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Chapter 8 Notes Mr Nelson 2010. Chemical Bonds Three basic types of bonds –Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions –Covalent Sharing of electrons.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Notes Mr Nelson 2010. Chemical Bonds Three basic types of bonds –Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions –Covalent Sharing of electrons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Notes Mr Nelson 2010

2 Chemical Bonds Three basic types of bonds –Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions –Covalent Sharing of electrons –Metallic Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms

3 Ionic Compounds – Review Made up of ions –Cations (+) & Anions (-) –Metals & Nonmetals (or polyatomic ions) Exchange of electrons Charges Balance

4 Molecular Compounds – Intro No ions –Charges will not balance –Composed of two nonmetals Sharing of electrons –Covalent bonding Naming is based on prefixes

5 Nomenclature of Binary Compounds If both elements are nonmetals we must use prefixes. The 1 st element only gets a prefix if it is greater than 1. 2 nd element always gets a prefix and change the ending to -ide

6 Nomenclature of Binary Compounds Example of a molecular comp: CO 2 CO CCl 4

7 Practice PCl 5 dihydrogen monoxide SF 6 carbon trichloride N 2 Odisulfur hexoxide NO 2 nitrogen triiodide

8 Naming Acids An acid is any compound that starts with a hydrogen When naming an acid: –1 st locate the anion (- charge)

9 Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in –ide (not PI) change the ending to -ic acid and add the prefix hydro- hydro________ic acid –HCl

10 Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in –ate (all PIs) change the ending to -ic acid. ___________ic acid –HClO 3

11 Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in –ite (all PIs) change the ending to -ous acid. _________ous acid –HClO 2

12 Acids – Finishing Up If you have the name and need to find the formula –Example: Acetic Acid –Cross off the –ic and add at –ate –Acetate! = C 2 H 3 O 2 - Finish by adding the correct # of Hs (1 for every negative) HC 2 H 3 O 2 is acetic acid

13 Warm Up HBrChlorous Acid FeSCopper(I) fluoride PBr 5 dinitrogen dioxide K 2 SO 4 nitrogen monoxide CCl 4 hydroiodic acid HNO 3 potassium nitrate LiClphosphoric acid

14 Covalent Bonding Covalent bond – atoms share electrons. There are several electrostatic interactions in these bonds: –Attractions between electrons and nuclei –Repulsions between electrons –Repulsions between nuclei

15 Lewis Dot Structures ONLY Valence (outer) electrons are involved. Lewis dot structures can be drawn for: – atoms –molecules Lewis dot structures show structure of a molecule, and help predict shape.

16 Steps to Writing Lewis Structures 1.Find the sum of valence electrons of all atoms in the polyatomic ion or molecule. PCl (7) = 26

17 Writing Lewis Structures 2.Arrange element symbols to show how atoms are connected – show electrons as dots. Draw in the valence electrons of each of the atoms Keep track of the electrons:

18 Writing Lewis Structures 3.Connect the lines to form single bonds. 1 line = 2 electrons Keep track of the electrons:

19 Writing Lewis Structures 4.Finish by checking for octets. Hydrogen only needs 2 electrons to be happy Keep track of the electrons:

20 Writing Lewis Structures 5.If the central atom does not have an octet… …form multiple bonds until it does. Example: HCN

21 Exceptions! Boron and Aluminum are okay with only 6 e - around them –BF 3

22 Exceptions If the Lewis Dot Structure you are drawing is an ion: – Use [] and specify the charge –Add or subtract electrons Positive charges take away electrons Negative charges add electrons Example: Br -


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