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Rise of Totalitarianism

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1 Rise of Totalitarianism
Isms & Dictators

2 Conservative Authoritarianism
Traditional form of antidemocratic government in Europe (e.g., Metternich, Catherine the Great) Prevented major changes undermining existing social order Popular participation in government forbidden or severely limited

3 Conservative Authoritarianism
Limited in power and in objectives (usually sought status quo) Lacked modern technology and communications and could not control many aspects of their subjects’ lives. Usually limited demands to taxes, army recruits, and passive acceptance of the regime Conservative Authoritarianism revived after WWI, especially in less-developed Eastern Europe and Spain and Portugal; only Czechoslovakia remained democratic. Great Depression ended various levels of democracy in Austria, Bulgaria, Rumania, Greece, Estonia, and Latvia

4 vs. Totalitarianism Dictatorship that tried to control every aspect of the lives of the people. New technology made this possible: radio, automobile, telephone Tools of totalitarianism: censorship, indoctrination, terror Existed first in Russia, then Italy?, Japan and Germany (sought expansion, except Russia)

5 Fascist Italy Causes for rise of fascism
In early 20th century, Italy was a liberal state with civil rights and constitutional monarchy. Versailles Treaty: Italian nationalists angry that Italy did not receive any Austrian or Ottoman territory, (Italia Irredenta) or Germany’s African colonies as promised. Depression in 1919 caused nationwide strikes and class tension

6 Fascist Italy Causes for rise of fascism
Wealthy classes fearful of communist revolution looked to strong anti-communist leader By 1921 revolutionary socialists and conservatives were all opposed to liberal parliamentary government. Fascism in Italy = a combo of conservative authoritarianism and modern totalitarianism (although not as extreme as Russia or Germany)

7 Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) ("Il Duce")
Organized the Fascist party Combination of socialism nationalism: territorial expansion benefits for workers, land reform for peasants. Initially failed to succeed because of competition from well-organized Socialists. 1920, Mussolini gained support of conservative classes and frightened middle class for anti-Socialist rhetoric; abandoned his socialist programs.

8 Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) ("Il Duce")
Blackshirts (squadristi): Paramilitary forces attacked Communists, socialists, and other enemies of the fascist program Later, Hitler's "Brown Shirts" followed this example

9 Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) ("Il Duce")
March on Rome, October 1922: led to Mussolini taking power Mussolini demanded resignation of existing gov’t and his own appointment by the king. Fascists marched on Rome to threaten king to accept Mussolini's demands. Government collapsed; Mussolini received right to organize a new cabinet (government). Victor Emmanuel III gave him dictatorial powers for 1 year to end nation’s social unrest.

10 Corporate State Was the economic basis for Italian fascism.
“Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.” By 1928, all independent labor unions organized into government-controlled syndicates Established organizations of workers and employers and outlawed strikes and walkouts. Created corporations which coordinated activities between worker-employer syndicates. Authority from the top, unlike socialist corporate states where workers made decisions.

11 Corporate State Right to vote severely limited.
All candidates for parliament selected by Fascist party. Gov’t ruled by decree. Fascists put in control of schools. Created fascist youth movement, labor unions, and other fascist organizations: Dopolavoro (After Work) and Balilla (Fascist Youth Organization) failed to regulate leisure time.

12 Mussolini Never Became All-Powerful
Failed in attempt to “Fascistize” Italian society by controlling leisure time Old power structure of conservatives, military, and church remained intact. Mussolini never attempted to purge conservative classes. He propagandized and controlled labor but left big business to regulate itself. No land reform occurred Did not establish “ruthless” police state (only 23 political prisoners executed bet ) Racial laws not passed until 1938 and savage persecution of Jews not until late in WWII when Italy was under Nazi control.

13 Italian Women Divorce abolished and women told to stay home and procreate. Decreed a special tax on bachelors in 1934. 1938, women limited by law to a maximum of 10% of better-paying jobs in industry & gov't

14 Fascist Accomplishments
Internal improvements made such as electrification and roadbuilding. More efficient municipal governing. Suppression of the Mafia Lateran Pact, 1929, resulted in reconciliation with the papacy Vatican recognized as a tiny independent state; received $92 mil for seized church lands In return, Pope Pius XII recognized legitimacy of the Italian state.

15 Fascist Failures Italian democracy destroyed
Terrorism became a state policy. Poor industrial growth due to militarism and colonialism. Disastrous wars resulted from attempt to recapture imperialistic glories of Ancient Rome.

