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Unit 6 Notes – Chapters 4 & 12 Mr Nelson 2009. Ionic Compounds – Review Made up of ions –Cations (+) & Anions (-) –Metals & Nonmetals (or polyatomic ions)

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 6 Notes – Chapters 4 & 12 Mr Nelson 2009. Ionic Compounds – Review Made up of ions –Cations (+) & Anions (-) –Metals & Nonmetals (or polyatomic ions)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 6 Notes – Chapters 4 & 12 Mr Nelson 2009

2 Ionic Compounds – Review Made up of ions –Cations (+) & Anions (-) –Metals & Nonmetals (or polyatomic ions) Exchange of electrons Charges Balance

3 Molecular Compounds – Intro No ions –Charges will not balance –Composed of two nonmetals Sharing of electrons –Covalent bonding Naming is based on prefixes

4 Nomenclature of Binary Compounds If both elements are nonmetals we must use prefixes. The 1 st element only gets a prefix if it is greater than 1. 2 nd element always gets a prefix and change the ending to -ide

5 Nomenclature of Binary Compounds Example of a molecular comp: CO 2 CO CCl 4

6 Nomenclature of Binary Compounds If the prefix ends with a or o and the name of the element begins with a vowel, the two successive vowels are combined into one. N 2 O 5 : dinitrogen pentoxide

7 Practice PCl 5 dihydrogen monoxide SF 6 carbon trichloride N 2 Odisulfur hexoxide NO 2 nitrogen triiodide

8 Naming Acids An acid is any compound that starts with a hydrogen When naming an acid: –1 st locate the anion (- charge)

9 Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in -ide, change the ending to -ic acid and add the prefix hydro-. –HCl: hydrochloric acid –HBr: hydrobromic acid

10 Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in -ite, change the ending to -ous acid. –HClO: hypochlorous acid –HClO 2 : chlorous acid

11 Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in -ate, change the ending to -ic acid. –HClO 3 : chloric acid –HClO 4 : perchloric acid

12 Warm Up HBrChlorous Acid FeSCopper(I) fluoride PBr 5 dinitrogen dioxide KSO 4 nitrogen monoxide CCl 4 hydroiodic acid HNO 3 potassium nitrate LiClphosphoric acid

13 Lewis Dot Structures ONLY Valence (outer) electrons are involved. You can do Lewis dot structures for atoms and for compounds Lewis dot structures tell you the structure of a molecule of a compound, help predict shape.

14 Lewis Dot Structure Example Example: Bromine Number of valence electrons _____

15 Steps to Writing Lewis Structures 1.Find the sum of valence electrons of all atoms in the polyatomic ion or molecule. PCl (7) = 26

16 Writing Lewis Structures 2.Arrange element symbols to show how atoms are connected – show electrons as dots. Draw in the valence electrons of each of the atoms Keep track of the electrons:

17 Writing Lewis Structures 3.Connect the lines to form single bonds. 1 line = 2 electrons Keep track of the electrons:

18 Writing Lewis Structures 4.Finish by checking for octets. Hydrogen only needs 2 electrons to be happy Keep track of the electrons:

19 Writing Lewis Structures 5.If the central atom does not have an octet… …form multiple bonds until it does. Example: HCN

20 Exceptions! Boron and Aluminum are okay with only 6 valence electrons around it –BF 3

21 Exceptions If the Lewis Dot Structure you are drawing is an ion: – Use [] and specify the charge –Add or subtract electrons Positive charges take away electrons Negative charges add electrons Example: Br -


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