2Randy Bermke Welcome Electrical Maintenance Manager Alliant Energy – Edgewater generating stationB.S.E.E. from UW-PlattevilleRegistered Professional Engineer with the State of WisconsinMember of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)20 + years experience in the power generation field
3Overview Types of power generating technologies Wind power overview Steam cycle power plant overview (Coal)Power transmission overview (Generating plant to your house)Cost of energy usage. * (Hint: May need this in the near future)QuestionsBasic electrical theoryCareer fields at Alliant EnergyPlease feel free to ask questions.
4Types of power generating plants. Steam turbine – Generator (Steam supplied via a boiler)Coal firedNuclear poweredNatural gas firedOil firedCombustion Turbine – GeneratorRenewable powerHydroelectric damsWind turbinesSolarGeothermalBiofuels (switchgrass, wood byproducts, etc.)
5Renewable Energy– Wind power One of the fastest growing and most visible forms of renewable energy today.Varity of capacity ranges – Typical utility size 1 to 3 Megawatts each unit“Fuel” is emission freeMajor parts of a wind farmWind TurbineTowerNacelle – Housing at the top of the towerGeneratorGear box – connects blade assembly to the generatorAuxiliary systems – lube oil, control system, etc.Blade assembly – Blades, Hub, Blade actuators.Underground distribution system – Connects the wind turbines to the substation.Substation – Connects underground distribution to the transmission grid
6Renewable Energy– Wind power Alliant Energy’s Wisconsin wind facilityCedar Ridge wind farmSouth of Fond Du Lac – Town of Eden41 Vestas wind turbines1.65 MW per turbineTotal site capacity of 68 MWTurbines are spread over a 12.2 square mile area
7Renewable Energy– Wind power Example of wind power generation at Cedar Ridge
8Edgewater Generating Station (Coal) The Edgewater generating station is a coal fired power plant with 3 units.Units #1 and #2 have been retired and removed.Unit #3 is a 1950’s vintage unit with an output rating of approximately 60 Megawatts.Unit #4 is a late 1960’s vintage unit with an output rating of approximately 340 Megawatts.Unit #5 is a mid 1980’s vintage unit with an output rating of approximately 400 Megawatts.
9Simplified steam cycle power plant Facilitator: Walk them through the diagram.Example:Fuel is burned in a boiler to turn water into steam. Under high pressure, the steam turns the blades of a turbine that spins a generator, producing electricity.
10The First law of thermodynamics: The power production cycle is governed by 2 very important laws of physics. Both are based upon the laws of conservation of mass and conservation of energy.The First law of thermodynamics:This basically states that energy can be changed from one form to another but it is neither created or destroyed. The total amount of energy is a constant.Facilitator: Walk them through the diagram.Example:Fuel is burned in a boiler to turn water into steam. Under high pressure, the steam turns the blades of a turbine that spins a generator, producing electricity.
11The Second law of Thermodynamics: This law effectively says that a system operating in a cycle (like below) cannot completely convert all of the heat energy into work (Electrical power). Example the heat rejected to the condenser.Facilitator: Walk them through the diagram.Example:Fuel is burned in a boiler to turn water into steam. Under high pressure, the steam turns the blades of a turbine that spins a generator, producing electricity.
12Edgewater Generating Station Fuel Example coal analysis (By weight) for Edgewater Unit #5Carbon %Hydrogen (H2) 4.6 %Nitrogen (N2) %Sulfur (S) %Ash %Oxygen (O2) 7.8%Moisture %Total: 100%The heating valve of the coal is approximately 8400 Btu/Lb.A BTU is the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at one atmosphere of pressure.At full load (400 MW) Edgewater #5 will use about 230 Tons of coal per hour!Edge 5 at full load 230 tons per hour
13The simplest type of generator has two main components: a rotating magnet called the "rotor," which turns inside stationary coils of copper wire called the "stator." When the rotor rotates through the magnetic field, it generates a flow of current through the copper coils of the stator.Generating plants must use some form of energy or fuel to turn the rotor. Most electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels—coal, natural gas, and, to a much lesser extent, fuel oil.
17Delivering the energyElectricity is produced at a generating station (as previously shown).As it leaves the generator it’s voltage is increased. This voltage is anywhere from 69,000 volts to 765,000 volts depending on the transmission system.From there it is sent over high voltage transmission lines.From the transformers, electricity enters the transmission system.Transmission lines, which consist of heavy cables strung between tall towers, carry electricity to the point where it is needed.Electricity travels at nearly the speed of light, arriving at a destination at almost the same moment it is produced.
18Delivering the energy continued… At the end of the transmission lines, the high voltage electricity is lowered at a substation to distribution voltages (Example: 7,200 to 12,500 volts).The electricity then “flows” at the distribution voltage to a power pole by the customers home. There it is lowered one more time to a usable voltage, typically 120 / 240 volt for homes.From the transformers, electricity enters the transmission system.Transmission lines, which consist of heavy cables strung between tall towers, carry electricity to the point where it is needed.Electricity travels at nearly the speed of light, arriving at a destination at almost the same moment it is produced.
19Facilitator: Summarize by walking them through the diagram.
20Electrical “Energy” is a rate of electrical usage (Watts) multiplied by a period of time (Hours). Customers are billed based upon their energy usage.This is typically measured in Killowatt-hours.
