2 What is a solid, liquid or gas? Help Marvin the Martian understand what a solid, liquid and gas are!Draw what solids, liquids, gases look likeDescribe physical/chemical propertiesWhat would happen if we changed pressure?What would happen if we changed temperature?
3 What is Pressure? Pressure = Force/Area 1 atmosphere (atm) 760 Torr 760 mmHg1.01 Bar101,327 Pascal101.3 Kpa14.7 lbs/in2Measured witha barometer
4 MANOMETER Column of mercury to measure pressure. h is how much lower or higher the pressure is than outside.Pgas = Patm - hPgas = Patm + hhh
5 What is Temperature?Average Kinetic Energy (1/2 mv2) of an atom or moleculeMeasured in Fahrenheit, Celsius or Kelvin (SI)F = (C x 1.8) + 32K = C + 2730 Kelvin: absolute zero (atom stops moving completely)Is there a maximum temperature in the universe?
6 Kinetic Molecular Theory Theory explains why ideal gases behave the way they do.Assumptions that simplify the theory, but don’t work in real gases.The particles are so small we can ignore their volume.The particles are in constant motion and their collisions cause pressure.The particles do not affect each other, neither attracting or repelling.The average kinetic energy is proportional to the Kelvin temperature.The molecules move in straight path and all collisions are elastic
7 What is an Ideal Gas?An ideal gas or perfect gas is a hypothetical gas consisting of identical particles of:Negligible volumeWith no intermolecular forcesAtoms or molecules undergo perfectly elastic collisions with the walls of the containerIdeal gas law calculations are favored at low pressures and high temperatures.Real gases existing in reality do not exhibit these exact properties, although the approximation is often good enough to describe real gases.
8 What is Boyle’s Law?In the mid 1600's, Robert Boyle studied the relationship between the pressure P and the volume V of a confined gas held at a constant temperature.Boyle observed that the product of the pressure and volume are observed to be nearly constant.The product of pressure and volume is exactly a constant for an ideal gas.P * V = constantThis relationship between pressure and volume is called Boyle's Law in his honor.
12 (30.2 Torr) (1 atm/760 Torr) (101.3 kPa/1 atm)= 20.5 L of nitrogen at 25ºC and 742 torr are compressed to 9.8 atm at constant T. What is the new volume?P1V1=P2V2(0.98 atm)(20.5 L) = (9.8 atm)(V2)20.09 atm*L/9.8 atm= V22.1 L = V230.6 mL of carbon dioxide at 740 torr is expanded at constant temperature to 750 mL. What is the final pressure in kPa?(30.6mL)(740Torr)=(750 mL)(P2)22,644 mL*Torr/750 mL= P230.2 Torr =P2(30.2 Torr) (1 atm/760 Torr) (101.3 kPa/1 atm)=kPa/760= 4.03 kPa12
13 What is Charles’ Law?The relationship between temperature and volume, at a constant number of moles and pressure, is called Charles and Gay-Lussac's Law in honor of the two French scientists who first investigated this relationship.Charles did the original work, which was verified by Gay-Lussac. They observed that if the pressure is held constant, the volume V is equal to a constant times the temperature T, or:V / T= constant
15 ExamplesWhat would the final volume be if 247 mL of gas at 22ºC is heated to 98ºC , if the pressure is held constant?247 ml/295 K = X ml/371 K91,637 mL * K = 295 X * K91,637 mL * K/295 K= X310 mL = XIf the volume of oxygen at 21 °C is 785 L, at what temperature would oxygen occupy 804 L?785 L/294 K = 804 L/X K785 X = 236,376X = 236,376/785X= 301 K = 28 °C15
16 Combined Gas LawCombining Charles’s Law and Boyle’s Law in a single statement:P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T239.8 mg of caffeine gives 10.1 mL of nitrogen gas at 23°C and 746 mmHg. What is the volume of nitrogen at 0°C and 760 mmHg?First change temperature to KelvinV1 = 10.1mL P1 = 746 mmHg K1 = 296 KV2 = ? P2 = 760 mmHg K2 = 273 K10.1 * 746/296 = V2 * 760/273V2 = 9.14 mL
17 Other Gas Laws Gay-Lussac Law Avogadro’s Law At constant volume, pressure and absolute temperature are directly related.P/T = k (constant)Avogadro’s LawAt constant temperature and pressure, the volume of gas is directly related to the number of moles.V /n= k (n is the number of moles)
18 Gas Law Summary Law Statement Equation Constant Boyle’sP inversely proportional to VPV = k1T, nCharle’sV directly proportional to TV/T = k2P, nGay-LussacP directly proportional to TP/T = k3V, nAvogadro’sV directly proportional to nV/n = k4P, TWhat equation would we get if we combined them all?
19 What is the Ideal Gas Law? Combining Boyle’s Law, Charles’ law & Avogadro’s Law we derive the Ideal Gas Law:P V = n R TP = Pressure (atm)V = Volume (L)n = # moles (mol)R = Gas Constant ( L atm /mol K)T = Temperature (K)Ideal gas law calculations are favored at low pressures and high temperaturesTells you about a gas NOW.The other laws tell you about a gas when it changes.
