11Examples20.5 L of nitrogen at 25ºC and 742 torr are compressed to 9.8 atm at constant T. What is the new volume?30.6 mL of carbon dioxide at 740 torr is expanded at constant temperature to 750 mL. What is the final pressure in kPa?
12Charle’s LawVolume of a gas varies directly with the absolute temperature at constant pressure.V = kT (if T is in Kelvin)V1 = V T1 = T2Graphically
14ExamplesWhat would the final volume be if 247 mL of gas at 22ºC is heated to 98ºC , if the pressure is held constant?At what temperature would 40.5 L of gas at 23.4ºC have a volume of L at constant pressure?
15Avogadro's Law Avagadro’s At constant temperature and pressure, the volume of gas is directly related to the number of moles.V = k n (n is the number of moles)V1 = V n1 = n2
16ExampleA 5.20 L sample at 18.0 C and 2.00 atm pressure contains moles of gas. If we add an additional 1.27 moles of the gas at the same temperature and pressure, what will the total volume occupied by the gas be?
17Gay- Lussac LawAt constant volume, pressure and absolute temperature are directly related.P = k TP1 = P T1 = T2
18Combined Gas LawIf the moles of gas remains constant, use this formula and cancel out the other things that don’t change.P1 V1 = P2 V T T2
19ExamplesA deodorant can has a volume of 175 mL and a pressure of 3.8 atm at 22ºC. What would the pressure be if the can was heated to 100.ºC?What volume of gas could the can release at 22ºC and 743 torr?A sample of gas has a volume of 4.18 L at 29 C and 732 torr. What would its volume be at 24.8 C and 756 torr?
20Kinetic Molecular Theory Theory tells why the things happen.explains why ideal gases behave the way they do.Assumptions that simplify the theory, but don’t work in real gases.The particles are so small we can ignore their volume.The particles are in constant motion and their collisions cause pressure.
21Kinetic Molecular Theory The particles do not affect each other, neither attracting or repelling.The average kinetic energy is proportional to the Kelvin temperature.
22Ideal Gas LawPV = nRTV = L at 1 atm, 0ºC, n = 1 mole, what is R?R is the ideal gas constant.R = L atm/ mol KTells you about a gas is NOW.The other laws tell you about a gas when it changes.
23Ideal Gas Law An equation of state. Independent of how you end up where you are at. Does not depend on the path.Given 3 you can determine the fourth.An Empirical Equation - based on experimental evidence.
24Ideal Gas Law A hypothetical substance - the ideal gas Think of it as a limit.Gases only approach ideal behavior at low pressure (< 1 atm) and high temperature.
25ExamplesA 47.3 L container containing 1.62 mol of He is heated until the pressure reaches 1.85 atm. What is the temperature?Kr gas in a 18.5 L cylinder exerts a pressure of 8.61 atm at 24.8ºC What is the mass of Kr?What volume will 1.18 moles of O2 occupy at STP?
26Let’s try this one!A sample containing 15.0 g of dry ice (CO2 (s)), is put into a balloon and allowed to sublime according to the equation:CO2 (s) → CO2(g)How big will the balloon be at 22.0°C and 1.04 atm?
27Gas Density and Molar Mass D = m/VLet M stand for molar massM = m/nn= PV/RTM = m PV/RTM = mRT = m RT = DRT PV V P P
28ExamplesA gas at 34.0 °C and 1.75 atm has a density of 3.40 g/L. Calculate the molar mass of the gas.What is the density of ammonia at 23ºC and 735 torr?
29Gases and Stoichiometry Reactions happen in molesAt Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP, 0ºC and 1 atm):1 mole of any gas takes up L of space.If not at STP, use the ideal gas law to calculate moles of reactant or volume of product.
30Examples Mercury can be achieved by the following reaction What volume of oxygen gas can be produced from 4.10 g of mercury (II) oxide at STP?At 400.ºC and 740 torr?
31Examples Using the following reaction calculate the mass of sodium hydrogen carbonate necessary to produce 2.87 L of carbon dioxide at 25ºC and 2.00 atm.If 27 L of gas are produced at 26ºC and 745 torr when 2.6 L of HCl are added what is the concentration of HCl?
32ExamplesConsider the following reaction What volume of NO at 1.0 atm and 1000ºC can be produced from 10.0 L of NH3 and excess O2 at the same temperture and pressure?What volume of O2 measured at STP will be consumed when 10.0 kg NH3 is reacted?
33The Same reactionWhat mass of H2O will be produced from 65.0 L of O2 and 75.0 L of NH3 both measured at STP?What volume Of NO would be produced?What mass of NO is produced from 500. L of NH3 at 250.0ºC and 3.00 atm?
