5GlyceridesThe major form of lipid in food and in the body
6Phospholipid Lecithin, a common food additive, is a phospholipid. Embedded in cell membranes.
7Sterols Cholesterol: 90% is found in cell membranes Produced by the liverAssociated with cardiovascular diseaseProduced by animals only. None found in plants.
8Fats in the DietTypically meats, dairy products, & other animal products are the main source of saturated fatty acids.Palm, coconut oils are high in saturated fats.Unsaturated fatty acids tend to come from plant oils: olive, canola, peanut , safflower, sunflower, corn; also fish, nuts
10Unsaturated Fats in the Diet Omega-6-Omeg-3-The Good!
11Hydrogenated FatsHydrogenation of vegetable oils converts some of unsaturated bonds to saturated, trans conformation.Trans fatty acids extend shelf life, improve margarine, shortening.Diet high in trans fatty acids risks heart disease, cancer.
22Essential Fatty Acids Linoleic, alpha-linolenic acid are essential DeficiencyRare because requirement is lowSymptoms: scaly, dry skin, liver abnormalities, poor healing of wounds, growth failure, impaired vision and hearingObserved in infants, young children fed low-fat diets, adults consuming a weight-loss diet of only nonfat milk
23Reduced Fat FoodsVariety of reduced fat and free fat foods are available.Designed to mimic taste, texture of fatLow fat may mean low fiber, vit., mineralsLow fat foods are not always low in kcalIn many foods, fats are replaced with other energy-containing nutrientsRegular brownie has 112 kcal; reduced fat brownie has 89 kcal
24Low Fat DietA diet low in fat & high in simple sugars increases blood triglyceride levels & may increase the risk of heart disease. May increase risk of diabetes.May not be a healthy diet.Snacks of fresh fruits instead of these would be much better.
25Types of Artificial Fats Carbohydrate-based fat substitutesPectins, gums mimic texture of fatOatrim, Nutrim add soluble fiberProtein-based fat substitutesSimplesse is fat substitute made from egg white, milk proteinsUsed in frozen desserts, cheese foods; 1.3 cal/gPoorly absorbed fats as fat substitutesCaprenin consists of glcerol with 3 poorly absorbed fatty acids attached; 5kcal/gOlestra has fatty acids attached to sucrose; cannot be digested; no absorption