Presentation on theme: "Problem Solving Model Grant Wood Area Education Agency."— Presentation transcript:
Problem Solving Model Grant Wood Area Education Agency
Problem Identification/Validation What is the problem?
Questions to be Answered What is the current concern and/or the desired behavior? (operational definition) What is the current level of performance in the targeted behavior? (baseline) How does the current level of performance compare to expectations? (problem validation) Is the gap between current performance and what is expected LARGE enough to consider intervention? (data, problem validation)
Step One: Operational Definition Contexts for this process Curriculum work – current state/desired state Curriculum work – current state/desired state IEP/IFSP – behavior of focus IEP/IFSP – behavior of focus Functional Behavior Assessment Functional Behavior Assessment I plan – with gen ed teacher I plan – with gen ed teacher I plan - FIE I plan - FIE
Operational Definition Objective- the definition refers only to observable and measurable characteristics of the behavior Clear- the definition is so explicit that it could be read, repeated, and paraphrased by others Alterable- the behavior must be something that can be changed Generalizable – be observed in more than one setting NOT A GOAL STATEMENT
Operational Definition An operational definition must be descriptive enough that two observers could independently observe the same behavioral episodes and obtain similar observational data Stranger Test So What Test
Operational Definition Format- (Target behavior) means that (Student name) (Action verbs) Aggression means that Johnny kicks people or objects, hits others, and spits at others Answering Wh questions means Jane will verbally answer who, what, where, what-doing questions Reading Fluently means that Thomas will orally read 3 rd grade Dibels text at a rate of cwpm (25-50% ile, Fall)
Unclear Definition Marco has inappropriate spacing in his writing. He doesnt leave adequate spaces between the words. Missy doesnt follow basic concept directions.
Explicit Definition Marco has inappropriate spacing in his writing. Inappropriate spacing means that Marco leaves spaces smaller than a popsicle stick in his writing. Following basic concept directions means, when requested, Missy will physically respond within 5 seconds. Examples of requests could include quantity (more/less), time (night/day), position (under/over). Oper.Defs..doc
Activity: Your Turn Look at a sample Iowa I plan and supplemental plan. For the supplemental and I plan, is the area of focus operationally defined? (generalizable, objective, alterable and clear) Write an operational definition for the behavior of focus on the IEP.
Collect Baseline Data should be collected BEFORE an intervention is implemented Needs to include at least 3 data points (samples of the defined behavior) Method of measurement chosen to collect the baseline will be the same method used to measure effectiveness of the intervention
Baseline Baseline describes a students current level of performance in a target behavior/skill Collected within a specific parameter of time (ex. one week) It is compared to a standard, standard of comparison It can be displayed on a chart
Collecting the Baseline Data What is the students current level of performance in the area of focus? Involves 3 steps 1) Establish relevant dimensions (FLITAD) 2) Develop measurement strategy 3) Collect data
Baseline: Dimensions of Behavior, FLITAD Decide which of the 6 dimensions to use Frequency Frequency Latency Latency Intensity Intensity Topography Topography Accuracy Accuracy Duration Duration
FLITAD: Frequency, Latency, Intensity, Topography, Accuracy, and Duration FLITAD is an acronym to remind us about possible dimensions of a concern or problem. Suggests what may be observed or documented and aides in the development of descriptions and analysis. Frequency: Number of times something occurs. Definite beginning and ending points are needed for a behavior to be counted. correct words per minute (CWPM) correct digits per minute (CDPM) number of times something happens (head banging, tapping or off task behaviors) number of attempts Always under specific time frames/limits Latency: Elapsed time from the presentation of the stimulus and the response/problem; the amount of time from the end of one event to the beginning of the next. Number of seconds it takes for a student to follow a request Initiate a requested behavior (start a task, pick up the spoon, answer a question.) FLITAD Intensity: The magnitude of the behavior - often measured through rubrics, a goal attainment scale, and other observer-based ratings. level of the outburst (scale of 1-3) volume of voice (scale of loud to soft) level of emotion (annoyed to furious) Topography: How the person looks or acts during the observed behavior or when presented with a stimulus. loud noise: jumps up and screams vs. sits calmly pencil grip: tight pressure vs. loose walking in hall: on tip-toes vs. dragging feet involuntary behaviors: ticks, twitches, eye blinks, etc… Accuracy: Proportion of correct responses to opportunities to respond. Accuracy measures are used to collect academic and behavioral data: accuracy of responses to comprehension questions spelling letter formation mastery level tasks of :folding laundry, taking coat off and putting it away, hallway behaviors and bathroom routines Typically not under specific time frames or limits Duration: Amount of time that passes from when a behavior starts to when it and stops. How long something lasts or the time it takes for a behavior to cease. tantrums remaining on task destruction of materials or property engagement in peer interactions/social skills
