2Conservative Authoritarianism Traditional form of antidemocratic government in Europe(e.g., Metternich, Catherine the Great)Prevented major changes undermining existing social orderPopular participation in government forbidden or severely limited
3Conservative Authoritarianism Limited in power and in objectives (usually sought status quo)Lacked modern technology and communications and could not control many aspects of their subjects’ lives.Usually limited demands to taxes, army recruits, and passive acceptance of the regimeConservative Authoritarianism revived after WWI, especially in less-developed Eastern Europe and Spain and Portugal; only Czechoslovakia remained democratic.Great Depression ended various levels of democracy in Austria, Bulgaria, Rumania, Greece, Estonia, and Latvia
4vs. TotalitarianismDictatorship that tried to control every aspect of the lives of the people.New technology made this possible: radio, automobile, telephoneTools of totalitarianism: censorship, indoctrination, terrorExisted first in Russia, then Italy?, Japan and Germany (sought expansion, except Russia)
5Fascist Italy Causes for rise of fascism In early 20th century, Italy was a liberal state with civil rights and constitutional monarchy.Versailles Treaty: Italian nationalists angry that Italy did not receive any Austrian or Ottoman territory, (Italia Irredenta) or Germany’s African colonies as promised.Depression in 1919 caused nationwide strikes and class tension
6Fascist Italy Causes for rise of fascism Wealthy classes fearful of communist revolution looked to strong anti-communist leaderBy 1921 revolutionary socialists and conservatives were all opposed to liberal parliamentary government.Fascism in Italy = a combo of conservative authoritarianism and modern totalitarianism (although not as extreme as Russia or Germany)
7Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) ("Il Duce") Organized the Fascist partyCombination ofsocialismnationalism: territorial expansionbenefits for workers,land reform for peasants.Initially failed to succeed because of competition from well-organized Socialists.1920, Mussolini gained support of conservative classes and frightened middle class for anti-Socialist rhetoric; abandoned his socialist programs.
8Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) ("Il Duce") Blackshirts (squadristi): Paramilitary forces attacked Communists, socialists, and other enemies of the fascist programLater, Hitler's "Brown Shirts" followed this example
9Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) ("Il Duce") March on Rome, October 1922: led to Mussolini taking powerMussolini demanded resignation of existing gov’t and his own appointment by the king.Fascists marched on Rome to threaten king to accept Mussolini's demands.Government collapsed; Mussolini received right to organize a new cabinet (government).Victor Emmanuel III gave him dictatorial powers for 1 year to end nation’s social unrest.
10Corporate State Was the economic basis for Italian fascism. “Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.”By 1928, all independent labor unions organized into government-controlled syndicatesEstablished organizations of workers and employers and outlawed strikes and walkouts.Created corporations which coordinated activities between worker-employer syndicates.Authority from the top, unlike socialist corporate states where workers made decisions.
11Corporate State Right to vote severely limited. All candidates for parliament selected by Fascist party.Gov’t ruled by decree.Fascists put in control of schools.Created fascist youth movement, labor unions, and other fascist organizations: Dopolavoro (After Work) and Balilla (Fascist Youth Organization) failed to regulate leisure time.
12Mussolini Never Became All-Powerful Failed in attempt to “Fascistize” Italian society by controlling leisure timeOld power structure of conservatives, military, and church remained intact.Mussolini never attempted to purge conservative classes.He propagandized and controlled labor but left big business to regulate itself.No land reform occurredDid not establish “ruthless” police state (only 23 political prisoners executed bet )Racial laws not passed until 1938 and savage persecution of Jews not until late in WWII when Italy was under Nazi control.
13Italian WomenDivorce abolished and women told to stay home and procreate.Decreed a special tax on bachelors in 1934.1938, women limited by law to a maximum of 10% of better-paying jobs in industry & gov't
14Fascist Accomplishments Internal improvements made such as electrification and roadbuilding.More efficient municipal governing.Suppression of the MafiaLateran Pact, 1929, resulted in reconciliation with the papacyVatican recognized as a tiny independent state; received $92 mil for seized church landsIn return, Pope Pius XII recognized legitimacy of the Italian state.
15Fascist Failures Italian democracy destroyed Terrorism became a state policy.Poor industrial growth due to militarism and colonialism.Disastrous wars resulted from attempt to recapture imperialistic glories of Ancient Rome.