20 Let’ Try It!Example:If we had 1.0 mol of gas at 1.0 atm of pressure at 0°C (STP), what would be the volume?PV = nRTV = nRT/PV = (1.0 mol)( L atm/mol K)(273 K)/(1.0 atm)V = L1 mole of ANY gas at STP will occupy 22.4 Liters of volume
21 Gas Density and Molar Mass D = m/VLet M stand for molar massM = m/nn = m/MPV = nRTPV = (m/M) RTP = mRT/VM = (m/V)(RT/M)P = d RT/MPM/RT = d (density)
22 Examples What is the density of ammonia at 23ºC and 735 torr? Units must be: atm, K735 torr(1 atm/760 torr) = atm= 296 KMolar mass of NH3 = 17.0 gd = * 17.0 g( L* atm/mol * K)(296 K)d = g / L
23 Gases and Stoichiometry Reactions happen in molesAt Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP, 0ºC and 1 atm) 1 mole of gas occupies L.If not at STP, use the ideal gas law to calculate moles of reactant or volume of product.
24 Examples Consider the following reaction: Suppose you heat mol of potassium chlorate, KClO3, in a test tube. How many liters of oxygen can you produce at 298 K and 1.02 atm?Break it into 2 problems, one involving stoichiometry and the other using the ideal gas law
25 0.0100 mol KClO3 X 3 mol O2/2 mol KClO3 Now that you have the moles of oxygen use the ideal gas law to calculate the volume:V = nRT/Pmol x L * atm (K * mol) x 298 K1.02 atmV = L
26 Using the following reaction Calculate the mass of sodium hydrogen carbonate necessary to produce 2.87 L of carbon dioxide at 25ºC and 2.00 atm.n = PV/RT = (2.00 atm)(2.87 L)( L*atm/K*mol)(298 K)n= mol CO20.235 mol CO2 (1 mol NaHCO3) ( 84.0 g)(1 mol CO2 ) (1 mol NaHCO3)19.7 g NaHCO3
27 Dalton’s LawThe total pressure in a container is the sum of the pressure each gas would exert if it were alone in the container.The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures.PTotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 + P5 ...For each P = nRT/V
28 Dalton's Law PTotal = n1RT + n2RT + n3RT +... V V V In the same container R, T and V are the same.PTotal = (n1+ n2 + n3+...)RT VPTotal = (nTotal)RT V
29 The Mole Fraction Ratio of moles of the substance to the total moles. symbol is Greek letter chi cBecause pressure of a gas is proportional to moles, for fixed volume and temperature then,c1 = n1 = P nTotal PTotal
30 Calculating the Partial Pressure and Mole Fraction of a Gas Mixture A 1.00 L sample of dry air at 25°C and 786 mmHg contains g N2, plus other gases including oxygen, argon and carbon dioxide.What is the partial pressure (in mmHg) of N2 in the air sample?What is the mole fraction and mole percent of N2 in the mixture?
31 Convert grams into moles 0.925 g N2 x (1 mol N2/28.0g N2)= mol N2Substitute into ideal gas lawPN2 = nN2RT/V=0.0330mol x L*atm/K*mol x 2981.00 L=0.807 atm = 613 mmHg
32 The mole fraction of N2 in the air is = PN2/P = 613 mmHg/786 mmHg=0.780Mole percent equals mole fraction x 100=0.780 x 100 = 78%Air contains 78.0 mole percent of N2
33 Vapor Pressure Water evaporates! When that water evaporates, the vapor has a pressure.Gases are often collected over water so the vapor pressure of water must be subtracted from the total pressure.Vapor pressure varies by temperature and must be given in the problem or in a table.
34 2HCl (aq) + Zn (s) —> ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) Hydrogen gas is produced by the reaction of hydrochloric acid, HCl, on zinc metal:2HCl (aq) + Zn (s) —> ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)The gas is collected over water. If 156 mL of gas is collected at 19°C and 769 mmHg total pressure, what is the mass of hydrogen collected?
35 Use the ideal gas law to find the moles of hydrogen collected. First find the Partial Pressure. The vapor pressure of water at 19°C is 16.5 mmHgP = PH2 + PH2OPH2 = P - PH2OPH2 =769 – 16.5 = 752 mmHgUse the ideal gas law to find the moles of hydrogen collected.P: 752 mmHg x (1 atm/760 mmHg) = atmV: 156 mL x (1 L/1000 mL) = LT: = 292 KR: L*atm/K*moln: ?
36 Solve for moles:n = PV/RT= x 0.156/ x 292= mol H2Convert moles to grams:mol H2 x (2.02g/1 mol H2)= g H2
37 What’s Diffusion and Effusion? Only a few physical properties of gases depends on the identity of the gas.Diffusion - The rate at which two gases mix.Effusion - The rate at which a gas escapes through a pinhole into a vacuum.
38 What is Graham’s Law? We know that Kinetic energy = 1/2 mv2 If two bodies of unequal mass have the same kinetic energy, which moves faster?The lighter one!Thus, for two gases at the same temperature, the one with lower molecular mass will diffuse/effuse faster.The rate of effusion/diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its mass.
39 Rate of effusion of CO2 = √Mm SO2 Rate of effusion of SO2 √Mm CO2 Calculate the ratio of effusion rates of molecules of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide from the same container and at the same temperature and pressure:Rate of effusion of CO2 = √Mm SO2Rate of effusion of SO2 √Mm CO2= √64.1/44.0 = 1.21In other words, carbon dioxide effuses 1.21 times faster than sulfur dioxide.