16 NAZI GERMANY Roots of Nazism: Extreme nationalism + racism = Nazism

17 Adolf Hitler Became leader of National German Workers Party (NAZI) after WWI S.A.: "Brown Shirts" terrorized political opponents on the streets Beer Hall Putsch, 1923: Hitler failed to overthrow Bavaria and sentenced to 1 year in jail Hitler realized he'd have to take control of Germany legally, not through revolution

18 Hitler’s SA

19 Mein Kampf 1923 written while in jail: became the blueprint for Hitler's future plans Lebensraum (“living space”): Germans should expand east, liquidate the Jews and turn the Slavs into slave labor Anti-Semitism: Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany's political and economic problems Leader-dictator, Fuhrer, would have unlimited arbitrary power

20 Fall of Weimar Republic the Result of the Great Depression
Unemployment reached 43% by end of 1932 Hitler began promising German voters economic, political, and military salvation. Hitler promised big business leaders he would restore the economybreak Germany’s strong labor movement + reducing workers’ wages if necessary. Hitler assured top army leaders that the Nazis would reject the Versailles Treaty and rearm Germany. Nazis also appealed to German youth: 40% of party under age 30 in 1931; 67% under 40

21 The Ruhr Crisis France occupies Germany’s key coal, iron and steel producing region in order to punish Germany for default on its reparation payments. And to extract payment in form of coal, etc. German workers there go on strike. Germany prints more money to support the workers Hyperinflation explodes. Dawes plan is enacted to give Germany relief

22

23 Austin Chamberlain (Br.)
Locarno Pact: 1925 Austin Chamberlain (Br.) Gustave Stresemann (Ger.) Aristide Briand (Fr.) Guaranteed the common boundaries of Belgium, France, and Germany as specified in the Treaty of Versailles of Germany member of LoN. France no longer occupies Germany. Germany signed treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia, agreeing to change the eastern borders of Germany by arbitration only.

24 Kellogg-Briand Pact: 1928 15 nations committed to outlawing aggression and war for settling disputes. Problem  no way of enforcement.

25 Article 48 If a state (8) does not fulfill the obligations laid upon it by the Reich constitution or the Reich laws, the Reich President may use armed force to cause it to oblige. In case public safety is seriously threatened or disturbed, the Reich President may take the measures necessary to reestablish law and order, if necessary using armed force. In the pursuit of this aim he may suspend the civil rights described in articles 114, 115, 117, 118, 123, 124 and 154, partially or entirely. The Reich President has to inform Reichstag immediately about all measures undertaken which are based on paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article. The measures have to be suspended immediately if Reichstag demands so. If danger is imminent, the state government may, for their specific territory, implement steps as described in paragraph 2. These steps have to be suspended if so demanded by the Reich President or the Reichstag. Further details are provided by Reich law.

26 Fall of Weimar Republic the Result of the Great Depression
1930, Chancellor gained permission from President Hindenburg for emergency rule by decree Struggle between Social Democrats & Communists contributed to breakdown of gov't. Nazi's won largest percentage of votes in the Reichstag in 1933 elections Hitler becomes Chancellor on January 30, 1933; appointed by Hindenburg.

27 Third Reich (1933-1945) Hitler Consolidates Power
Reichstag fire: occurred during violent electoral campaign: used by Nazis to crack down on communists Enabling Act: (March 1933) passed by Reichstag – Gleichschaltung (“coordination”) Gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years Only the Nazi party was legal Hitler outlawed strikes and abolished independent labor unions.

28 Third Reich (1933-1945) Hitler Consolidates Power
Publishers, universities, and writers brought into line Democratic, socialist, and Jewish literature put on blacklists. Students and professors burned forbidden books in public squares. Modern art and architecture was prohibited ("degenerate art") Joseph Goebbles: minister of propaganda effectively glorified Hitler and the Nazi state

29 Third Reich (1933-1945) Hitler Consolidates Power
“Night of Long Knives” (June 1934) Hitler realized the army and big business were suspicious of the S.A. Hitler’s elite personal guard—the SS—arrested and shot without trial about 1,000 SA leaders and other political enemies. S.S. grew dramatically in influence as Hitler's private army and secret police Led by Heinrich Himmler SS joined with the political police, the Gestapo, to expand its network of special courts and concentration camps.

30 Goebbles, Himmler, & SS

31 Persecution of Jews By the end of 1934, most Jewish lawyers, doctors, professors, civil servants, and musicians had lost their jobs and the right to practice their professions. Nuremberg Laws of 1935 deprived Jews of all rights of citizenship. By 1938, 25% of German Jews had emigrated (many were the "cream of the crop")

32 Kristallnacht 1938 (“The Night of Broken Glass”)
Using assassination of a German diplomat in Paris by young Jewish boy as pretense, Hitler ordered an attack on Jewish communities. Well-organized wave of violence destroyed homes, synagogues, and businesses. Thousands of Jews were arrested and made to pay for the damage.

