections blank!)
23Amnesty : Presidential pardon Write new state Constitutions: Plans comparedCONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTIONReconstruction Act of (Harsh)Amnesty : Presidential pardonoath of allegiance ---50%high ranking Confederate officialslose voting rights if you don’t sign oathWrite new state Constitutions:Ratify: 13, 14 & 15 Amendmentsreject secession and state’s rightssubmit to U.S. Government authorityHelp for Freedmen:Freedmen’s Bureau for education40 acres and a muleDivide the South into 5 military districts
24ImpeachmentIn 1868 Johnson fired one of his Cabinet members, and 3 days later the House of Representatives voted for impeachment, or “high crimes” committed by a person holding political office.
25The Senate TrialAfter an 11 week trial Johnson was acquitted by a vote of (one short of required 2/3 vote).
26ELECTION OF 1868Election of 1868 – Johnson did not run for re-election which left Union general U.S. Grant as the Republican nominee for presidentGrant won easily as did Republicans in CongressBlack Codes – In the South, they began passing laws which limited the rights of the newly freed African- Americans: needed licenses to work outside of agriculture, couldn’t gather in groups after dark, couldn’t live in cities, could be whipped for not working, “hard enough.”
27Grant as President During Reconstruction many Northerners moved South to take positions in thegovernment and to help the Freedmen.Carpetbaggers – Northern newcomers to the South seen as intruders trying to make profitsScalawags – White Southerners who worked with Republicans and supported ReconstructionAfrican Americans began taking positions in Congressional seats and serving as representatives; called “Black Republicanism” by the Democrats
28K K K The Ku Klux Klan refers to a secret society or an inner circle Organized in 1867, in Pulaski, Tennessee by Nathan Bedford Forrest and other Confederate veterans.Represented the ghosts of dead Confederate soldiersThrough violence and intimidation they disrupted Reconstruction as much as they could.
30Lynchings of Whites/Blacks 0 to 2020 to 6060 to 100100 to 200200 or more
31Spreading Terror K K K The Ku Klux Klan Goals: The Klan sought to eliminate the Republican Party in the South by intimidating voters.They wanted to keep African Americans as submissive laborers.Methods: They planted burning crosses on the lawns of their victims and tortured, kidnapped, or murdered them.
32Federal Response to the Klan The Federal ResponsePresident Grant’s own “War On Terrorism.”The Enforcement Act of 1870 banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting.Other laws banned the KKK and used the military to protect voters and voting places.However, As federal troops withdrew from the South, black suffrage all but ended due to the renewed activities of the KKK and other groups.
33Grant as PresidentGrant believed his job was to carry out the laws and leave the development of laws to CongressGrant easily won re-election to the Presidency in 1872, but scandals marred his 2nd term.
34Compromise of 1877With Grant’s reputation damaged by the scandals, Republicans went with Rutherford B Hayes and the Democrats went with Samuel Tilden in the Presidential election of 1876.vsRutherford B. Hayes Samuel Tilden
361876 Election Tilden did not receive enough electoral votes. Special Commission gives votes to Hayes.Hayes wins the electionDemocrats refuse to recognize Hayes as President**Disputed Electoral votes164369 total electoral votes, need 185 to win.
37CORRUPT BARGAIN vs Rutherford B. Hayes Samuel Tilden The election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 are referred to as the “Corrupt Bargain.”The Democrats and Republicans work out a deal to recognize Hayes as PresidentIn return, President Hayes must end Reconstruction and pull the Union troops out of the South.Once this happened, there was no protection for the Freedmen and the South regained power within their states and socially as much as possible go back to the way it was before the abolition of slavery.
38Hayes as President“New South” – a term used for the creation of a new industrially strong economy in the former Confederate states.Northern financers and powerful Southerners laid 40,000 miles of railroad tracks, built iron and steel factories, and made tobacco and cotton big business.Despite industrialization the South remained agrarian and African-Americans were stripped of political power and forced into unfair labor conditions
39Sharecropping Sharecropping Blacks sign contracts to live on and work white landowners property. They paid their rent for the land they farmed and lived on the crops they produced.
40Advantages Disadvantages SHARECROPPINGAdvantagesPart of a business ventureRaised their social statusReceived 1/3 to 1/2 of crop when harvestedRaised their self esteemDisadvantagesBlacks stay in the SouthSome landowners refused to honor the contractBlacks poor and in debtA form of Economic slaverySharecroppers
42social realitySEGREGATIONAfter Reconstruction, 1865 to 1876, there were several ways that Southern states kept Blacks from voting and segregated, or separating people by the color of their skin in public facilities. Jim Crow laws, laws at the local and state level which segregated whites from blacks and kept African Americans as 2nd class citizens and barred them from voting through:Poll TaxesLiteracy TestsGrandfather Clause
44Five main factors that contributed to the end of Reconstruction. Corruption: Some Reconstruction legislatures & Grant’s administration symbolized corruption & poor government.The economy: Reconstruction legislatures taxed and spent heavily, putting the southern states deeper into debt.Violence: As federal troops withdrew from the South, some white Democrats used violence and intimidation to prevent freedmen from voting. This tactic allowed white Southerners to regain control of the state governments.The Democrats’ return to power: The pardoned ex-Confederates combined with other white Southerners to form a new bloc of Democratic voters known as the Solid South. They blocked Reconstruction policies.The Country: The Civil War was over and many Americans wanted to return to what the country was doing before the war.
45Successes and Failures of Reconstruction Union is restored.Many white southerners bitter towards U.S. & Republicans.South’s economy grows and new wealth is created in the North.The South is slow to industrialize.14th and 15th amendments guarantee Blacks citizenship, equal protection, and suffrage.After US troops are withdrawn, southern state governments and terrorist organizations effectively deny Blacks the right to vote.Freedmen’s Bureau and other organizations help many black families obtain housing, jobs, and schooling.Many black and white southerners remain caught in a cycle of poverty.Southern states adopt a system of mandatory education.Racist attitudes toward African Americans continue, in both the South and the North.