3What is a vitamin?A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. A compound is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet.
4What kinds of vitamins does our body need? Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble, meaning that they dissolve easily in water, or fat-soluble vitamins, which are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fats).Water soluble vitamins: Thaimin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pantothenic acid (B5),Pyridoxine (B6), Biotin (B7),Folic Acid (B9),Cyanocobalamin (B12), CFat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K
5What are dietary minerals? Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen present in common organic molecules.
6What nutrients do we need to live? In many ways, our bodies can be thought of as chemical processing plants. Chemicals are taken in, processed through various types of reactions, and then distributed throughout the body to be used immediately or stored for later use.The chemicals used by the body can be divided into two broad categories: macronutrients, those substances that we need to eat regularly in fairly large quantities, and micronutrients, those substances that we need only in small amounts.Three major classes of macronutrients are essential to living organisms: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
7What are carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are the main energy source for the human body. Chemically, carbohydrates are organic molecules in which carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen bond together in the ratio: Cx(H2O)yYour body uses carbohydrates (carbs) to make glucose which is the fuel that gives you energy and helps keep everything going.Your body can use glucose immediately or store it in your liver and muscles for when it is needed.
8What are saccharides”Saccharide is a term derived from the Latin for sugarCarbohydrates are often classified according to the number of saccharide units they contain.A monosaccharide contains a single carbohydrate, over 200 different monosaccharides are known.A disaccharide has two carbohydrate unitsAn oligosaccharide gives a "few" carbohydrate units on hydrolysis, usually 3 to 10.A polysaccharide gives many carbohydrates on hydrolysis, examples are starch and cellulose.
10Where do carbohydrates come from? These carbohydrates are manufactured by plants during the process of photosynthesis. Plants harvest energy from sunlight to run the reaction just described in reverse:6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
11How does our body use carbohydrates? Animals (including humans) break down carbohydrates during the process of metabolism to release energy.For example, the chemical metabolism of the sugar glucose is shown below:C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (respiration)