33 Kristallnacht

34 “This people must disappear from the face of the earth.”
Heinrich Himmler, “Speech to the Leaders of the Nazi Party.” Posen, October 6, 1943

35 Russia under Stalin Entire Politburo from Lenin's time was eventually purged leaving Stalin in absolute control. Trotsky & Stalin

36 Major Cause of Revolution
WWI Massive Russian casualties Food shortages

37 February Revolution Overthrew the Czar and instituted the Provisional Government Revolution started by women rioting for bread in Petrograd; workers and soldiers joined in Duma responded by declaring a provisional gov’t on March 12, 1917. Provisional gov't wanted to continue the war; Soviets control the army

38 Alexander Kerensky Becomes leader of the Provisional Gov’t
Implements liberal program: equality before the law; freedom of religion, speech, and assembly; right of unions to organize & strike; election of local officials; 8-hr work day Rejects social revolution: doesn't confiscate large landholdings and give them to peasants

39 Army Order #1 Stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers (soldiers afraid in the future they might be liable for treason against the czar) Led to collapse of army discipline Anarchy in Russia by summer of 1917 Kerensky's refusal to end the war and prevent anarchy leads to fall of Provisional Gov't

40 Rise of Vladimir I. Lenin
April 1917 Germany arranged for Lenin to be transported back to Russia; hoped to get Russia out of war "April Theses": Lenin rejected all cooperation with the “bourgeois” provisional gov’t Called for a "Socialist revolution" and establishment of a Soviet republic Nationalization of banks and landed estates “All Power to the Soviets”; “All Land to the Peasants”

41 Lenin

42 Kornilov Affair Military coup by General Kornilov failed. Kerensky lost all credit with army

43 October Revolution (Actually in November) results in a communist dictatorship Politburo formed to organize revolution: includes Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin Leon Trotsky, leader of the Petrograd Soviet (the Red Army), led Soviet overthrow and arrest of the provisional gov’t

44 October Revolution New elections: Bolshevik's lost (only 25% of vote) but overthrew new gov't with Red Army Lenin: "Peace, Land, Bread" Lenin gave land to peasants (although peasants already took it, like French Revolution) Lenin gave direct control of individual factories by local workers’ committees. Signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 to take Russia out of WWI Bolsheviks renamed "communists" These actions lead to opposition to Bolsheviks and the Russian Civil War

45 Russian Civil War Reds (Bolsheviks) vs “Whites” (included officers of old army, and 18 groups proclaiming themselves the real gov't of Russia--had no leader to unify them) Allies sent troops to help "Whites" (Archangel Expedition; Siberia) By 1921, the communists had defeated their opponents Communists extremely well organized (Trotsky); Whites were poorly organized

46 Russian Civil War “war communism”: Bolsheviks mobilized the home front for the civil war Earliest form of socialism in the Soviet Union Applied "total war" concept to a civil war Cheka: Secret police formed to hunt down and execute thousands of real or supposed opponents, such as the tsar and his family and other “class enemies.”

47 Results of the Russian Revolution
Costs: 15 million dead, economy ruined, international trade gone, millions of workers fled Creation of world's first communist society: one of the monumental events of 20th century

48 Economic Problems Though the Whites were put down, the Soviet internal situation remained critical in 1921, with the economy being below pre-war levels. The anarchists and peasants began to revolt in the countryside in an attempt to do something about the starvation & suffering of the masses.

49 The New Economic Policy (NEP)
This was Lenin’s stop-gap measure to retain control and provide temporary relief. Under the NEP, peasants were allowed to keep part of their produce, which they were allowed to sell for cash profit on newly-recreated local markets. The gov’t kept control of heavy industry & internat’l trade, but light manufacturing and internal trade was returned to private hands.

50 NEP, continued The Kulaks (large peasant farmers) and other entrepreneurs made large profits by taking advantage of this liberalization. As a result, some Bolsheviks, such as Trotsky, wanted to kill them Some other people wanted to extend the NEP to include even more private business Lenin believed both groups were wrong, and that the NEP was necessary until a full communist society could be realized in the future.

51 The Power Struggle: Stalin vs. Trotsky
Lenin had a series of strokes between 1922 & He finally died in 1924. Trotsky & Stalin both wanted to be Lenin’s successor. Trotsky was a theorist who had organized the Red Army and the Petrograd Soviet. Stalin was an activist who had been instrumental in forcing the minority republics to unite into the USSR. He also had control of the machinery of gov’t.

