2Energy Energy is the ability to do work or transfer heat. Energy used to cause an object to move is called work.Energy used to cause the temperature of an object to rise is called heat.
3Potential EnergyPotential energy is energy an object possesses by virtue of its position or chemical composition.
4Kinetic EnergyKinetic energy is energy an object possesses by virtue of its motion.12KE = mv2
5Units of Energy The SI unit of energy is the joule (J). kg m2 An older, non-SI unit is still in widespread use: the calorie (cal).1 cal = J1 J = 1 kg m2s2
6Energy in FoodsMost of the fuel in the food we eat comes from carbohydrates and fats.
7System and Surroundings The system includes the molecules we want to study (here, the hydrogen and oxygen molecules).The surroundings are everything else (here, the cylinder, piston and the universe).
8Work Energy used to move an object over some distance is work. w = F dwhere w is work, F is the force, and d is the distance over which the force is exerted.
9Heat Energy can also be transferred as heat. Heat flows from warmer objects to cooler objects.
10Conversion of Energy Energy can be converted from one type to another. For example, the cyclist above has potential energy as she sits on top of the hill.
11Conversion of EnergyAs she coasts down the hill, her potential energy is converted to kinetic energy.At the bottom, all the potential energy she had at the top of the hill is now kinetic energy.
12First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is neither created nor destroyed.The total energy of the universe is a constant; if the system loses energy, it must be gained by the surroundings, and vice versa.
13Exchange of Heat between System and Surroundings When heat is absorbed by the system from the surroundings, the process is endothermic.
14Exchange of Heat between System and Surroundings When heat is released by the system into the surroundings, the process is exothermic.
15Heat Capacity and Specific Heat The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1C is its heat capacity.
16Heat Capacity and Specific Heat We define specific heat as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 C .
17Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Specific heat, then, isOr the way we usually use the equation:q = m c TSpecific heat =heat transferredmass temperature changec =qm T
18Constant Pressure Calorimetry By carrying out a reaction in aqueous solution in a simple calorimeter such as this one, one can indirectly measure the heat change for the system by measuring the heat change for the water in the calorimeter.
19Constant Pressure Calorimetry Because the specific heat for water is well known (4.184 J/g-K), we can measure H for the reaction with this equation:q = m c T
20EnthalpyEnthalpy is the heat content of a system at constant pressure and volume:Enthalpy = H
21EnthalpyThe absolute amount of Enthalpy cannot be measured, so it is indirectly measured with temperature.When the system changes at constant pressure, the change in enthalpy, H, isH = Hfinal - Hinital
22EnthalpySo, at constant pressure, the change in enthalpy is the heat gained or lost.H = q
24Different H’s Every delta H has the same type of definition: Hfusion The heat released or absorbed when:HfusionHsolidHformationHreactionHvaporizationHcombustion
25Endo vs ExoA process is endothermic when H is positive.
26Endo vs Exo A process is endothermic when H is positive. A process is exothermic when H is negative.
27Heat Transfer Problem 1Calculate the heat that would be required an aluminum cooking pan whose mass is 400 grams, from 20oC to 200oC. The specific heat of aluminum is J g-1 oC-1.SolutionDQ = mCDT= (400 g) (0.902 J g-1 oC-1)(200oC – 20oC)= 64,944 J
28Heat Transfer Problem 2What is the final temperature when 50 grams of water at 20oC is added to 80 grams water at 60oC? Assume that the loss of heat to the surroundings is negligible. The specific heat of water is J g-1 oC-1Solution: DQ (Cold) = DQ (hot) mCDT= mCDTLet T = final temperature(50 g) (4.184 J g-1 oC-1)(T- 20oC)= (80 g) (4.184 J g-1 oC-1)(60oC- T)(50 g)(T- 20oC) = (80 g)(60oC- T)50T = – 80T130T =5800T = oC
29Chemical Reactions Chemical bonds are broken Atoms are rearranged In a chemical reactionChemical bonds are brokenAtoms are rearrangedNew chemical bonds are formedThese processes always involve energy changes
30Energy Changes Breaking chemical bonds requires energy Forming new chemical bonds releases energy
32Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions In an endothermic reaction there is more energy required to break bonds than is released when bonds are formed.The opposite is true in an exothermic reaction.
33Enthalpy of ReactionThe change in enthalpy, H, is the enthalpy of the products minus the enthalpy of the reactants:H = Hproducts − Hreactants
34Enthalpy of ReactionThis quantity, H, is called the enthalpy of reaction, or the heat of reaction.
35The Truth about Enthalpy Enthalpy is an extensive property.H for a reaction in the forward direction is equal in size, but opposite in sign, to H for the reverse reaction.H for a reaction depends on the state of the products and the state of the reactants.
36Hess’s LawHess’s law states that “[i]f a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, H for the overall reaction will be equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps.”We can estimate H using published H values and the properties of enthalpy.