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The Expansion of Education

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1 The Expansion of Education
USH-1: Chapter 9, Section 1 – p The Expansion of Education

2 The Expansion of Education
In the late 1800s children attended school for only a few years. Pressure from parents to provide their children with more than the basic skills needed to advance in life and from reformers to limit child labor led many states to pass laws requiring children to attend school. By 1910 nearly 72 percent of children went to school. For immigrants, literacy, the ability to read and write, was very important for their children. Reading and writing English would speed the process of assimilation, through which immigrant culture could be part of American culture. However, not all education was equal. Minorities attended separate schools that usually received less funding. Higher education also expanded as more colleges and universities opened. New women’s colleges expanded when philanthropists gave funds to establish schools of higher learning. Despite prejudice, many African Americans were also gaining higher education. Black educator Booker T. Washington urged African Americans to study vocational skills to build economic security. But black educator W.E.B. Du Bois encouraged blacks to get a well rounded education and become leaders in society. Du Bois himself was a leader who helped found the Niagara Movement, which called for full civil liberties, and end to racial discrimination, and recognition of human brotherhood.

3 The Growth of Public Schools
Late 1880s = Education became a necessity Time of Civil War ½ of children were attending free public schools Only 2% graduated from high school Many children only went to school to learn how to read, write, and do basic arithmetic By states had laws requiring children b/w 8 and 14 to attend school Powerful effect, 72% of students in school in 1910

4 School Days 1900 – ½ of American children attended one room school houses One teacher, older students would assist younger students Learned by rote (repetition of facts in order to memorize) Physical discipline was enforced

5 Immigration and Education
Immigrants placed a high value on American public education Emphasized literacy (important step for immigrant’s success) Adults would attend night classes to learn English and civics (needed for citizenship) Schools helped assimilate (when a person’s culture becomes a part of another culture) immigrants Some immigrants resisted “Americanization” Feared children would loose their culture

6 What Students Learned Taught “American standards” of the time
Examples: Thrift Patriotism Hard Work Cooking traditional American foods Playing American games

7 Uneven Support for Schools
Whites were separated from other racial groups Many schools attended by Mexicans, Asians, and African Americans had far less funding Many Native Americans were not receiving education Those that were attended boarding schools

8 Higher Education Expands
Between over 150 new American colleges and universities opened Enrollment doubles during this time Still small %, middle income families could not afford higher education until around 1915 Wealthy Americans donated money or property to institutions of higher ed. Examples: Leland and Jane Stanford = Stanford University, John D. Rockefeller = University of Chicago

9 Women and Higher Education
Post Civil War = opening of private women’s colleges 1st was New York’s Vassar College (1865) Late 1800s – pressure for men’s colleges to accept women Rather than accept women, many colleges established “sister” colleges i.e. Harvard est. Radcliffe College, Columbia Uni. Est. Brown Uni.

10 Problems Facing Women in Higher Education
Scholarships went mostly to men Parents feared their daughter would be too independent and become “unmarriageable” Schools that accepted women often did not treat them equally

11 African Americans in Higher Education
Very few colleges accepted African Americans in the late 1800s i.e. Oberlin, Bates, and Bowdoin Many studied at primary African American institutions (i.e. Fisk University, Atlanta University, Howard University, Hampton Institute) African American schools accepted both women and men

12 Chapter 9 Section 3 The World of jim crow

13 Overview After Reconstruction, African Americans saw their rights begin to disappear. Southern states passed laws requiring blacks to own property and pay a poll tax, a special fee, in order to vote. Sometimes they required litracy tests. Most African Americans could not pay these taxes or pass these tests. Many states passed Jim Crow laws, or laws designed to prevent African Americans from exercising their equal rights. Jim Crow laws required segregation, or separation of people by race, in public places. The Supreme Court upheld the Jim Crow laws in the landmark case Plessy v. Ferguson, establishing the “separate but equal” doctrine. This doctrine stated that segregation was legal as long as facilities for blacks were equal to those of whites. However, few facilities were equal. Another effect of racism was violence against African Americans, which included lynching, the unlawful killing of a person at the hands of a mob. Between 1882 and 1892 an estimated 1,200 African Americans were lynched. In response, a group of African Americans and whites founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in While the NAACP fought through the courts, church groups organized settlement houses, and the National Urban League improved job opportunities and housing. African Americans also began to publish literature, history, and sociological studies. Black-owned businesses began appearing and Booker T. Washington founded the National Negro Business League in 1900.

14 Post-reconstruction discrimination
Some southern whites begin to use new methods to oppress African Americans. Some states require voters to own property or to pay a poll tax, a special fee that must be paid before a person is permitted to vote. Voters also have to pass literacy tests.

15 Resisting Discrimination
Southern states introduce a policy of segregation in the form of statues called Jim Crow laws. These laws require separation of blacks and whites in schools, parks, public buildings, hospitals, and on transportation systems. In the 1896 case Plessey vs. Ferguson, the Supreme Court finds that this segregation is legal as long as the separate facilities provided for blacks are equal to those provided to whites.

16 Resisting discrimination
The worst kind of violence against blacks is lynching, or the murder of an accused person by a mob without a lawful trial. An estimated 1,200 African Americans are lynched between 1882 and 1892. In response, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored people (NAACP) is formed in 1909. It works primarily through the courts to abolish segregation and discrimination. Also during the early 1900s many African Americans publish literature, and many African American businesses appear and thrive.

17 Changing Roles of Women

18 Overview In the late 1800s Americans had different attitudes about what role women should play in society. These attitudes became known as the woman question. Many women wanted equality in the forms of the right to vote, the right to control their own property and incomes, and the right to have access to highter education and professional jobs. People who opposed these ideas argued that society would be permanently damaged if women gained more power. However, new technology was making domestic tasks easier, allowing women more time to pursue outside interest. Women could shop in a department store, or order from a mail-order catalog, using rural free delivery. Women were now becoming a consumer power. As a result, many more women worked outside the home, often in domestic service jobs or professional jobs men did not want. They were paid about 30-60% less than men. Many women joined volunteer groups, establishing libraries, playgrounds, and education programs. Some groups worked for political and social reform. The National American Suffrage Association fought for voting rights throughout the 1900s. By the early 1900s the woman question included ideas about how women should dress and behave. These “new women” married older and pushed for information on birth control. Women would continue to debate these ideas and the need for women’s rights throughout the century.

19 The Debate Over Women’s Equality
Around 1900 there is wide--ranging debate about the role of women in society. Many women feel they should be able to vote, control their own property, and have access to higher education and professional jobs. The reality is that most women, as they have for centuries, continue to perform most of the jobs in the home.

20 Working Outside the Home
However, more and more women begin to work outside the home. Many educated young women become nurses or teachers. By 1900 more than one third of clerical workers are women. As more women enter the workforce or go to college, they begin to wear shorter hairstyles, raise their hemlines, and wear skirts and blouses more suited to new activities.

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