52 Stalin vs. Trotsky Trotsky wanted to promote world revolution ASAP, while Stalin was willing to wait & instead concentrate on rebuilding the USSR, 1st. When Trotsky publicly criticized Stalin’s foreign policy in 1927, Stalin had him exiled to Siberia. Trotsky eventually escaped to the west & was assassinated by Stalin’s men in 1941.

53 Russia under Stalin Entire Politburo from Lenin's time was eventually purged leaving Stalin in absolute control. Trotsky & Stalin

54 Lenin’s Testament In his will, Lenin stated that Stalin was too power-hungry and too brutal and uncouth to become his successor. Lenin believed Trotsky should be the next head of the USSR. Stalin, however, gained full control of the USSR, after the exile of Trotsky.

55 Stalin’s 5-Year Plans "Revolution from above" (1st Five Year Plan), 1928; marked end of NEP Objectives: Total industrial output to increase by 250%; steel by 300%; agriculture by 150% 1/5 of peasants were scheduled to give up their private plots and join collective farms “We are 50 or 100 years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in 10 years. Either we do it or we shall go under.”

56 Stalin’s 5-Year Plans Results: steel up 400% (now 2nd largest steel producer in Europe); oil up 300%; massive urbanization (25 million people moved to cities) Costs: quality of goods suspect; standard of living did not rise

57 Collectivization Was the greatest of all costs
Purpose: bring peasantry under absolute control of the communist state Consolidation of individual peasant farms into large, state-controlled enterprises. Farmers paid according to amount of work; portion of harvest paid to gov't Goals: Use of machines in farm production, to free more people to work in industry Gov't control over production Extend socialism to countryside

58 Collectivization Opposed by farmers as it placed them in a bound situation like the mirs. Kulaks, wealthiest peasants, offered greatest resistance to collectivization Stalin ordered party workers to "liquidate them as a class." 10 million dead due to collectivization (7 million in forced starvation in Ukraine)

59 Collectivization Agricultural output no greater than in 1913
By 1933, 60% of peasant families were on collective farms; 93% by 1938. Eventually, the state was assured of grain for bread for urban workers who were more important politically than the peasants. Collective farmers first had to meet grain quotas before feeding themselves.

60 "Off to collective work," a Soviet poster.

61 Russian Soldier on Communism
“They pretend to pay us, we pretend to work.”

62 Structure of USSR Gov't Central Committee: was the apex of Soviet power (about 70 people in 1930s) Politburo: About a dozen members; dominated discussions of policy and personnel General Secretary: highest position of power; created by Stalin

63 Stalin’s Propaganda Campaign
Purpose: To glorify work to soviet people--an at­tempt to encourage worker productivity Used technology for propaganda Newspapers (esp. Pravda), films, and radio broadcasts emphasized socialist achievements and capitalist plots. Sergei Eisenstein: patriotic Russian filmmaker Writers & artists expected to glorify Stalin and the state; work was closely monitored Religion was persecuted: Stalin hoped to turn churches into "museums of atheism"

64 “Long live the Great Stalin” 1938.

65 "Under the Leadership of the Great Stalin." 1951

66 Benefits for Workers Old-age pensions, free medical services, free education, and day-care centers for children Education was key to improving one’s position: specialized skills and technical education. Many Russians saw themselves building world’s first socialist society while capitalism crumbled during the Great Depression USSR attracted many disillusioned Westerners to communism in the 1930s.

67 Women Russian Revolution immediately proclaimed complete equality of rights for women. In 1920s divorce and abortion made easily available. Women urged to work outside the home and liberate themselves sexually. Many women worked as professionals and in universities. Women still expected to do household chores in off hours as Soviet men considered home and children women’s responsibility. Men continued to monopolize the best jobs. Rapid change and economic hardship led to many broken families.

68 Great Terror ( ) First directed against peasants after 1929, terror used increasingly on leading Communists, powerful administrators, and ordinary people, often for no apparent reason. The "Great Terror" resulted in 8 million arrests Show trials used eradicate "enemies of the people" (usually ex-party members) Late 1930s, dozens of Old Bolsheviks tried and executed (Lenin's closest followers) Purges: 40,000 army officers were expelled or liquidated (weakened USSR in WWII) Millions of citizens were killed, died in labor camps, or simply disappeared

69 Gulags Prison camps Located in isolated areas such as Siberia
Many sentenced to yrs Many died in the camps due to malnutrition & worked to death

70 Spanish Civil War 1936: Mussolini and Hitler use conflict as a testing ground for their military forces: Italy's army; Germany's airforce -- Luftwaffe Fascism prevails under Francisco Franco; also known as Falangists (or Royalists) League ineffective in helping republicans (Loyalists) against Franco. Rome-Berlin Axis formed ("Fascintern"): an alliance between fascist Italy and Germany


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