3Naming Acids An acid is any compound that starts with a hydrogen When naming an acid:1st locate the anion (- charge)
4Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in –ide (not PI) change the ending to -ic acid and add the prefix hydro-hydro________ic acidHCl: hydrochloric acid
5Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in –ite (all PI’s) change the ending to -ous acid._________ous acidHClO2: chlorous acid
6Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in –ate (all Pi’s) change the ending to -ic acid.___________ic acidHClO3: chloric acidI
7Acids – Finishing Up If you have the name and need to find the formula Example: Acetic AcidCross off the –ic and add at –ateAcetate! = C2H3O2-Finish by adding the correct # of H’s (1 for every negative)HC2H3O2 is acetic acid
8Covalent Bonding Covalent bond – atoms share electrons. There are several electrostatic interactions in these bonds:Attractions between electrons and nucleiRepulsions between electronsRepulsions between nuclei
9Lewis Dot Structures ONLY Valence (outer) electrons are involved. Lewis dot structures can be drawn for:atomsmoleculesLewis dot structures show structure of a molecule, and help predict shape.
10Steps to Writing Lewis Structures Find the sum of valence electrons of all atoms in the polyatomic ion or molecule.PCl3(7) = 26
11Writing Lewis Structures Arrange element symbols to show how atoms are connected – show electrons as dots.Follow the octet ruleexcept for hydrogen, which only needs two electrons to be fullConnect the electrons as linesKeep track of the electrons:= 20
12Writing Lewis Structures Fill the octets of the outer atoms.Keep track of the electrons:= 20; = 2
13Writing Lewis Structures Fill the octet of the central atom.Finish by checking for octets.Keep track of the electrons:= 20; = 2; = 0
14Writing Lewis Structures If you run out of electrons before the central atom has an octet……form multiple bonds until it does.
15Exceptions!Boron and Aluminum are okay with only 6 e- around themBF3
16Exceptions If the Lewis Dot Structure you are drawing is an ion: Use  and specify the chargeAdd or subtract electronsPositive charges take away electronsNegative charges add electronsExample: Br-