Presentation on theme: "How Can We Balance The Human Population With Our Natural Resources?"— Presentation transcript:
1How Can We Balance The Human Population With Our Natural Resources?
2Why is Demography Important? Demography: Study of the size, composition, and distribution of human population.What patterns do you see?
3What is the Difference Between Developing & Developed Nations? Developing NationsLower Incomes (GNP)Agricultural EconomyHigher population growthWhat countries fall under this category?Smaller ecological footprintDevelopedHigher IncomesIndustrial EconomyLower population growthBetter social support systemWhat countries fall under this category?Larger ecological footprint
4Population Change in Size Three factors affect human population size: births, deaths, and migrationPopulation Change =(births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration)Crude Birth Rate = # births per 1,000 people in a population in a given yearCrude Death Rate = # deaths per1,000 people in a population in a given year
5How fast is the world’s population growing? % Population Change =(Births – Deaths)/1,000 X 100(Births – Deaths)/10The Rule of 70(DoublingTime)70 / percent growth rateExample: In 2004 the growth rate was 1.2%. If this rate continues the population will double in 70/1.2 = 56 yearsWhat is the growth rate if it takes 20 years for a population to double?
7What are Age Structure Diagrams? The Number of people in young, middle and older age groups determines how fast populations grow or decline.The number of people under the age of 15 is the major factor determining a country’s future growth.Changes in the distribution of a country’s age groups have long- lasting economic and social impacts.
9Population changes in the US After WWII fertility rate reached a peak( ) Baby Boomers!In 2002: legal/Illegal immigration accounted for 40% of US growthCurrently close to 300 millionProjected to reach 420 million by 2050571 million by 2100
11What is Family Planning? Provides information about prenatal careHelps parents space births as desiredHelps parents regulate family sizeWorks best when reinforces customs and trends
12How Can We Slow Population Growth? Provide family planningImprove health care for infants, children and womenDevelop and implement national population policiesImprove status of womenProvide more education (especially to girls)Greatly reduce unsustainable patterns of production and consumptionSharply reduce poverty!
14What is Urban Sprawl?Process of relocation of residences, shopping areas and work places from their traditional spots in cities to outlying areas (supported by the “love affair” with cars)
15What are the effects of urban sprawl? EnvironmentalDepletion of resources (oil consumption)Air PollutionWater PollutionLoss of Agricultural LandLoss of Habitat and WildlifeHealthGreater risk of fatal AccidentsHigher incidents of obesity and high blood pressureRise in diseases (asthma, cancer)Noise Pollution
16What are the benefits of urban sprawl? Cities are centers for education, jobs, culture technological and economic developmentMore access to medical care and family planningConcentrating people in urban areas helps preserve wildlife
17How do we make urban areas more livable and sustainable? Prevent pollution and reduce wasteUse energy efficientlyProtecting biodiversity by preserving landPromoting urban gardens and farm marketsPromoting “green” design of buildings
18The Cairo ConferenceIn September 1994, 15,000 leaders representing 179 nations met in Cairo, Egypt and for the first time in history reached a consensus!All nations agreed that population is an issue of crisis proportions that must be confronted forthrightly
19Plan of Action Over the next 20 years: Empowering womenEducationHealth$17 billion needed each year until 2000 and additional amounts increasing to $21.7 billion by 20152/3 of funding would come from developing nations and the rest from developed nations
20How is the plan going?Women and girls continue to face discrimination although many countries such as India, Bangladesh and African countries are encouraging education and have outlawed female genital mutilationHIV/AIDS epidemic has led to mortality in many countriesFunding is the biggest problem:Developing countries have provided 75% of promised amountsIndustrialized countries have provided less than half of their 1/3Most shameful is that US Bush administration and Congress have acted to reduce their supportTwo billionaires Ted Turner and Bill Gates have stepped in to fill the gap
21Millenium Development Goals End Poverty & HungerUniversal EducationPromote Gender EqualityImprove Child HealthImprove Maternal HealthCombat HIV/AIDSEnvironmental SustainabilityGlobal Partnership for Development
22Status of MDG #1The global economic crisis has slowed progress, but the world is still on track to meet the poverty reduction targetPrior to the crisis, the depth of poverty had diminished in almost every region
23MDG #2:Hope dims for universal education by 2015, even as many poor countries make tremendous stridesSub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia are home to the vast majority of children out of schoolInequality thwarts progress towards universal education
24MDG #3: For girls in some regions, education remains elusive Poverty is a major barrier to education, especially among older girlsIn every developing region except the CIS, men outnumber women in paid employmentWomen are largely relegated to more vulnerable forms of employmentWomen are over-represented in informal employment, with its lack of benefits and securityTop-level jobs still go to men — to an overwhelming degreeWomen are slowly rising to political power, but mainly when boosted by quotas and other special measures
25MDG #4:Child deaths are falling, but not quickly enough to reach the targetRevitalizing efforts against pneumonia and diarrhea, while bolstering nutrition, could save millions of childrenRecent success in controlling measles may be short-lived if funding gaps are not bridged
26MDG #5: Inequalities in care during pregnancy are striking Only one in three rural women in developing regions receive the recommended care during pregnancyProgress has stalled in reducing the number of teenage pregnancies, putting more young mothers at riskPoverty and lack of education perpetuate high adolescent birth ratesProgress in expanding the use of contraceptives by women has slowedUse of contraception is lowest among the poorest women and those with no educationInadequate funding for family planning is a major failure in fulfilling commitments to improving women’s reproductive health
27MDG #6: HIV/AIDSThe spread of HIV appears to have stabilized in most regions, and more people are surviving longerMany young people still lack the knowledge to protect themselves against HIVEmpowering women through AIDS education is indeed possible, as a number of countries have shownIn sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge of HIV increases with wealth and among those living in urban areasDisparities are found in condom use by women and men and among those from the richest and poorest households
28Malaria Production of insecticide-treated mosquito nets soars Across Africa, expanded use of insecticide-treated bed nets is protecting communities from malariaPoverty continues to limit use of mosquito netsGlobal procurement of more effective antimalarial drugs continues to rise rapidlyChildren from the poorest households are least likely to receive treatment for malaria
29MDG #7:The rate of deforestation shows signs of decreasing, but is still alarmingly highA decisive response to climate change is urgently neededThe unparalleled success of the Montreal Protocol shows that action on climate change is within our grasp
30BiodiversityThe world has missed the 2010 target for biodiversity conservation, with potentially grave consequencesKey habitats for threatened species are not being adequately protectedThe number of species facing extinction is growing by the day, especially in developing countriesOverexploitation of global fisheries has stabilized, but steep challenges remain to ensure their sustainability
31Water SupplyThe world is on track to meet the drinking water target, though much remains to be done in some regionsAccelerated and targeted efforts are needed to bring drinking water to all rural householdsSafe water supply remains a challenge in many parts of the worldWith half the population of developing regions without sanitation, the 2015 target appears to be out of reachDisparities in urban and rural sanitation coverage remain dauntingImprovements in sanitation are bypassing the poor
32MDG #8:Developing countries gain greater access to the markets of developed countriesLeast developed countries benefit most from tariff reductions, especially on their agricultural productsAid continues to rise despite the financial crisis, but Africa is short-changedDemand grows for information and communications technologyAccess to the World Wide Web is still closed to the majority of the world’s peopleDebt burdens ease for developing countries and remain well below historical levels