21Measuring electricity in kilowatt hours Kilowatt-hours (Wh ÷ 1000 = kWh)1,000 watt-hours is a kilowatt-hour (kWh).Convert 300,000 watt-hours to kWh.Answer: 300,000 / 1,000 = 300 kWhIf the utility charges 11 cents per kWh, what is the cost of 300kWhs of electricity?Answer: 300 x 0.11 = $33
22Electric usage “story problem” It was very hot in July and you ran your air-conditioner 8 hours everyday of the month (31 days) Your air-conditioner was 3500 watts and your utility charges 11 cents per kWh. How much did it cost you in July to run your air-conditioner?Remember:Watts / 1000 = kW andkW x Time x electric rate ($.11) = $’s3.5 x 8 hours = 28 kWh per day28 kWh x 31 days = 868 kWh868 kWh x $.11 = $95.48 totalFacilitator: stop here for plant tour3.5 kW * 8 Hours * 31 days * 0.11 per kWhr = ?$95.48
24Common Electrical Terms Volt (E or V) - The unit of electromotive force, electrical pressure, or difference of potentialVolts = Watts ÷ Amps V = W ÷ IAmpere (I) - The basic unit measuring the quantity of electricity or unit of current flowAmps = Watts ÷ Volts I = W ÷ VWatt (P or W) - The unit of electrical power. Watts is a product of amps x voltsWatts = Volts x Amps P = E x IOhm (“Omega” Ω or R) – The measure of resistance in an electrical circuit.
25Ohm's law pi chartP = Power in WattsE = Voltage in VoltsI = Current in AmpsR = Resistance in Ohms
26Why do we use high voltage for long distance transmission lines? Example:We want to provide 1 megawatt (1 million watts) of power from Sheboygan to Fond du lac (distance of 45 miles). The transmission line has a resistance of .168 ohms per mile of conductor.So:P (Power) = 1,000,000 wattsD (Distance) = 45 MilesR (conductor) = .168 Ohm’s per mileR (transmission line) = D X R = 45 miles X .168 Ohm’s per mile = 7.56 Ohm’s
27Why do we use high voltage for long distance transmission lines? Option #1:Assume V = 22,000 volts (This is the voltage Edgewater #5 generates at)Using Ohm’s law:I = Power (Watts) / Voltage (Volts) = 1,000,000 watts / 22,000 Volts = AmpsFrom this we can calculate the power “lost” in the transmission line.Power = I^2 * R = (45.45)^2 * 7.56 Ohms = 15,616 wattsWhich is approximately 1.5 % of the total 1 Megawatt load.Option #2:Assume V = 345,000 voltsI = Power (Watts) / Voltage (Volts) = 1,000,000 watts / 345,000 Volts = 2.9 AmpsPower = I^2 * R = (2.9)^2 * 7.56 Ohms = 63 wattsWhich is approximately .006 % of the total 1 Megawatt load.
28Why do we use high voltage for long distance transmission lines? Answer:To minimize the amount of transmission line losses.
29Question:What is the large white “plume” that exits the stacks?Remember the coal analysis:Carbon %Hydrogen (H2) 4.6 %Nitrogen (N2) %Sulfur (S) %Ash %Oxygen (O2) 7.8%Moisture %Total: 100%Answer:Moisture !!!Our coal contains almost 25 % moisture by weight.As the moisture in the flue gas cools as it leaves the stack, it condenses into a visible plume.This is the same as seeing your breath on a cold winter day!Edge 5 at full load 230 tons per hour
30Let’s take a look at a 400 MW steam turbine – generator. If you wanted to use a diesel engine to replace the steam turbine, how big of an engine would you need (Horsepower)?400 MW’s = 400,000 Kilowatts = 400,000,000 watts1 Horsepower = 746 watts400,000,000 watts / (746 watts / HP) = 536,193 HP
32Where are Alliant Energy’s Customers? Who is Alliant Energy?Serve over 1 million electric and over 500,000 natural gas customersHeadquartered in Madison, WI with Corporate Offices inCedar Rapids and Dubuque, IA- Nearly 5,000 employees15 power plantsWhere are Alliant Energy’s Customers?IowaWisconsinSouthern Minnesota
33Getting started Education Requirements: Job Skills: Many positions require the minimum of a high school diploma or GED, and a clean driving recordSome highly specialized areas require training at a community college, while others like engineers require a 4-year degreeJob Skills:Course work in math, science, and technologyA curiosity about how things work and how to solve problemsThe ability to safely operate equipment and use safety gearA cooperative attitudeStrong listening skills and the ability to understand and meet customer needsOther important items:A positive safety attitude. Our actions not only affect our own safety but the safety of our fellow employees and the public.Initial drug and alcohol testing as well as random testing during employment.
34What are the most common plant jobs? Maintenance Technician and Equipment OperatorIf you enjoy working with your hands, have good hand-eye coordination, like solving problems, and are comfortable using math, these jobs may interest you.High school courses in electronics, algebra, trigonometry, and physicsCommunity college coursework in electro-mechanical technology/weldingRelated work experienceTalk to your guidance counselorPaid apprenticeshipStarting hourly wage of $26Advancement opportunities
35What does an engineer do? An engineer uses scientific and mathematical knowledge to solve problems. There are many types of engineers, and all require a four-year degree. You must select the type of engineering you want to go into when you enter college.Mechanical EngineerElectrical EngineerCivil EngineerChemical EngineerStarting salary of $55,000Advancement opportunities
36Other Careers at Alliant Energy Information TechnologyAccountingFinanceCommunicationEnvironmentSafetySupply Chain
37Get into energy & be part of a high-tech, high-growth industry! Check out the Get Into Energy website, where you can find career profiles, watch videos, take skills tests, and learn more about careers in the energy field.Get Into Energy!