Presentation on theme: "Israeli-Arab Relations ACW The Middle East: Israel 2007-08."— Presentation transcript:
Israeli-Arab Relations ACW The Middle East: Israel
Early History Jewish Migration/Zionism Balfour Declaration UN Partition Wars Independence Independence Suez Suez Six-Day Six-Day Territories Territories Yom Kippur Yom Kippur Intifada I & II Intifada I & II Lebanon LebanonPeace Camp David Accords Camp David Accords Oslo Accords Oslo AccordsGaza PLAYERS & PROFILES Israelis Palestinians State Sponsors Organizations Also…
ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN ISSUE Rooted in religious history political history modern events
RELIGIOUS BACKGROUND 1). Ibrahim or Abraham is a key person in Christianity, Islam and Judaism. 2). JERUSALEM: Holy city to all three of these religions. Western Wall (Jewish), City where Jesus was crucified (Christianity), Dome of the Rock (Islam).
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: 70 TO 135 A.D. - Romans remove followers of Judaism from Palestine. 638 A.D. - Arabs (Muslims) conquer most of the Middle East including Palestine and control this area until after WWI. 1880s - Zionist Movement begins and over 25,000 Jews move back into the Arab controlled lands.
Viennese journalist and founder of modern political Zionism. Theodor Herzl ( )
Herzl 1. Paris correspondent for New Free Press 2. Witnessed rise of anti-Semitism 3. Solution: mass exodus to Palestine 4. 1 st Zionist Congress World Zionist Organization economic foundation for proposed Jewish state.
Aliyah Acsension (Migration Waves) Pre-Zionist Aliyah ( ) Various 1 st Aliyah ( ) Russia/Yemen 2 nd Aliyah ( ) Russia (1 st Kibbutz) Socialist Ideals 3 rd Aliyah ( ) Russia (Pioneers-Agriculture) -Halutzim 4 th Aliyah ( ) Poland/Hungary Middle Class-Small Business/Lt. Industry 5 th Aliyah ( ) East Europe 250K (mixed vocations) Aliyah Bet: (Illegal Immigration ) Mixed German/E. Europe
By 1914 over 700,000 people lived in Judea- Palestine, 600,000 were Arabs and 100,000 were Jews. World War I ends and the Balfour Declaration is made; the Arabs thought Palestine would be given to them for self-rule.
Periodic Riots Arabs vs. Jewish settlers Arabs vs. British Post-World War II & Holocaust U.S. & Allies pressure British to open up immigration to Palestine for the Jewish people in Europe.
1947 UN calls for partition of Palestine into two states: Jewish Arab Jews accept Arabs do not accept
May 14, 1948 Israel is recognized as a sovereign state. May 15, 1948 Arab League (Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Saudi Arabia) declare war on Israel. April of 1949 an armistice is signed between the nations and Israel gains 50% more land and thousands of Palestinians are displaced and become refugees in other Arab countries.
ARAB INVASION 1948 On May 14, 1948 Israel declared independence. Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt and Iraq invaded with the declared intent of destroying Israel.
ARAB REFUGEES 1948
1956 Suez War: Israel and the Arab League go to war again the P.L.O. Palestine Liberation Organization founded with the aim of destroying Israel. June 5-10,1967 Six-Day War. Israel destroys the Egyptian air force on the ground, conquers and occupies Sinai and Gaza, then conquers the West Bank from Jordan and Golan Heights from Syria. UN resolution 242 called for Israeli withdrawal, establishment of peace.
Oct. 6,1973 Yom Kippur War (War by Proxy) Surprise attack Jewish day of Atonement, Egypt reclaimed Suez canal and a narrow zone on other side. Syria reconquers Golan Heights. US and Soviet Massive re-supplying Israel, Soviet Massive re-supply of Syria. Israel succeeds in pushing back the Syrians and retaking the Golan Heights.
July 16, 1989 First Palestinian suicide attack inside Israel's borders: Tel Aviv Jerusalem bus massacre numerous acts of violence takes place by both sides Oslo Peace Accords are signed Israel and P.L.O. agree to mutual recognition the Palestinian Authority to established. A political method to solve the issues between the two parties.
more incidents and changes in Israels political leaders Sept. 28, 2000 Palestinians initiated riots after Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount, which is also the location of the Haram al Sharif (Dome of the Rock) July 9, 2004 International court of Justice (ICJ) rules that the Israeli security barrier violates international law and must be torn down. Nov 11, 2004 Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat dies. Jan 9, 2005 Mahmoud Abbas elected President of the Palestinian National Authority.
June, 2005 Violence flares in Gaza. US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visits Palestinian and Israeli leaders to ensure coordination of Israeli withdrawal from Gaza. Israeli PM Ariel Sharon and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas meet in Jerusalem June 21. Sharon announces that Palestinians have promised to coordinate regarding Gaza withdrawal. Jan Hamas defeats Abbas's Fatah party in the elections.
GAZA DISENGAGEMENT Gaza 130 sq mi Portland 134 sq mi 8,000 sq mi 19,231 km²
Hamas magazine Filisteen Almuslima (currently printed in Lebanon and circulated from the U.K.)
In the summer of 2002, Israel began erecting a barrier to seal off the occupied Palestinian territories, following a series of Palestinian suicide bombings in Israel. Israel calls it a security fence. Palestinians call it The Wall. Two-billion-dollar project It has led to a dramatic decrease in the number of suicide bombings in Israel. September July 2003: 115 suicide bombings. Two- thirds of the victims were civilians. July November 2004: 21 suicide bombings, only three of which took place in northern Israel, where the fence has been completed.
West Bank Walls
Ehud Olmert Menachem Begin Golda Meir Shimon Peres Yitzhak Rabin Benjamin Netanyahu Ariel Sharon David Ben-Gurion
December 1987 Violence, riots, general strikes and civil disobedience campaigns by Palestinians spread across the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Israeli forces respond with tear gas, plastic bullets, and live ammunition. 1 st Intifada