ISLAM An Introduction to Islam تقديم إلى إسلام America and the Contemporary World: Middle East Unit
Presentation on theme: "ISLAM An Introduction to Islam تقديم إلى إسلام History of Western Civilization: Byzantine Empire Unit 2008-09."— Presentation transcript:
ISLAM An Introduction to Islam تقديم إلى إسلام History of Western Civilization: Byzantine Empire Unit
Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Taj Mahal, India
Medina, Mosque ( the Prophets mosque )
Dome of The Rock, Jerusalem
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA
Contents The Basics Demographics History Practice Ethics Sects Women in Islam Mosques Islamic Art
What does Islam mean? Arabic root word is SLM SLM= Salaam = Peace ISLAM = Willful Surrender Willful Submission MUSLIM = One who submits to Allah
The 6 Articles of Faith Belief in the Oneness of Allah (God) Belief in the Angels created by Allah (God) Belief in the Revealed Books of Allah (God) Belief in the Messengers & Prophets of Allah (God) Belief in the Day of Judgment Belief in Allahs (Gods) Sovereignty (control) over Human Destiny & over all Affairs
Islam A Faith of Human Unity It calls all humankind regardless of their race and gender to unite in the worship of the One and Unique creator. Islam considers all believers as brothers and sisters, and rejects discrimination on the basis of gender, color, race or ethnic background. Humankind is one family, if one person suffers everyone should help alleviate that suffering
Allah Allah is the Arabic name for God used by Muslims of the world as well as Arab Christians. He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begets not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him. (The Quran)
Prophets and Scriptures SOME PROPHETS: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Ishaq, Jacob (Israel), Joseph, Benjamin, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, Zakareya, John, Jesus, Muhammad DIVINE BOOKS: Torah, Zabur (Psalms), Injeel (Gospel), Quran Belief in ALL prophets of God Source of All Books is God Main Message of all Prophets: Islam
Muslims Believe Muhammad Is: Last Messenger & Last ProphetThe Last Messenger & Last Prophet The Seal Of The ProphetsThe Seal Of The Prophets The Universal ProphetThe Universal Prophet
Quran القرآن The Holy Book The Recitation Original message is intact, as given by the Prophet in Arabic 23 Years of Revelations ( C.E.) 114 Chapters (Suras) – Each begins with the phrase: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Islam maintains the integrity of original language (Arabic) Muslims of all language backgrounds recite Islamic verses in Arabic
Sunnah and Hadith Approvals, disapprovals of the Prophet Compiled in separate books, known as Hadith books, after the death of the Prophet Classified from authentic to false.
Sharia & Fiqh Sharia – "the path leading to the watering place" – Islamic Law – covers all aspects of life – politics, society, daily life Fiqh – "jurisprudence" – the practical rules of the religion – what is required, forbidden, recommended, disapproved or merely permitted
Muslims respect, love and honor Jesus Jesus is considered a great messenger/ prophet Jesus was born from the virgin Mary Jesus is a word from God Jesus is mentioned in 25 places in the Quran with names of respect and honor However, Muslims do not consider Jesus to be of divine nature What Muslims believe about Jesus
We believe in Allah (God) and that which was revealed to us, and that which was revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the tribes and that which was given to Moses, Jesus and to the Prophets from their Lord; We make NO distinction between any of them, and to Him (God) we submit. (Quran, 3:83) What the Quran says about Jesus
Becoming A Muslim Simply by saying with conviction… La ilaha illa Allah, wa Muhammad Rasullah. …one becomes a Muslim. This saying means: There is no true deity, but Allah (God), and Muhammad is the Messenger (Prophet) of Allah.
So, where are Muslims ?
1.7 billion Muslims worldwide (almost ¼ of the worlds population) 57 countries with Muslims as a majority of the population, including 22 Arab countries. Country with the largest Muslim population is Indonesia. Only 18-25% of Muslims are Arabs World Muslims
Muslims in America 2 nd most common religion in America One of the fastest growing religions in the USA Estimated 7 to 8 million Muslims Wide variety of ethnic backgrounds/national origins Not all Muslims are Arabs…not all Arabs are Muslims
Prophet Muhammad Descendant of Ishmael, the first son of Abraham. Born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 570 AD Received first revelation at the age 40 through angel Gabriel. Died in the year 632 AD, after preaching Islam for 23 years.
Prophet Muhammad Early years Caravan experience = worldly knowledge Marriage to Khadija Message from Gabriel Persecution in Mecca Justice & a following in Yathrib (Medina) Conquest of Mecca Spread of faith
Spread of Islam Islam, in the tenth century, was the main religion or -- at least -- the religion of the majority of peoples in an area covering more than half of the civilized world. Stretching over three continents from the Pyrenees and Siberia in West and Northern Europe to the farthest end of Asia, up to China and New Guinea in the East; from Morocco in North Africa to the southern tip of Africa, covering two-thirds of the African continent.
