2FACTS ABOUT WATER ~ 75% 3% Icebergs Great Lakes One What percent of the planet is water?How much is fresh water?Where is most of the fresh water?25% of the world’s drinking water comes from this lake.How many oceans are there?What are the names of the oceans?What percent of your body is water?~ 75%3%IcebergsGreat LakesOneAtlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, Antarctic~70%
3Earth / \ 25% Land 75% water / \ 97% salt 3% fresh | / \ / \97% salt % fresh| / \oceans % glaciers % drinkable/ \coastal (~10%) open sea (90%)│Contains 90% of all marine species/ │ \coastal wetlands estuaries coral reefs
6What impact have humans had on marine ecosystems? 1,200 marine species have become extinct in past 100 yearsUp to ½ all known fish species are threatened with extinction due to:OverfishingHabitat destructionPollution½ wetlands are gone (agriculture/development)27% of world’s coral reefs are gone or seriously threatened70% could be gone within next 50 years70 % beaches eroded due to development and rising sea levels
7What services do marine ecosystems provide us with? EcologicalClimate moderationCO2 absorptionNutrient cyclingWater treatmentReduced storm impact (wetlands)HabitatbiodiversityEconomic:FoodMedicine (coral reefs)TransportationHabitat for humans (coastal)EmploymentOil/gasminerals
11What is a Riparian Zone?RIPARIAN ZONERIPARIAN ZONE
12Why is a riparian zone important to aquatic ecosystem? Riparian zones are narrow strips of land bordering lakes, rivers, and other bodies of waterRiparian zones are important for several reasons;Biodiversity: mammals, fish, amphibians, insects, plants liking moistureWater quality: traps fertilizers, pesticides, heavy metals, pathogensProtection against erosion: traps sediments (#1 pollutant in rivers)Temperature regulation: Riparian plants shield water from sun (thermal pollution)Property value: beautiful scenery, prevents loss of land, and provides privacy
13What services do freshwater aquatic ecosystems provide us with? Environmental:Climate moderationNutrient cyclingWaste treatmentFlood controlGroundwater rechargeHabitatbiodiversityEconomic:FoodDrinking waterIrrigation for cropsHydroelectricityTransportationRecreationemployment
14What is a Watershed?The simple definition It's the area of land that catches rain and snow and drains or seeps into a marsh, stream, river, lake or groundwater.
15What are Topographic Maps? Topographic maps show a 3 dimensional world in 2 dimensions by using contour lines.Contour lines are curves that connect contiguous points of the same altitude
16How do we determine Contour Intervals? The contour interval measurement is the vertical distance between adjacent contour linesWhat is the contour interval on this map?Determine the altitude of points a, b, c.
17What are Hachures?If a loop instead represents a depression, some maps note this by short lines radiating from the inside of the loop, called "hachures".
18What do the Colors Represent? Colors The colors on a topographic map are symbolic of different map features.Blue = waterGreen = forestBrown = contour linesBlack = cultural features (buildings, place names, boundary lines, roads, etc.)Red = principal roadsPink = urban areasPurple = revisions to an older map, compiled from aerial photos. If an area has become urbanized, this may be shown as purple shading on the new, revised map.
19Where does most of our drinking water come from? An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well
20Where Does All The Water Go? Municipal/Residential %Industrial %Paper/pulp %Wood/Lumber %Mining/oil/gas %Other %Agricultural %
21Residential Use Of Water Lawns %Toilet %Bathing %Laundry %Dishes %Drinking %
22Can we learn from our mistakes? Aral Sea CrisisLocation: RussiaDiversion of water to irrigate cotton fields, vegetable, fruit and rice crops has caused:Tripling of sea’s salinityDecreasing the sea’s surface area by 54% and volume by 75%Converting the lake bottom to a human-made desertDevastated the fishing industry (extinction of 20 out of 24 fish species)Alteration of climateHealth problems such as throat cancer from toxic dust
23Can the Aral Sea be Saved? Already $600 million has been invested in:Purifying drinking waterImproving irrigation techniquesConstructing artificial wetlandsHowever this will take decades for area to improve and this will not prevent Aral Sea from shrinking into a few brine lakes
24The shrinking Ogallala Aquifer The world’s largest aquifer (size of lake Huron) is a nonrenewable resource produced by the last ice age (15,000-30,000years ago) with an extremely slow recharge area due to the clay content in the soil.It is being depleted much faster than it is able to recharge.At this rate ¼ of the remaining aquifer will disappear by 2020.
25What can be done? Use more efficient irrigation systems Gravity flowCenter pivotDrip irrigation (best)Switch to crops that need less waterIrrigate less landCitizens can conserve water
26Three Gorges ProjectLargest dam project in the world (China) costing $26 billionOne mile long and 575 ft above Yangtze RiverReservoir 350 miles upstreamScheduled to be completed in 201132 turbines, 22,500 megawattsDisplace 2 million people
27How Does Building Dams Affect The Environment? Destroys habitatsDisplaces peopleCauses droughts in other regionsExtremely dangerous if failsProvides clean powerControls flooding down riverProvides water
28What are Sources of Pollution? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines point source pollution as “any single identifiable source of pollution from which pollutants are discharged, such as a pipe, ditch, ship or factory smokestack”
29To drill or not to drill, that is the question? Oil spills:Exxon Valdez (1989) in AlaskaAmount spilled estimated 32 million gallonsDouble hulled ships to carry oil
30Bp “Deepwater Horizon” Spill in Gulf (2010) Amount spilled:Some Numbers to think about!27 offshore drilling projects approved in Gulf after BP spill11 billion gallons of oil spilled each year into oceans19.5 million barrels of oil used in US per day$1.6 billion as of June 2010 used to clean up oil spill
31How can we clean up oil spills? Mechanical:Floating booms to contain oilSkimmer boats to vacuumAbsorbant pads (feathers and hair to clean up)Chemical:Coagulating agents to cause oil to clump for easier pick up or sink to bottomDispersing agents to break oil apartFire (but crude oil is harder to burn than refined oil and contributes to air pollution
32What is Nonpoint Source Pollution? Nonpoint-source pollution is another term for polluted runoff. Water washing over the land, whether from precipitation, car washing or watering crops or lawns, picks up an array of contaminants including oil, sand and salt from roadways, agricultural chemicals, and nutrients and toxic materials from both urban and rural areas.
33How Can We Clean Up?Most environmental projects sooner or later will arrive at the remediation or clean-up stage of the project.Three forms of cleanup: Physical, Biological, Chemical
34What is The Clean Water Act of 1972? It’s goal is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s watersAll water must be “fishable and swimmable”Requires discharge permits of major pollutersIdentify toxins and use best practical methods to remove pollutantsSet goal for best available technology to be developed in the future
35How Can We Control Water Pollution? Reduce NOx and sulfur emissionsModify agricultural practicesSeparate storm water runoff and septic treatmentDecrease silt runoff (# 1 polluter: holding ponds and permeable surfaces)Seal LandfillsStop Ocean Dumping