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Chapter 9 Notes Mr Nelson 2009. Practice PCl 5 dihydrogen monoxide SF 6 carbon trichloride N 2 Odisulfur hexoxide NO 2 nitrogen triiodide.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Notes Mr Nelson 2009. Practice PCl 5 dihydrogen monoxide SF 6 carbon trichloride N 2 Odisulfur hexoxide NO 2 nitrogen triiodide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Notes Mr Nelson 2009

2 Practice PCl 5 dihydrogen monoxide SF 6 carbon trichloride N 2 Odisulfur hexoxide NO 2 nitrogen triiodide

3 Naming Acids An acid is any compound that starts with a hydrogen When naming an acid: –1 st locate the anion (- charge)

4 Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in –ide (not PI) change the ending to -ic acid and add the prefix hydro- hydro________ic acid –HCl: hydrochloric acid

5 Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in –ite (all PIs) change the ending to -ous acid. _________ous acid –HClO 2 : chlorous acid

6 Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in –ate (all Pis) change the ending to -ic acid. ___________ic acid –HClO 3 : chloric acid I

7 Acids – Finishing Up If you have the name and need to find the formula –Example: Acetic Acid –Cross off the –ic and add at –ate –Acetate! = C 2 H 3 O 2 - Finish by adding the correct # of Hs (1 for every negative) HC 2 H 3 O 2 is acetic acid

8 Covalent Bonding Covalent bond – atoms share electrons. There are several electrostatic interactions in these bonds: –Attractions between electrons and nuclei –Repulsions between electrons –Repulsions between nuclei

9 Lewis Dot Structures ONLY Valence (outer) electrons are involved. Lewis dot structures can be drawn for: – atoms –molecules Lewis dot structures show structure of a molecule, and help predict shape.

10 Steps to Writing Lewis Structures 1.Find the sum of valence electrons of all atoms in the polyatomic ion or molecule. PCl 3 5 + 3(7) = 26

11 Writing Lewis Structures 2.Arrange element symbols to show how atoms are connected – show electrons as dots. Follow the octet rule except for hydrogen, which only needs two electrons to be full Connect the electrons as lines Keep track of the electrons: 26 - 6 = 20

12 Writing Lewis Structures 3.Fill the octets of the outer atoms. Keep track of the electrons: 26 - 6 = 20; 20 - 18 = 2

13 Writing Lewis Structures 4.Fill the octet of the central atom. 5.Finish by checking for octets. Keep track of the electrons: 26 - 6 = 20; 20 - 18 = 2; 2 - 2 = 0

14 Writing Lewis Structures 6.If you run out of electrons before the central atom has an octet… …form multiple bonds until it does.

15 Exceptions! Boron and Aluminum are okay with only 6 e - around them –BF 3

16 Exceptions If the Lewis Dot Structure you are drawing is an ion: – Use [] and specify the charge –Add or subtract electrons Positive charges take away electrons Negative charges add electrons Example: Br -


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