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1 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Introductory Psychology Lectures A series of PowerPoint lectures to accompany the introductory psychology textbooks offered by Worth publishers Editor: Harvey G. Shulman, Ph.D. Subcortical Structures Joe Williams The Ohio State University Department of Psychology
2 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Subcortical Brain Structures zSubcortical - underneath the cortex yhypothalamus and pituitary ybasal ganglia ylimbic system yhindbrain and brainstem structures
3 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Hindbrain Structures zCerebellum zBrainstem ymedulla yreticular formation ypons
4 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Cerebellum zCoordinated, rapid voluntary movements ye.g., playing the piano, kicking, throwing, etc. zLesions to cerebellum yjerky, exaggerated movements ydifficulty walking y loss of balance y shaking hands
5 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Medulla zBreathing zHeart rate zDigestion zOther vital reflexes yswallowing ycoughing yvomiting ysneezing
6 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Reticular Formation zNetwork of neurons in the brainstem (and thalamus) zSleep and arousal zAttention
7 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Pons zHelps coordinate movements on left and right sides of the body ye.g., postural reflexes which help you maintain balance while standing or moving
8 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Thalamus zRelay station in brain zProcesses most information to and from higher brain centers
9 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. The Limbic System zHypothalamus zAmygdala zHippocampus
10 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Hypothalamus zContains nuclei involved in a variety of behaviors y sexual behavior yhunger, thirst ysleep ywater and salt balance ybody temperature regulation ycircadian rhythms yrole in hormone secretion
11 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Hypothalamus and Hunger zDamage to the ventromedial hypothalamus leads to overeating
12 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Hypothalamus and Hormones zHypothalamus releases hormones or releasing factors which in turn cause pituitary gland to release its hormones
13 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Amygdala zInputs come from all senses zAmygdala reads emotional significance of inputs zOutput influences such functions as heart rate, adrenaline release
14 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Amygdala and Emotion zIdentify emotion from facial expressions z Amygdala damage makes this task difficult
15 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Hippocampus zImportant in forming new memories
16 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Basal Ganglia zSlow, deliberate movements zParkinsons disease is the result of abnormalities in the basal ganglia
17 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Dopamine zInvolved in movement, attention and learning zDopamine imbalance also involved in schizophrenia zLoss of dopamine- producing neurons is cause of Parkinsons disease
18 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Parkinsons Disease zResults from loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra zSymptoms include ydifficulty starting and stopping voluntary movements ytremors at rest ystooped posture yrigidity ypoor balance
19 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Parkinsons Disease zTreatments yL-dopa ytransplants of fetal dopamine-producing substantia nigra cells yadrenal gland transplants yelectrical stimulation of the thalamus has been used to stop tremors
20 © 1999 The Ohio State University & Worth Publishers. Copyright Copyright 1999 by Worth Publishers, New York, NY and by The Ohio State University. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the copyright owners.
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