Presentation on theme: "U.S. Department of Education Understanding Bullying Kevin Jennings Assistant Deputy Secretary Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools Department of Education."— Presentation transcript:
U.S. Department of Education Understanding Bullying Kevin Jennings Assistant Deputy Secretary Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools Department of Education Cyberbullying March 30, 2011
Many Students Experience Bullying Percentage of students ages 12-18 who reported being bullied at school and being cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year: 2007 Source: Indicators of Crime and School Safety, 2008
Rivers, I., Poteat, V.P., Noret, N., Ashurt, N. (2009). Observing Bullying at School: The Mental Health Implication of Witness Status. School Psychology Quarterly. 24:4, 211-223.
Participant Roles Bully What Characterizes a Bully? High rates of externalizing behavior - Having behaviors consistent with ADD, ADHD, Oppositional/Defiant Disorder, or Conduct Disorder - Being Highly Aggressive Having negative perceptions of others: people unlike themselves Cook, C. R., Williams, K.R., Guerra, N.G., Kim, T.E.m & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25(2), 65-83.
Participant Roles Victim What Characterizes a Victim? Low Social Competence -Lack basic social skills - Unable to easily make friends Peer Rejection Cook, C. R., Williams, K.R., Guerra, N.G., Kim, T.E.m & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25(2), 65-83.
Participant Roles BullyVictim What Characterizes a Bully-Victim? A bully-victim is someone who is both the perpetrator and the target of bullying behavior Bully-victims show similarly low- levels of social competency as only- victims. Bully-victims are more easily influenced by their peers than only- victims. Cook, C. R., Williams, K.R., Guerra, N.G., Kim, T.E.m & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25(2), 65-83.
Assistants Reinforcers OutsidersDefenders Rivers, I., Poteat, V.P., Noret, N., Ashurt, N. (2009). Observing Bullying at School: The Mental Health Implication of Witness Status. School Psychology Quarterly. 24:4, 211-223. Witnesses Role of Bystanders in Instances of Bullying
Middle School is the Worst Period 42.9 Source: Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2008
Prevalence of Bullying Behaviors and the Roles of Gender Source: Wang, 2009
Some Groups are Singled Out for Harassment Question: At your school, how often are students bullied, called names or harassed for the following reasons? Source: From Teasing to Torment: School Climate in America 2005
Peer Intervention Works, but Isnt Common Of bullying episodes in which peers intervened, 57% of the interventions were effective (i.e., the bullying stopped within 10 seconds). Peers intervene in only 11-19% of all bullying incidents. Source: Hawkins, Pepler and Craig 2001
Petrosino, A., Guckenburg, S., DeVoe, J. and Hanson, T. (2010). What characteristics of bullying, bullying victims, and schools are associated with increased reporting of bullying to school officials? (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2010- No.092). Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Education Laboratory Northeast and Islands. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs.
Every School Should… Help to educate faculty, staff & parents about bullying Have a clear policy against bullying behaviors, and communicate this policy early and often to students, staff, and parents Train all staff who interact with students (including bus drivers, school resource officers, school nurses, and cafeteria workers) on how to recognize bullying behaviors and intervene effectively to stop them Ensure that all staff members take immediate action when bullying is observed. Gather data to assess bullying, the level of staff commitment to address bullying, and parent interest and concerns.
Every Teacher Should… Initiate discussion with students and parents about expected behavior before problems arise Closely supervise your students and be watchful for possible signs of bullying among students in your classes (sudden changes in behavior, etc) Take immediate action if you observe or suspect bullyingIntegrate bullying prevention into your curriculum in age-appropriate ways Remember that actions sometimes speak louder than words, and be sure that you don't inadvertently model bullying behavior
Every Student Should… Speak up! Step in when other students are being bullied or tell a teacher what is going on Make it clear to others that bullying is not okay. Support bullied students – make them feel like they are not alone Help teachers and administrators know what is going on. Work with them to find solutions. Source: HRSA Stop Bullying Now!
Every Parent Should… Focus on their child. Be supportive and gather information about the bullying. Dont assume they will tell you. Believe them if they do. Utilize resources such as HRSAs Stop Bullying Now! Campaign and bullyinginfo.org to become informed about bullying and bullying prevention Work with the staff at school to find a solution to stop the bullying, for the sake of your child as well as other students. Get your child out of there if you are not convinced the school will take needed action. Source: HRSA Stop Bullying Now!
Sexting is Common Percentage of teens sending or posting sexually suggestive messages (text, email, IM) Source: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy.
Peer Pressure? Percentage of teens who said pressure from a member of the opposite sex is a reason to send sexy messages or images Source: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy.
Vegas Syndrome 61% of teens strongly and somewhat agree that People my age are more forward/aggressive using sexy messages and pictures/video than they are in real life Source: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy.
Every Parent Should… Talk to your kids about what they are doing in cyberspace. Know who your kids are communicating with. Consider limitations on electronic communication. Be aware of what your teens are posting publicly. Set expectations. Source: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy.
In a Truly Safe School Every Student Feels Like… They Belong. They are Valued. They Feel Physically and Emotionally Safe.
Safe and Supportive Schools (s3) Model: A New Approach to K-12 School Safety Draft s3 Model. Please do not circulate without consent from the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. Please contact Kristen Harper (firstname.lastname@example.org) with questions or concerns. s3 model Engagement Relationships Respect for Diversity School Participation Safety Emotional Safety Physical Safety Substance Use Environment Physical Environment Academic Environment Wellness Disciplinary Environment
SASD Document Bullying behavior can be: 1. Physical (e.g. assault, hitting or punching, kicking, theft) 2. Verbal (e.g. threatening or intimidating language, teasing or name calling, racist remarks) 3. Indirect (e.g. spreading cruel rumors, intimidation through gestures, social exclusion and sending insulting messages or pictures by mobile phone or using the internet also known as cyber bullying) 4. Between students and students, students and adults, or adults and adults.
Pheobe Prince 10 th Grade South Hadley, MA 1994 – January 2010 Death by hanging Carl Joseph Walker Hoover 6 th Grade Springfield, MA 1998 – April 2009 Death by hanging Christian Taylor 9 th Grade Yorktown, VA 1994 – May 2010 Death by hanging Tyler Clementi College Freshman Ridgewood, NJ 1992 – September 2010 Jumped off the George Washington Bridge Ty Field 6 th Grade Perkins, OK 1998 – May 2010 Death by gunshot Scott Walz Johnsburg, IL 1991 – May 2010 Death by hanging Justin Aaberg 10 th Grade Anoka, MN 1995 – July 2010 Death by hanging Hope Witsell 8 th Grade Ruskin, FL 1996 – September 2009 Death by hanging
Keep in Touch! Kevin.Jennings@Ed.gov 202-245-7830