Activity Short video of student in early childhood settings For the scenarios write an operational definition for one of the behaviors observed. After the third scenario choose 1 operational definition and choose the dimension of behavior you would measure (FLITAD)
What Dimension Would You Use Mutual toy play Writing in a daily journal Kicking furniture Writing the letters of the alphabet Riding a bike Initiating social greetings Completing a sheet of division problems Temper tantrum Cursing Following directions Answering comprehension questions
Baseline: Choose a Measurement Strategy Dimension that is most problematic is identified, determine how you will measure the behavior Remember, the strategy used to measure during baseline same as during progress monitoring of the intervention Needs to be: Feasible, Reliable, & Valid
Baseline: Measurement Strategy Plan Includes - How the data will be collected - The materials that will be used to collect the data - Where the data will be collected - When the data will be collected - Who will be responsible for collecting the data
Baseline: Measurement Strategy Should…. Match the dimension of the behavior Be repeatable Be systematic, reliable, and valid Be time-efficient, simple to administer, and allow for regular and frequent data collection
Baseline Examples Using DIBELS phoneme segmentation fluency, Paige currently scores a median of 0 correct phonemes in a one minute sample. Given teachers oral directions in a whole class setting, Payton follow a median of 5% of these directions within 15 seconds during a 10 min sample.
Comparison to Peers or Standard 3 questions to be answered: 1.What is the typical or expected performance? 2.How do we define a significantly discrepant range for the skill? 3.Is the discrepancy large enough to warrant intervention?
Standards of Comparison The standard must be appropriate to the behavior and represent acceptable performance If direct peer comparison data is not available, other local standards might include: Local building or district norms Local building or district norms Teacher/classroom expectations Teacher/classroom expectations Criteria for the next environment Criteria for the next environment School policy standards School policy standards Instructional placement standards Instructional placement standards State or national norms State or national norms Developmental Milestones Developmental Milestones
Cautions When Looking at Discrepancy Use multiple sources of data Compare to norms when available- classroom peers may be high achieving or low achieving (the larger the sample size, the more valid the data)
Problem ID/Problem Validation Mistakes to Avoid Definition of behavior is focused on an unimportant behavior – So What Test Definition of behavior is focused on an unimportant behavior – So What Test Dimension of measurement is not clear Dimension of measurement is not clear Multiple observers do not agree when the behavior occurs or does not occur Multiple observers do not agree when the behavior occurs or does not occur Standard for comparison is not related to the problem behavior Standard for comparison is not related to the problem behavior Discrepancy is minimal between students performance and expectation Discrepancy is minimal between students performance and expectation Expectation is beyond what has been Expectation is beyond what has been taught in core curriculum taught in core curriculum
Questions you have answered What is the current concern and/or the desired behavior? (operational definition) What is the current level of performance in the targeted behavior? (baseline) How does the current level of performance compare to expectations? (problem validation) Is the gap between current performance and what is expected LARGE enough to consider intervention? (data, problem validation)
Homework for Next Region Meeting Bring an example of how you have identified a problem, operationally defined it, and validated it to the next meeting. This might be an intensive, an IEP, an FBA, a curricular change, etc. It should be applicable to your context
Regional Action Plan Committees Early Access/Early Childhood Emily Thomsen Sue Lavasseur Denise Toomey Lori Hilmer Robyn Robbins Anne Steffensmeier Julie Warrington Melissa Grennan Victoria Giard Kim Smith Kelli Robertson (Hillary Prall) Cultural Competency/ Disproportionality Katy Lee Tammy McSweeney Melinda Mohr Cheryl Mills Kelly Maggie Slaymaker Maureen Lough
Regional Action Plan Committees Transition Debbie Mills Lindsay Copp Wendy Bouslog Proficiency of special ed students Jennifer Haefner Pat Lussenhop Ronda Hilbert Mikki Graykowski Tracy Petersen Taresa Fetzer
Regional Action Plan Committees Join a group if you did not sign up last meeting. Briefly look over data and goals to be met Generate possible learning targets for the region to address the problem. Complete the region action plan template Prepare to share out 2-3 action steps/ideas your group has.