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**How Can We Change Lead Into Gold?**

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What Element is This?

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**The Four Universal Forces**

Gravitational force Electromagnetism Weak Strong

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**Who Discovered Radioactivity?**

In 1896, Henri Becquerel, along with Pierre and Marie Curie discovered radioactive waves by placing a rock containing Uranium on a photographic plate. They shared the Nobel Prize in 1903.

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**What is Radioactive Decay?**

Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei emit subatomic particles (radiation). Decay is said to occur in the parent nucleus and produces a daughter nucleus.

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**Types of Particles Identity Symbol Charge Mass (amu) Helium (Alpha)**

4 α 2 +2 Electron (Beta) 0 β -1 Photon (gamma) 0 γ N/A Neutron 1 n Proton 1 p 1 +1 Positron

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**What are their properties?**

Alpha: largest particle, can be stopped by paper Beta: can be stopped by a few layers of clothing Gamma: most penetrating, stopped by lead

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**How To Solve Nuclear Decay Problems?**

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How Can We Date Rocks?

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**Half-life: The time it takes for half the element to decay**

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**Half Life Calculations**

To calculate the ½ life t1/2 = log 0.5___ log(No/N) N = amount remaining No = amount you started with t = time elapsed t1/2 = half life x t

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Half - Life The half life of I-123 is 13 hours. How much of a 64 mg sample is left after 26 hours? No = 64 mg t = 26 hours t1/2 = 13 hours How many half lives have passed? N = 64 x (0.5)2 N = 16 mg remaining

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**Half - Life Isotope Half - Life Carbon-15 2.4 seconds Radium-224**

3.6 days Radium-223 12 days Iodine-125 60 days Carbon-14 5700 years Uranium-235 710,000,000 years

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**What is the difference between Fission and Fusion?**

Fission: Splitting of atomic nucleus (nuclear power plant) Fusion: Fusing of atomic nuclei (sun) Both release large amounts of energy

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**What Are The Uses of Radioactivity?**

There are many practical applications to the use of radioactivity/radiation. Radioactive sources are used to study living organisms To diagnose and treat diseases To sterilize medical instruments and food To produce energy for heat and electric power To monitor various steps in all types of industrial processes. To determine age of fossils

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