16NAZI GERMANYRoots of Nazism: Extreme nationalism + racism = Nazism
17Adolf HitlerBecame leader of National German Workers Party (NAZI) after WWIS.A.: "Brown Shirts" terrorized political opponents on the streetsBeer Hall Putsch, 1923: Hitler failed to overthrow Bavaria and sentenced to 1 year in jailHitler realized he'd have to take control of Germany legally, not through revolution
19Mein Kampf1923 written while in jail: became the blueprint for Hitler's future plansLebensraum (“living space”): Germans should expand east, liquidate the Jews and turn the Slavs into slave laborAnti-Semitism: Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany's political and economic problemsLeader-dictator, Fuhrer, would have unlimited arbitrary power
20Fall of Weimar Republic the Result of the Great Depression Unemployment reached 43% by end of 1932Hitler began promising German voters economic, political, and military salvation.Hitler promised big business leaders he would restore the economybreak Germany’s strong labor movement + reducing workers’ wages if necessary.Hitler assured top army leaders that the Nazis would reject the Versailles Treaty and rearm Germany.Nazis also appealed to German youth: 40% of party under age 30 in 1931; 67% under 40
21The Ruhr CrisisFrance occupies Germany’s key coal, iron and steel producing region in order to punish Germany for default on its reparation payments. And to extract payment in form of coal, etc.German workers there go on strike.Germany prints more money to support the workersHyperinflation explodes.Dawes plan is enacted to give Germany relief
23Austin Chamberlain (Br.) Locarno Pact: 1925Austin Chamberlain (Br.)Gustave Stresemann (Ger.)Aristide Briand (Fr.)Guaranteed the common boundaries of Belgium, France, and Germany as specified in the Treaty of Versailles of Germany member of LoN. France no longer occupies Germany.Germany signed treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia, agreeing to change the eastern borders of Germany by arbitration only.
24Kellogg-Briand Pact: 192815 nations committed to outlawing aggression and war for settling disputes.Problem no way of enforcement.
25Article 48If a state (8) does not fulfill the obligations laid upon it by the Reich constitution or the Reich laws, the Reich President may use armed force to cause it to oblige. In case public safety is seriously threatened or disturbed, the Reich President may take the measures necessary to reestablish law and order, if necessary using armed force. In the pursuit of this aim he may suspend the civil rights described in articles 114, 115, 117, 118, 123, 124 and 154, partially or entirely. The Reich President has to inform Reichstag immediately about all measures undertaken which are based on paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article. The measures have to be suspended immediately if Reichstag demands so. If danger is imminent, the state government may, for their specific territory, implement steps as described in paragraph 2. These steps have to be suspended if so demanded by the Reich President or the Reichstag. Further details are provided by Reich law.
26Fall of Weimar Republic the Result of the Great Depression 1930, Chancellor gained permission from President Hindenburg for emergency rule by decreeStruggle between Social Democrats & Communists contributed to breakdown of gov't.Nazi's won largest percentage of votes in the Reichstag in 1933 electionsHitler becomes Chancellor on January 30, 1933; appointed by Hindenburg.
27Third Reich (1933-1945) Hitler Consolidates Power Reichstag fire: occurred during violent electoral campaign: used by Nazis to crack down on communistsEnabling Act: (March 1933) passed by Reichstag – Gleichschaltung (“coordination”)Gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four yearsOnly the Nazi party was legalHitler outlawed strikes and abolished independent labor unions.
28Third Reich (1933-1945) Hitler Consolidates Power Publishers, universities, and writers brought into lineDemocratic, socialist, and Jewish literature put on blacklists.Students and professors burned forbidden books in public squares.Modern art and architecture was prohibited ("degenerate art")Joseph Goebbles: minister of propaganda effectively glorified Hitler and the Nazi state
29Third Reich (1933-1945) Hitler Consolidates Power “Night of Long Knives” (June 1934)Hitler realized the army and big business were suspicious of the S.A.Hitler’s elite personal guard—the SS—arrested and shot without trial about 1,000 SA leaders and other political enemies.S.S. grew dramatically in influence as Hitler's private army and secret policeLed by Heinrich HimmlerSS joined with the political police, the Gestapo, to expand its network of special courts and concentration camps.
31Persecution of JewsBy the end of 1934, most Jewish lawyers, doctors, professors, civil servants, and musicians had lost their jobs and the right to practice their professions.Nuremberg Laws of 1935 deprived Jews of all rights of citizenship.By 1938, 25% of German Jews had emigrated (many were the "cream of the crop")
32Kristallnacht 1938 (“The Night of Broken Glass”) Using assassination of a German diplomat in Paris by young Jewish boy as pretense, Hitler ordered an attack on Jewish communities.Well-organized wave of violence destroyed homes, synagogues, and businesses.Thousands of Jews were arrested and made to pay for the damage.
