Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 8 Notes Mr Nelson 2010.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Notes Mr Nelson 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Notes Mr Nelson 2010

2 Chemical Bonds Three basic types of bonds Ionic Covalent Metallic
Electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent Sharing of electrons Metallic Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms

3 Ionic Compounds – Review
Made up of ions Cations (+) & Anions (-) Metals & Nonmetals (or polyatomic ions) Exchange of electrons Charges Balance

4 Molecular Compounds – Intro
No ions Charges will not balance Composed of two nonmetals Sharing of electrons Covalent bonding Naming is based on prefixes

5 Nomenclature of Binary Compounds
If both elements are nonmetals we must use prefixes. The 1st element only gets a prefix if it is greater than 1. 2nd element always gets a prefix and change the ending to -ide

6 Nomenclature of Binary Compounds
Example of a molecular comp: CO2 CO CCl4

7 Practice PCl5 dihydrogen monoxide SF6 carbon trichloride
N2O disulfur hexoxide NO2 nitrogen triiodide

8 Naming Acids An acid is any compound that starts with a hydrogen
When naming an acid: 1st locate the anion (- charge)

9 Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in –ide (not PI)
change the ending to -ic acid and add the prefix hydro- hydro________ic acid HCl

10 Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in –ate (all PI’s)
change the ending to -ic acid. ___________ic acid HClO3

11 Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in –ite (all PI’s)
change the ending to -ous acid. _________ous acid HClO2

12 Acids – Finishing Up If you have the name and need to find the formula
Example: Acetic Acid Cross off the –ic and add at –ate Acetate! = C2H3O2- Finish by adding the correct # of H’s (1 for every negative) HC2H3O2 is acetic acid 

13 Warm Up HBr Chlorous Acid FeS Copper(I) fluoride
PBr5 dinitrogen dioxide K2SO4 nitrogen monoxide CCl4 hydroiodic acid HNO3 potassium nitrate LiCl phosphoric acid

14 Covalent Bonding Covalent bond – atoms share electrons.
There are several electrostatic interactions in these bonds: Attractions between electrons and nuclei Repulsions between electrons Repulsions between nuclei

15 Lewis Dot Structures ONLY Valence (outer) electrons are involved.
Lewis dot structures can be drawn for: atoms molecules Lewis dot structures show structure of a molecule, and help predict shape.

16 Steps to Writing Lewis Structures
Find the sum of valence electrons of all atoms in the polyatomic ion or molecule. PCl3 (7) = 26

17 Writing Lewis Structures
Arrange element symbols to show how atoms are connected – show electrons as dots. Draw in the valence electrons of each of the atoms Keep track of the electrons:

18 Writing Lewis Structures
Connect the lines to form single bonds. 1 line = 2 electrons Keep track of the electrons:

19 Writing Lewis Structures
Finish by checking for octets. Hydrogen only needs 2 electrons to be happy Keep track of the electrons:

20 Writing Lewis Structures
If the central atom does not have an octet… …form multiple bonds until it does. Example: HCN

21 Exceptions! Boron and Aluminum are okay with only 6 e- around them BF3

22 Exceptions If the Lewis Dot Structure you are drawing is an ion:
Use [] and specify the charge Add or subtract electrons Positive charges take away electrons Negative charges add electrons Example: Br-

Download ppt "Chapter 8 Notes Mr Nelson 2010."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google