Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Scientific Revolution. What Was the Scientific Revolution? A revolution in human understanding and knowledge about the physical universe 17th century.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Scientific Revolution. What Was the Scientific Revolution? A revolution in human understanding and knowledge about the physical universe 17th century."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Scientific Revolution

2 What Was the Scientific Revolution? A revolution in human understanding and knowledge about the physical universe 17th century Began with Kepler, Galileo Ended with Newton

3 The BIG PICTURE: The scientific revolution is historically important for three reasons: it laid the basis for our modern view of the world as a rational, ordered place it shifted the nature of discourse in "natural philosophy" from reason (deductive) to empirical (inductive) method Finally, it affected the thinking of a wide range of people from poets and philosophers to practical men of politics and economics

4 Science Before the Scientific Revolution Based almost entirely on reasoning Experimental method or observation wasnt used at all Science in medieval times Alchemy Astrology tradition A medieval alchemist

5 Factors Leading to the Scientific Revolution Rise of universities Contact with non- Western societies The Renaissance Exploration

6 Rationalism Reason, not tradition, is the source of all knowledge René Descartes (1596– 1650) French philosopher and mathematician Cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore, I am) Deductive reasoning René Descartes

7 Empiricism The belief that experience is the only true source of knowledge Roger Bacon Shift toward empiricism a hallmark of the Scientific Revolution Helped lead to the development of the scientific method Roger Bacon

8 Francis Bacon and the Scientific Method 1561–1626 English philosopher and empiricist Inductive reasoning Argued for experimental methodology

9 The Scientific Method Science as a multiple-step process: 3. Test the theory with experiments 2. Develop a theory that explains the object or phenomenon 1. Observe an object or phenomenon

10 Roots of Scientific Thought: Aristotle 4th century BCE Greek philosopher and scientist Wrote several scientific works His work laid the foundation for scientific study through the medieval era Gravity/Theory of falling objects Astronomy: Crystal spheres

11 Roots of Scientific Thought: Ptolemy 2nd century CE Greek astronomer, mathematician, and geographer The Almagest (Syntaxis) Geocentric (earth- centered) model of the universe Motion of the planets

12 Models of the Universe: Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Geocentric: the Earth is at the center of the universe; all heavenly bodies move around the Earth Heliocentric: the Sun is at the center of the universe; all heavenly bodies move around the Sunincluding the Earth

13 Nicholas Copernicus (1473–1543) Polish astronomer and mathematician Commentariolus (1514) Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres (1543)

14 Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) Danish astronomer Amassed accurate astronomical data Theorized a system distinct from both the Ptolemaic and Copernican ones Argued that the Moon and Sun revolve around the Earth while other planets revolve around the Sun BEST. DEATH. EVER.

15 Johannes Kepler (1571– 1630) German astronomer and mathematician Student of Tycho Didnt agree with Tychos interpretation of data Disagreed with Copernicus, claiming that other bodies moved in elliptical motion, as opposed to circular motions Theorized three laws of planetary motion using Tychos data

16 Keplers Three Laws of Planetary Motion Law of Ellipses: Planets orbit the sun in elliptical patterns Law of Equal Areas: The speed of planetary motion changes constantly depending on the distance from the Sun Law of Harmonies: Compares the movement of all the planets, claiming a similarity in their motion

17 Galileo Galilei (1564– 1642) Italian mathematician, astronomer Father of Science Telescopes and astronomical discoveries Theory of falling objects; disproved Aristotle Galileos telescopic drawing of the moon

18 Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World Galileos major work Written in 1632 Argued in favor of the heliocentric model of the universe Frontspiece from the Dialogue; from left to right, the figures shown are Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Copernicus

19 Galileo vs. the Catholic Church The church condemned heliocentric conceptions of the universe The Roman Inquisition Galileos trial Galileo recants, put under house arrest 19 th -century depiction of Galileo before the Inquisition tribunal

20 Sir Isaac Newton (1642– 1727) English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician Synthesized the works of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo The Principia

21 Newtons Laws of Motion First Law: Law of Inertia Second Law: Fundamental Law of Dynamics Third Law: Law of Reciprocal Actions

22 Medicine Before the Scientific Revolution Based on tradition The Church Illustration depicting a bloodletting, an accepted medical procedure before the Scientific Revolution

23 Ancient Medicine: Galen (131–201 CE) Greek physician On the Elements According to Hippocrates Bodily humours Two types of blood On the Use of the Parts of the Body

24 Medieval Medicine: The Catholic Church Provided for care of the poor and the sick Minor clerics took on physician-like roles Eventually, university-trained physicians displaced clerical physicians Clerics treat a royal patient with leeches

25 Andreas Vesalius (1514– 1564) Belgian anatomist On the Fabric of the Human Body Corrected many of Galens errors

26 William Harvey (1578– 1657) English physician On the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals Described the functioning of the heart and circulatory system Disproved Galens theories

27 Chemistry Robert Boyle (1627–1691) Antoine Lavoisier (1743–1794) Joseph Priestley (1733– 1804)

28 Carolus Linnaeus (1707– 1778) Swedish botanist Classification and naming of flora and fauna

29 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) French biologist Early theory of evolution Philosophie Zoologique Lamarcks laws

30 Mathematics Math symbols for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division Analytical geometry: Descartes Calculus: Newton + -

31 New Invention: The Telescope Invented in the Netherlands Galileo Newton Illustration of Galileo at his telescope

32 New Invention: The Microscope Hans Janssen Anton Van Leeuwenhoek Robert Hooke A Janssen microscope, c.1600 Hookes drawing of a flea (from Micrographia)

33 New Invention: The Pendulum Clock Invented by Christiaan Huygens, a 17th- century Dutch scientist Allowed scientists to more accurately measure time Huygenss design for a pendulum clock

34 New Invention: Barometer Invented by 17th-century Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli The barometer measures air pressure Torricellis barometer experiment

35 New Invention: Thermometer Invented in the 17th century by Santorio Santorio, an Italian scientist Ferdinand II Gabriel Fahrenheit Anders Celsius Illustration depicting Santorios thermometer Santorio

36 New Invention: Mechanical Calculator Invented by Wilhelm Schickard, a 17th- century German inventor Gottfried von Leibnizs Step Reckoner Wilhelm Schickard A 1624 sketch Schickard made of his calculator

37 The Significance of the Scientific Revolution Abandonment of ancient and medieval systems Development of the scientific method The Enlightenment

Download ppt "The Scientific Revolution. What Was the Scientific Revolution? A revolution in human understanding and knowledge about the physical universe 17th century."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google