Spread of Islam
What Gandhi Said About Muhammad I wanted to know the best of one who holds todays undisputed sway over the hearts of millions of mankind. I became convinced that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the scheme of life. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the Prophet, the scrupulous regard for his pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and his followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and in his own mission. These and not the sword carried everything before them and surmounted every obstacle. When I closed the 2 nd volume (of the Prophets biography), I was sorry there was not more for me to read of his great life. Mahatma Gandhi
The life & property of all people are considered sacred whether a person is Muslim or not. No Supremacy: All people are equal. God has no mercy on one who has no mercy for others. None of you truly believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself. He who eats his fill while his neighbor goes without food is not a believer. No Arab has any superiority over a non Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab. Nor does a white man have any superiority over a black man, or the black man any superiority over the white man. Sayings Of Prophet Muhammad
For 500 to 1000 Years Muslims Were The World Leaders in Mathematics Algebra Arabic Numbers Geometry Engineering Architecture Arts & Crafts Calligraphy Education Universities Learning Knowledge Exploration Hygiene Ethics Etiquettes Social Services Hospitals Medicine Law & Justice Human Rights Civil Rights Commerce Industry Science Chemistry Physics Biology Astronomy Anatomy Botany Poetry
Worship and Obedience Prayers (Salah) Charity (Zakat) Fasting ( Ramadan) Pilgrimage (Hajj) Any act done according to Quran & Sunnah to please God
The Five Pillars of Islam
The Five Pillars Of Islam ( Forms Of Worship ) 1)Declaration of Faith (Shahadah) 2)Prayers (Salah) 3)Charity (Zakat) 4)Fasting (Ramadan) 5)Pilgrimage (Hajj)
Declaration of Faith (Shahadah) To say, believe and testify that… La ilaha illa Allah There is no true deity, but Allah (God). لا إله إلا الله
Prayers (Salah) Five Daily Prayers from Dawn to Late Evening regulate a Muslims day: dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset & night Prayers involve ablution, standing, bowing, prostrating, sitting postures Face Kabbah (in Mecca) Mihrab Prayers in Arabic. Additional Prayers optional
Mosque Place of Worship Masjid in Arabic 1st mosque in the world was the Kaabah-- built by Abraham on an order from God. Three holiest sites in Islam: 1) Masjid al-Haram in Mecca 2) Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina 3) Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem Friday prayer key day of weekly gathering
Muezzin – Caller-to-Prayer Minaret – Tower (pictured)--part of Mosque Recitation/Chant – Testament of faith & call to prayer The Call-to-Prayer (Al-adhan)
Ablution (washing) before Prayer
Charity (Zakat) Required 2.5% charity on yearly savings A Muslim must be a charitable person Removing a stone from the road is charity Greeting with a smile is a charity Redistribution of wealth helps societies & people Muslims are usually motivated to donate even more as optional charity God rewards charity givers very generously in this life and in the hereafter.
Fasting (Ramadan- Siyam) Ramadan is 9th month in Islamic Lunar calendar Daily dawn to sunset fast for 30 days (no food or drink) Eidul-Fitr Holiday at the end This abstention includes food, drink and sexual relations. Muslims believe the fasting person develops a greater understanding of the plight of those who go hungry every day.
Hajj (Pilgrimage) Pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah) once in life time for able Muslims About 2-3 million Muslims perform Hajj each year from all over the world. Eidul-Adha: the biggest Muslim Holiday
Eid Prayer – Islamic Holiday
Muslim Character & Ethics Be pure, clean, and sober Be just, noble, and steadfast Show forgiveness, be kind and generous Be optimistic, thankful, and happy Obey the 10 Commandments Trust God with all your heart, mind and soul Faith requires action Excel in goodness Enjoin what is right Forbid what is wrong Be educated, seek knowledge Have integrity, be honest and sincere Be modest, humble and pious
Mankind is One family If one person suffers, everyone suffers All life is sacred All human rights should be protected Love one another Show moderation in everything Love for others what you love for yourself Take care of orphans, widows & the needy Defend the weak Free the oppressed Fulfill your trusts, commitments & promises Be just Muslim Character & Ethics
Guidance from the Quran & Hadith Food Human Equality Justice Repel Evil with Goodness Suicide and Jihad
Food Forbidden: Meat of animals found dead Blood Flesh of swine Alcoholic beverages (such as beer and wine) and intoxicants Meat on which name of God is not invoked at time of slaughtering or meat on which some one elses name is invoked Permitted: food of the People of the Book
Human Equality in Islam The Prophet Muhammad said: No Arab has any superiority over a non- Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab. Nor does a white man have any superiority over a black man, or the black man any superiority over the white man. You are all the children of Adam, and Adam was created from clay.
