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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View on the menu bar and click on Slide Show. To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lessons presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation Transparencies Lesson Starters Standardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Resources

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Table of Contents Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Lesson Starter The solutions in the beakers are different because they have a different pH. One beaker contains a basic solution and the other beaker contains an acidic solution Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Objectives List general properties of aqueous acids and bases. Name common binary acids and oxyacids, given their chemical formulas. List five acids commonly used in industry and the laboratory, and give two properties of each. Define acid and base according to Arrheniuss theory of ionization. Explain the differences between strong and weak acids and bases. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Acids 1.Aqueous solutions of acids have a sour taste. 2.Acids change the color of acid-base indicators. 3.Some acids react with active metals and release hydrogen gas, H 2. Ba(s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + H 2 (g) Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases 4.Acids react with bases to produce salts and water. 5.Acids conduct electric current.

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Acids 5.Acids have low pH numbers 6.Acids have a special naming system 7.Acids Acids are molecular compounds that begin with an H

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Visual Concepts Properties of Acids Chapter 14

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Acids, continued Acid Nomenclature A binary acid is an acid that contains only two different elements: hydrogen and one of the more electronegative elements. HF, HCl, HBr, and HI Binary Acid Nomenclature 1. The name of a binary acid begins with the prefix hydro-. 2. The root of the name of the second element follows this prefix. 3. The name then ends with the suffix -ic. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Acids, continued Acid Nomenclature, continued Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Acids, continued Acid Nomenclature, continued An oxyacid is an acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually a nonmetal. HNO 3, H 2 SO 4 The names of oxyacids follow a pattern. The names of their anions are based on the names of the acids. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Acids, continued Acid Nomenclature, continued Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Visual Concepts Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Naming Oxyacids Chapter 14

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Some Common Industrial Acids Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid is the most commonly produced industrial chemical in the world. Nitric Acid Phosphoric Acid Hydrochloric Acid Concentrated solutions of hydrochloric acid are commonly referred to as muriatic acid. Acetic Acid Pure acetic acid is a clear, colorless, and pungent-smelling liquid known as glacial acetic acid. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Bases 1.Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter. 2.Bases change the color of acid-base indicators. 3.Dilute aqueous solutions of bases feel slippery. 4.Bases react with acids to produce salts and water. 5.Bases conduct electric current. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Bases Bases have a high pH Bases are generally ionic compounds that end in OH Bases are named using the conventions for ionic compounds

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Visual Concepts Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Properties of Bases Chapter 14

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Arrhenius Acids and Bases An Arrhenius acid is a chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions, H +, in aqueous solution. An Arrhenius base is a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH, in aqueous solution. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Visual Concepts Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Arrhenius Acids and Bases Chapter 14

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Arrhenius Acids and Bases, continued Aqueous Solutions of Acids Arrhenius acids are molecular compounds with ionizable hydrogen atoms. Their water solutions are known as aqueous acids. All aqueous acids are electrolytes. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Arrhenius Acids and Bases, continued Aqueous Solutions of Acids, continued Common Aqueous Acids Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Arrhenius Acids and Bases, continued Strength of Acids A strong acid is one that ionizes completely in aqueous solution. a strong acid is a strong electrolyte HClO 4, HCl, HNO 3 A weak acid releases few hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. hydronium ions, anions, and dissolved acid molecules in aqueous solution HCN Organic acids (COOH), such as acetic acid Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Arrhenius Acids and Bases, continued Aqueous Solutions of Bases Most bases are ionic compounds containing metal cations and the hydroxide anion, OH. dissociate in water Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Ammonia, NH 3, is molecular Ammonia produces hydroxide ions when it reacts with water molecules.

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Arrhenius Acids and Bases, continued Strength of Bases The strength of a base depends on the extent to which the base dissociates. Strong bases are strong electrolytes Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Visual Concepts Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Strength and Weakness of Acids and Bases Chapter 14

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Relationship of [H 3 O + ] to [OH – ] Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases


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