34Dalton’s LawThe total pressure in a container is the sum of the pressure each gas would exert if it were alone in the container.The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures.PTotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 + P5 ...For each P = nRT/V
35Dalton's Law PTotal = n1RT + n2RT + n3RT +... V V V In the same container R, T and V are the same.PTotal = (n1+ n2 + n3+...)RT VPTotal = (nTotal)RT V
36The mole fraction Ratio of moles of the substance to the total moles. symbol is Greek letter chi cc1 = n1 = P nTotal PTotal
37ExamplesA volume of 2.0L of He at 46 °C and 1.2 atm pressure was added to a vessel that contained 4.5L of N2 at STP. What is the total pressure and the partial pressure of each gas at STP after the He was added?Calculate the # of moles of N2.Calculate the mole fractions of N2 and He, using the mole data, then the pressure data.
38Examples 4.00 L CH4 1.50 L N2 3.50 L O2 0.752 atm 2.70 atm 4.58 atm When these valves are opened, what is each partial pressure and the total pressure? (hint: what happens to the volume when the valves are opened)
39Vapor Pressure Water evaporates! When that water evaporates, the vapor has a pressure.Gases are often collected over water so the vapor. pressure of water must be subtracted from the total pressure.It must be given.
40Example N2O can be produced by the following reaction What volume of N2O collected over water at a total pressure of 94 kPa and 22ºC can be produced from 2.6 g of NH4NO3? ( the vapor pressure of water at 22ºC is 21 torr)
41What MKT tells usApplying the laws of physics, the expression (KE) = ½ mu2 represents the average KE of a gas particleUsing this idea and applying it to the ideal gas law (see appendix 2 for derivation) we arrive at a very important relationship:(KE)avg = 3/2 RTThis the meaning of the Kelvin temperature of a gas.
42Root Mean Square Velocity u represents the average particle velocity.__u 2 is the average particle velocity squared.The root mean square velocity isÖ u = urms
43Combine these two equations (KE)avg = NA(1/2 mu 2 )(KE)avg = 3/2 RTWhere M is the molar mass in kg/mole, and R has the units J/Kmol.The velocity will be in m/s
44Example Calculate the root mean square velocity of Helium at 25ºC What do we know?T= 25 C = 298 KR= J/K molWhat information do we need?What is the mass of a mole of He in Kg?Now plug into the formulaSince the units of J are Kg m2/s2, the resulting units are appropriate for velocity!
45Calculate the root mean square velocity of Carbon dioxide at 25ºC. Calculate the root mean square velocity of chlorine at 25ºC.
46Range of velocitiesThe average distance a molecule travels before colliding with another is called the mean free path and is small (near 10-7)Temperature is an average. There are molecules of many speeds in the average.Shown on a graph called a velocity distribution
48273 K1273 Knumber of particlesMolecular Velocity
49273 K1273 Knumber of particles1273 KMolecular Velocity
50Velocity What happens as the temperature increases? The average velocity increases as temperature increases.The spread of velocities increases as temperature increases.
51Effusion Passage of gas through a small hole, into a vacuum. The effusion rate measures how fast this happens.Graham’s Law the rate of effusion is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles.
52Deriving The rate of effusion should be proportional to urms Effusion Rate 1 = urms 1 Effusion Rate 2 = urms 2
53Diffusion The spreading of a gas through a room. Slow considering molecules move at 100’s of meters per second.Collisions with other molecules slow down diffusions.Best estimate is Graham’s Law.
54ExamplesA compound effuses through a porous cylinder 3.20 time faster than helium. What is it’s molar mass?If mol of NH3 effuse through a hole in 2.47 min, how much HCl would effuse in the same time?A sample of N2 effuses through a hole in 38 seconds. what must be the molecular weight of gas that effuses in 55 seconds under identical conditions?
55Real GasesReal molecules do take up space and they do interact with each other (especially polar molecules).Need to add correction factors to the ideal gas law to account for these.
56Volume CorrectionThe actual volume free to move in is less because of particle size.More molecules will have more effect.Corrected volume V’ = V - nbb is a constant that differs for each gas.P’ = nRT (V-nb)
57( ) Pressure correction n Pobserved = P’ - a V 2 Because the molecules are attracted to each other, the pressure on the container will be less than idealdepends on the number of molecules per liter.since two molecules interact, the effect must be squared.()2VnPobserved= P’ - a
58( ) Altogether Pobs= nRT - a n 2 V-nb V Called the Van der Wall’s equation if rearrangedCorrected Corrected Pressure Volume
59Where does it come from a and b are determined by experiment. Different for each gas.Bigger molecules have larger “b”.“a” depends on both size and polarity.once given, plug and chug.
60ExampleCalculate the pressure exerted by mol Cl2 in a L container at 25.0ºCUsing the ideal gas law.Van der Waal’s equationa = 6.49 atm L2 /mol2b = L/mol