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The French Revolution. Absolute monarchs didnt share power with a counsel or parliament Divine Right of Kings Absolutism King James I of England.

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Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution. Absolute monarchs didnt share power with a counsel or parliament Divine Right of Kings Absolutism King James I of England."— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution

2 Absolute monarchs didnt share power with a counsel or parliament Divine Right of Kings Absolutism King James I of England

3 The Seigneurial System Feudal method of land ownership and organization Peasant labor Receiving a seigneurial grant

4 Ruled from 1643– 1715 Reduced the power of the nobility Fought four wars Greatly increased Frances national debt Louis XIV

5 Louis XV War fought in Europe, India, North America France ends up losing some of its colonial possessions Increases French national debt The Seven Years War Louis XV French and English troops fight at the battle of Fort St. Philip on the island of Minorca

6 First Estate: clergy Second Estate: nobility Third Estate: the rest of society The Estates General The Three Estates Cartoon depicting the three Estates

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8 The French Urban Poor

9 New ideas about society and government The social contract Tradition v. reason Linalienable liberties Rgeneral will citizens alienated their rights. Unanimous consent of the citizenry acting out of civic virtue, not individual self- interest The Enlightenment John Locke Jean-Jacques Rousseau

10 Taxation Crop failures Seyes, What is the Third Estate? Ideological basis? Individual liberities or general will? Foreshadowing of 1789? The Third Estate

11 France supported the colonists against Great Britain Revolutionary ideals The American Revolution Marquis de Lafayette

12 Jacques Turgot: cut govt spending; abolish trade guilds, end corvee. Jacques Necker Tax on property Calling of the Estates General Financial Crisis Finance Minister Jacques Necker

13 Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates 1 1 1

14 Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates 1 1 1

15 One vote per estate Clergy and nobility usually joined together to outvote the Third Estate Met in Versailles in May 1789 Voting controversy The Estates General A meeting of the Estates General

16 The Third Estate took action and established its own government On June 17, 1789, the National Assembly was formed The National Assembly

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18 Louis XVI ordered the Third Estate locked out of the National Assemblys meeting hall The Tennis Court Oath The king reverses his position Artist Jacques Louis Davids depiction of the Tennis Court Oath Confrontation With the King

19 Tennis Court Oath "We swear to never separate ourselves from the National Assembly, and to reassemble whenever circumstance require, until the constitution of the realm is drawn up and fixed upon solid foundations." --The Oath of the Tennis Court, June 20, 1789

20 Rioting in Paris in early July Firing of Necker July 14th: a mob storms and takes the Bastille Storming of the Bastille

21 Rebellion spreads Peasants destroy the countryside End of feudal privileges All equal in eyes of law. Part of backdrop, with Bastille, against which National Assembly forced to create new Constitution The Great Fear

22 Adopted by National Assembly on August 27 Enlightenment ideals Outlined basic freedoms held by all all men were born and remain free and equal in rights. Natural rights include liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression Free speech, press, assembly, religion, freedom from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment, right to petition government Asserted the sovereignty of the people Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

23 Lower classes still unsatisfied Thousands of starving women and peasants march on Versailles Louis forced to return to Paris The March of Women

24 Financial crisis National Assembly confiscates and sells off church lands-- assignats Church also secularized, reorganized Clergy oath of loyalty good Catholics vs. good revolutionaries Sep. corps of clergy need to be incorporated into general will Civil Constitution of the Clergy Cartoon depicting the confiscation of Church lands

25 Émigrés Louis XVI and his family attempted to flee France They were arrested at Varennes Flight of the King The capture of Louis XVI at Varennes

26 Declaration of Pillnitz (8/27/91): monarchs of Austria & Prussia expressed concern for the French royal family and desire for the restoration of order in France. Most people in France saw as an affront to their nations sovereignty. clamored for the government to declare war on Austria, which they viewed as the primary threat. Reaction from Other Countries Prussian King Frederick William III, Austrian Emperor Leopold II, and the Comte dArtois, Louis XVIs brother

27 New Constitution Constitutional monarchy New Legislative Assembly:power to create laws Sans-culottes Painting depicting the 1791 constitution

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29 The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government YThe king got the suspensive veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years]. * he could not pass laws. * his ministers were responsible for their own actions. YA permanent, elected, single chamber Assembly. * had the power to grant taxation. YActive Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] vs. Passive Citizen. YA newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.

30 War With Austria: April 1792 France declares war. Prussia allies w/ Austria War of the First Coalition Levee en masse 5-800K drafted. Army of merit. First draft Painting of the Battle of Valmy, 1792

31 Paris mob stormed Tuileries August 1792 Louis and family seek aid of Legislative Assembly Arrested and deposed The Radicals Take Over Paris crowds storm the Tuileries

32 1804: Napoleon crowns himself emperor Napoleon Becomes Emperor

33 Legacies of the French Revolution End of absolutism Power of nobles ended Nationalism Enlightenment ideals

34 TWO CONTEMPORANEOUS VIEWS Edmund Burke (1729-1797): Reflections on the Revolution in France Conservative: opposed revolution as mob rule Thomas Paine: Rights of Man responded to Burkes indictment by defending the Enlightenment principles of the revolution


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