34“This people must disappear from the face of the earth.” Heinrich Himmler, “Speech to the Leaders of the Nazi Party.”Posen, October 6, 1943
35Russia under StalinEntire Politburo from Lenin's time was eventually purged leaving Stalin in absolute control.Trotsky & Stalin
36Major Cause of Revolution WWIMassive Russian casualtiesFood shortages
37February RevolutionOverthrew the Czar and instituted the Provisional GovernmentRevolution started by women rioting for bread in Petrograd; workers and soldiers joined inDuma responded by declaring a provisional gov’t on March 12, 1917.Provisional gov't wanted to continue the war; Soviets control the army
38Alexander Kerensky Becomes leader of the Provisional Gov’t Implements liberal program: equality before the law; freedom of religion, speech, and assembly; right of unions to organize & strike; election of local officials; 8-hr work dayRejects social revolution: doesn't confiscate large landholdings and give them to peasants
39Army Order #1Stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers (soldiers afraid in the future they might be liable for treason against the czar)Led to collapse of army disciplineAnarchy in Russia by summer of 1917Kerensky's refusal to end the war and prevent anarchy leads to fall of Provisional Gov't
40Rise of Vladimir I. Lenin April 1917 Germany arranged for Lenin to be transported back to Russia; hoped to get Russia out of war"April Theses": Lenin rejected all cooperation with the “bourgeois” provisional gov’tCalled for a "Socialist revolution" and establishment of a Soviet republicNationalization of banks and landed estates“All Power to the Soviets”; “All Land to the Peasants”
42Kornilov AffairMilitary coup by General Kornilov failed. Kerensky lost all credit with army
43October Revolution(Actually in November) results in a communist dictatorshipPolitburo formed to organize revolution: includes Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, BukharinLeon Trotsky, leader of the Petrograd Soviet (the Red Army), led Soviet overthrow and arrest of the provisional gov’t
44October RevolutionNew elections: Bolshevik's lost (only 25% of vote) but overthrew new gov't with Red ArmyLenin: "Peace, Land, Bread"Lenin gave land to peasants (although peasants already took it, like French Revolution)Lenin gave direct control of individual factories by local workers’ committees.Signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 to take Russia out of WWIBolsheviks renamed "communists"These actions lead to opposition to Bolsheviks and the Russian Civil War
45Russian Civil WarReds (Bolsheviks) vs “Whites” (included officers of old army, and 18 groups proclaiming themselves the real gov't of Russia--had no leader to unify them)Allies sent troops to help "Whites" (Archangel Expedition; Siberia)By 1921, the communists had defeated their opponentsCommunists extremely well organized (Trotsky); Whites were poorly organized
46Russian Civil War“war communism”: Bolsheviks mobilized the home front for the civil warEarliest form of socialism in the Soviet UnionApplied "total war" concept to a civil warCheka: Secret police formed to hunt down and execute thousands of real or supposed opponents, such as the tsar and his family and other “class enemies.”
47Results of the Russian Revolution Costs: 15 million dead, economy ruined, international trade gone, millions of workers fledCreation of world's first communist society: one of the monumental events of 20th century
48Economic ProblemsThough the Whites were put down, the Soviet internal situation remained critical in 1921, with the economy being below pre-war levels.The anarchists and peasants began to revolt in the countryside in an attempt to do something about the starvation & suffering of the masses.
49The New Economic Policy (NEP) This was Lenin’s stop-gap measure to retain control and provide temporary relief.Under the NEP, peasants were allowed to keep part of their produce, which they were allowed to sell for cash profit on newly-recreated local markets.The gov’t kept control of heavy industry & internat’l trade, but light manufacturing and internal trade was returned to private hands.
50NEP, continuedThe Kulaks (large peasant farmers) and other entrepreneurs made large profits by taking advantage of this liberalization.As a result, some Bolsheviks, such as Trotsky, wanted to kill themSome other people wanted to extend the NEP to include even more private businessLenin believed both groups were wrong, and that the NEP was necessary until a full communist society could be realized in the future.
51The Power Struggle: Stalin vs. Trotsky Lenin had a series of strokes between 1922 & He finally died in 1924.Trotsky & Stalin both wanted to be Lenin’s successor.Trotsky was a theorist who had organized the Red Army and the Petrograd Soviet.Stalin was an activist who had been instrumental in forcing the minority republics to unite into the USSR. He also had control of the machinery of gov’t.
