2Democritus400 BCThe Greek philosopher Democritus began the search for a description of matter more than 2400 years ago.He asked: Could matter be divided into smaller and smaller pieces forever, or was there a limit to the number of times a piece of matter could be divided?
3Atomos This piece would be indivisible. He named the smallest piece of matter “atomos,” meaning “not to be cut.”
4Why?The eminent philosophers of the time, Aristotle and Plato, had a more respected, theory.Aristotle and Plato favored the earth, fire, air and water approach to the nature of matter.
5Dalton’s ModelIn the early 1800s, the English Chemist John Dalton performed a number of experiments that eventually led to the acceptance of the idea of atoms.
6Dalton’s Model1803Dalton’s Model was that atoms are indivisible particles.
7Dalton’s Theory He deduced that all elements are composed of atoms. Atoms of the same element are exactly alike.Atoms of different elements are different.Compounds are formed by the joining of atoms of two or more elements.
8J. J. ThomsonIn 1897, the English scientist J.J. Thomson provided the first hint that an atom is made of even smaller particles.
9Thomson ModelThomson studied the passage of an electric current through a gas. Using a CRT.As the current passed through the gas, it gave off rays of negatively charged particles.
10Thomson Model the atoms of the gas were uncharged. Where did they come from?the atoms of the gas were uncharged.Where had the negative charges come from?
11ThomsonThomson concluded that the negative charges came from within the atom.Thomson called the negatively charged “corpuscles,” today known as electrons.Since the gas was known to be neutral, he reasoned that there must be positively charged particles in the atom.But he could never find them.
12Thomson Model “Plum Pudding” model. Atoms were made from a positively charged substance with negatively charged electrons scattered around
13Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment In 1908English physicist Ernest Rutherford, began work on his gold foil experiment.
14Rutherford’s Hypothesis Rutherford was trying to verify Thomson’s model.He expected positively charged alpha particles to go straight through a piece of very thin gold.
15What HappenedMost alpha particles passed straight through the gold foilA small percentage (1/8000) were deflected at large angles or returned to the source
17Rutherford’s Experiment There are 2 reasons alpha particles deflectedDensity of the nucleusRepelling charges
18Rutherford’s Conclusion An atom hasa small, dense, positively charged center that repelled the positively charged alpha particles.Named the center of the atom the “nucleus”The nucleus is tiny compared to the atom as a whole.This could only mean that the gold atoms in the sheet were mostly open space.
19Rutherford’s Nuclear Model Rutherford reasoned that all of an atom’s positively charged particles were contained in the nucleus. The negatively charged particles were scattered outside the nucleus around the atom’s edge.
20Neils BohrWas a Jewish Scientist in Copenhagen during the onset of WWIIHitler was interested in his research of the atom.He was moved to the US to protect his knowledge.
21Bohr’s ExplanationBohr thought that an electron travelled in a specific orbit at a certain distance from the nucleus called an energy level and had specific amounts of energy.Worked well for Hydrogen and Helium
22Nuclear symbolsIn this unit we need to be familiar with this type of symbolAXZ
23Hyphen Notation Includes an element name a ‘-’ and a number Example: Sulfur – 32This sulfur atom has an atomic mass of 32Since Sulfur has ______ protons & electronsIt also has ______ neutrons