Justice in Islam Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression. (Quran 5:2) Do not let ill-will towards any folk incite you so that you swerve from dealing justly. Be just. (Quran 5:8) Oh you who believe, stand up firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even if it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be against rich or poor; for God can best protect both. Do not follow any passion, lest you not be just. And if you distort or decline to do justice, verily God is well-acquainted with all that you do. (Quran 4:135)
Repel Evil with Goodness Nor can goodness and evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate! (Quran 41:34) Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger, and pardon (all) men; for God loves those who do good. (Quran 3:134)
Suicide is a Grave Sin O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: But let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual good-will: Nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily God has been to you Most Merciful! (Quran, 4:29)
No Terrorism ( Forbidden in Islam) Islamic Rulings (Fatwahs) condemned attacks on September 11, 2001, the London bombings and others – Worldwide Islamic leaders signed on to these condemnations – Worldwide Islamic Organizations issued condemnations Muslim anxiety over religious misinterpretations – Feel that Islam and Muslims are being held responsible unfairly for actions of deviated people.
Linguistic meaning: Striving / Struggling Islamic meaning: Non-violent struggling within oneself for a life of virtue. Fighting to establish justice, which is a supreme goal. Rules of Engagement (Fighting) In Islam ~Commanded by Prophet Muhammad Never Kill Innocent People Never Injure Prisoners-of-War Never Kill Animals Never Destroy Crops or Infrastructures Never Mutilate Bodies of Enemies--dead or alive All Prisoners Should be Given Fair Treatment Women & Children Should be Protected From Harm Always Bury the Dead With Respect Note: 1,400 Years BEFORE Geneva Convention Islamic Jihad
Sects within Islam There are divisions within Islam – just as in Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism Two primary sects: Sunni & Shia – Sunni: ~85-90% – Shia: ~10-15% including parts of Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Yemen, Lebanon, Syria, Afghanistan Third (Minor) sect: Sufism – Mystical order – May include Sunni and Shi'a followers
Sects within Islam Sunni & Shia Muslims share the most fundamental Islamic beliefs and articles of faith. Nature of the two divisions: 1)Political Succession of the Prophet (Political Leadership) 2)Spiritual Veneration/worship of Imams (Spiritual Leadership)
Sects within Islam Sunni (Sunnah root): one who follows the traditions of the Prophet -- well-trodden path -- tradition 1) Successor to the Prophet should have been the most capable leader, NOT based upon bloodlines. This is what occurred. 2) Spiritual leadership is NOT a birthright, born of community trust and respect Approximately 85-90% of Muslims are from the Sunni branch
Sects within Islam Shia is from: Shia-t-Ali -- partisans – Party of Ali 1) Successor to the Prophet should have been through bloodlines: – First, Ali (son-in-law and cousin of Muhammad) – Then, through Fatimas (Alis wife and Muhammads daughter) children. 2) Spiritual leadership is anointed directly from Allah (God). – Imam is sinless and infallible by nature.
Sects within Islam Sunni and Shia also differ in lesser ways: Sunni believe the al-Mahdi (vice-regent of Allah) will arrive at/on Judgment Day Shia believe al-Mahdi is on earth, Hidden and will emerge at/on Judgment Day Subgroups/schools of Sunni: Maliki, Shafii, Hanafi, Hanbali (most conservative) Subgroups/schools of Shia: Ithna Ashariyah (Twelvers--the largest), Isma'iliyah and Zaydiyah
Women in Islam
Islamic Teaching About Women The keys to heaven lay at the feet of the Mother. Your Mother deserves 3 times the respect, honor, devotion & admiration over the Father The Prophet said: He who is best to his wife is best in the sight of Allah (God). The Prophet taught all to be Kind, Gentle & Loving With Women
Pre-Islamic Status Of Women 570 A.D. Very male chauvinistic society No Rights - No Status No Inheritance No say in marriage Considered property of husbands Lost her name Burden on society Her money, property, belonged to the husband Not equal to men Given away by husband Exchanged for goods & services Traded, bought & sold Meanwhile… Other nations doing the same Some Christian Councils still argued whether women had souls
Women = Men Equal… – In the sight of God – In belief, prayer, fasting, charity, pilgrimage – Rewards & punishments – Rights & status Right to… – Inheritance – Initiate Marriage – Initiate Divorce – Choose In Marriage – Keep Her Name – Refuse marriage proposals Right to… – Own property – Work – Be educated – Be protected by men – Be respected, loved, admired Can NOT be traded, bought, sold All her money is hers All her property is hers Men required to give dowry in marriage Asset to society Honored in society Integral part of all societal affairs Post-Islamic Status Of Women 623 A.D.
Islamic Dress Pictures-Women
Hijab The Hijab primarily refers to a woman's head & body covering Addresses the norms of modesty, privacy & morality In the Quran: a headscarf or veil is a khim ā r ( خمار ) حجاب The Burqa: most extreme--not even a woman's eyes are visible
Hijab Afghani Burqa Iranian Hijab Hijab Sportswear Similar head coverings may been seen across cultural lines and throughout history -- see following pages حجاب
Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Taj Mahal, India
Medina, Mosque ( the Prophets mosque )
Dome of The Rock, Jerusalem
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA
ترحيب إلى العالم الإسلام (Welcome to the world of Islam.) و جزيلا شكرا (Many thanks.) مع سلام (Go in Peace.)