52Stalin vs. TrotskyTrotsky wanted to promote world revolution ASAP, while Stalin was willing to wait & instead concentrate on rebuilding the USSR, 1st.When Trotsky publicly criticized Stalin’s foreign policy in 1927, Stalin had him exiled to Siberia.Trotsky eventually escaped to the west & was assassinated by Stalin’s men in 1941.
53Russia under StalinEntire Politburo from Lenin's time was eventually purged leaving Stalin in absolute control.Trotsky & Stalin
54Lenin’s TestamentIn his will, Lenin stated that Stalin was too power-hungry and too brutal and uncouth to become his successor.Lenin believed Trotsky should be the next head of the USSR.Stalin, however, gained full control of the USSR, after the exile of Trotsky.
55Stalin’s 5-Year Plans"Revolution from above" (1st Five Year Plan), 1928; marked end of NEPObjectives:Total industrial output to increase by 250%; steel by 300%; agriculture by 150%1/5 of peasants were scheduled to give up their private plots and join collective farms“We are 50 or 100 years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in 10 years. Either we do it or we shall go under.”
56Stalin’s 5-Year PlansResults: steel up 400% (now 2nd largest steel producer in Europe); oil up 300%; massive urbanization (25 million people moved to cities)Costs: quality of goods suspect; standard of living did not rise
57Collectivization Was the greatest of all costs Purpose: bring peasantry under absolute control of the communist stateConsolidation of individual peasant farms into large, state-controlled enterprises.Farmers paid according to amount of work; portion of harvest paid to gov'tGoals:Use of machines in farm production, to free more people to work in industryGov't control over productionExtend socialism to countryside
58CollectivizationOpposed by farmers as it placed them in a bound situation like the mirs.Kulaks, wealthiest peasants, offered greatest resistance to collectivizationStalin ordered party workers to "liquidate them as a class."10 million dead due to collectivization (7 million in forced starvation in Ukraine)
59Collectivization Agricultural output no greater than in 1913 By 1933, 60% of peasant families were on collective farms; 93% by 1938.Eventually, the state was assured of grain for bread for urban workers who were more important politically than the peasants.Collective farmers first had to meet grain quotas before feeding themselves.
61Russian Soldier on Communism “They pretend to pay us, we pretend to work.”
62Structure of USSR Gov'tCentral Committee: was the apex of Soviet power (about 70 people in 1930s)Politburo: About a dozen members; dominated discussions of policy and personnelGeneral Secretary: highest position of power; created by Stalin
63Stalin’s Propaganda Campaign Purpose: To glorify work to soviet people--an attempt to encourage worker productivityUsed technology for propagandaNewspapers (esp. Pravda), films, and radio broadcasts emphasized socialist achievements and capitalist plots.Sergei Eisenstein: patriotic Russian filmmakerWriters & artists expected to glorify Stalin and the state; work was closely monitoredReligion was persecuted: Stalin hoped to turn churches into "museums of atheism"
65"Under the Leadership of the Great Stalin." 1951
66Benefits for WorkersOld-age pensions, free medical services, free education, and day-care centers for childrenEducation was key to improving one’s position: specialized skills and technical education.Many Russians saw themselves building world’s first socialist society while capitalism crumbled during the Great DepressionUSSR attracted many disillusioned Westerners to communism in the 1930s.
67WomenRussian Revolution immediately proclaimed complete equality of rights for women.In 1920s divorce and abortion made easily available.Women urged to work outside the home and liberate themselves sexually.Many women worked as professionals and in universities.Women still expected to do household chores in off hours as Soviet men considered home and children women’s responsibility.Men continued to monopolize the best jobs.Rapid change and economic hardship led to many broken families.
68Great Terror ( )First directed against peasants after 1929, terror used increasingly on leading Communists, powerful administrators, and ordinary people, often for no apparent reason.The "Great Terror" resulted in 8 million arrestsShow trials used eradicate "enemies of the people" (usually ex-party members)Late 1930s, dozens of Old Bolsheviks tried and executed (Lenin's closest followers)Purges: 40,000 army officers were expelled or liquidated (weakened USSR in WWII)Millions of citizens were killed, died in labor camps, or simply disappeared
69Gulags Prison camps Located in isolated areas such as Siberia Many sentenced to yrsMany died in the camps due to malnutrition & worked to death
70Spanish Civil War1936: Mussolini and Hitler use conflict as a testing ground for their military forces: Italy's army; Germany's airforce -- LuftwaffeFascism prevails under Francisco Franco; also known as Falangists (or Royalists)League ineffective in helping republicans (Loyalists) against Franco.Rome-Berlin Axis formed ("Fascintern"): an alliance between fascist Italy and Germany