Presentation on theme: "AP European History 1945 - Present Decolonization zDecolonization began after WWII when the European nations could no longer maintain control of their."— Presentation transcript:
AP European History Present
Decolonization zDecolonization began after WWII when the European nations could no longer maintain control of their colonial empires. zDecolonization began on Aug. 15, 1947, when India declared its independence from the British empire. yThis created a domino effect throughout the empire.
Palestine z1947: Britain announced it was withdrawing from Palestine, leaving its future in the hands of the UN. zIn response, the UN partitioned Palestine into Arab and Jewish homelands. zMay 14, 1948: Israel declared independence and was immediately attacked by the Arab nations. yIsrael won the war with American aid. (1st Arab-Israeli war)
Egypt zAlthough Egypt had been independent since 1922, Britain had economically maintained a degree of influence. zAbdul Nasser (Egyptian Pres. after WWII) wanted this to end, believing that Britains significant influence was detrimental to the future development of Egypt.
Suez Crisis z1956: Egypt announced the nationalization of the Suez Canal. zIn response, Britain, France, and Israel planned a surprise attack on Egypt. yThe USSR announced it would back Egypt, and the US ordered the Western powers to withdraw. z***This event illustrated the fact that the western European powers had little ability to take action w/o American approval.
Sub-Saharan Africa z1957: Ghana (British) declared independence, and was set free. zShortly thereafter, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, and Kenya also declared independence and were freed from the British empire. yThe British let these places go without much of a fight, because there were few British settlers in any of the nations.
Rhodesia zRhodesia had many British settlers. z1965: White British settlers formed their own white-supremacist government and declared independence from Britain. z1980: After much warfare, the Africans finally won control of their nation. yIt was renamed Zimbabwe.
The Dutch East Indies zFrance and the Netherlands wanted to maintain control of their colonies, as a matter of national honor, after WWII. zThe Dutch fought a costly and ultimately unwinnable war in the Dutch East Indies, finally losing in yThe Dutch East Indies became Indonesia.
French Indo-China zThe Viet Minh (a nationalist group founded by Ho Chi Minh) was formed to fight for Vietnamese independence from the Japanese during WWII. zAfter the war, the Viet Minh fought against the French, when the French attempted to restore their colonial authority. zThis was a bitter and costly war for the French, which they eventually lost. yThe US was funding the French war effort.
Vietnam zAfter the French were defeated in the battle of Dien Bien Phu, they agreed to divide Vietnam into two states. yNorth Vietnam was a communist led nation headed by Ho Chi Minh. ySouth Vietnam was a democratic nation headed by President Diem and dominated by the United States. (an anti-communist military dictatorship) y1975: The two nations were united following the Vietnam War.
Algeria zAlgeria had been a French possession since 1830 and was the home of over one million native French persons. zFrance almost erupted into civil war over the Algerian question (to keep it or to fight to hold on to it). z1958: due to the skillful work of Charles de Gaulle, Algeria received its independence and French stability was established.
The Cold War zThe Cold War was a diplomatic crisis which occurred between the United States (and its Western bloc) and the USSR (and its Eastern bloc). zThe Cold War resulted from a variety of disagreements and problems which surfaced after the end of WWII.
The Iron Curtain z1946: Churchill called the Soviet domination of E. Europe the Iron Curtain. zStalin held a series of unfair elections and coups to install communist puppets in most of the E. European nations. yPoland: 1947 yCzechoslovakia: 1948 yHungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia:
The West Takes a Stand zThe USSR was supporting communist rebels in Greece & Turkey. zTruman asked Congress for money to aid the governments to withstand the rebels assaults. yThis became the Truman Doctrine, stating that the US would provide aid to any free nation fighting off communism. yThe Truman Doctrine became the basis of the US policy of containment.
Military Alliances zThe lines between the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc were formally drawn with the creation of two alliances. y1949: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): designed to protect W. Europe from Communist aggression y1955: Warsaw Pact: designed to protect E. Europe from capitalist influence.
The Marshall Plan z : The US provided $9.4 billion in economic assistance to Western Europe to help Europe rebuild after WWII. zThis aid was provided, in part, so that western European nations could resist the pull of communism.
The Division of Germany zThe Big three agreed at Potsdam on the division of Germany. yBritain, France, the US, and the USSR each controlled one zone of occupation. zThe western powers wanted to see the economic and political restructuring of Germany, while the USSR wanted to maintain Germany as a communist buffer state.
Crisis in Germany zSpring, 1948: The western powers introduced a new currency into their zones and requested the reunification of the zones. yStalin refused to allow a democratic Germany and withheld his zone from the German constitutional convention. yThe western powers decided to proceed without him and continued to help Germany construct a new constitution.
The Berlin Blockade zStalin responded to western actions by blockading the city of West Berlin. zThe allies responded to the blockade with a massive airlift which supplied the city for 321 days. zStalin was forced to withdraw his blockade in a major defeat for the Soviets.
Two Germanies zIn response to the Berlin blockade, the western powers joined their zones into a free nation: the Federal Republic of Germany. zStalin later made his zone into the German Democratic Republic, another Soviet puppet state.
West Germany zBy the 1950s, West Germany had evolved into a stable two-party democracy [Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and Social Democratic Party (SPD)]. zKonrad Adenauer (CDU) (Chancellor: ) led W. Germany towards closer ties with the US and the other W. European nations.
West Germany, continued zFollowing the death of Adenauer, Willy Brandt (SPD) took over and began a process called Ostpolitik, which meant he tried to open diplomatic contacts and with Eastern Europe. zBrandt formally recognized E. Germany and accepted the post-war settlements in the east, thus easing tensions with the USSR, Poland and Czechoslovakia.
Post-war Italy zFollowing WWII, Italy adopted a new constitution which brought the Italian monarchy to an end and created a democratic republic (which still is there today). zTwo major parties dominated the new government: the communists (because they had been anti-fascist during the war) and the Christian Democratic Party. zItaly remained in the W. European bloc.
Post-war France zThe 4th French Republic was formed after WWII, but it was plagued by the frequent changes in government ministries and by factionalism. yFrance had many small parties and so they all had to rely on multi-party coalitions to implement their policies. zWomen in France voted in parliamentary elections for the first time in 1946.
Fifth French Republic zUsing the Algerian crisis as a pretext, DeGaulle created the 5th French Republic in 1958, giving the French President much more power. zDeGaulle used his power to build an independent France and to try to make France somewhat independent of America.
Economic Recovery in Western Europe zMarshall Plan aid was used to provide the financial underpinnings for the post-war economic recovery and expansion of W. Europe. yThis growth lasted until the economic downturn of the early 1970s.
Economic Recovery zFor approximately a decade after the war, workers wages failed to keep up with economic growth. zTo offset the potential social problems this could have caused, most W. European governments provided cradle-to-grave social welfare protection programs for their citizens.
Post-war Great Britain zThe British Labor Party tried to direct national policy toward solving many problems, such as inadequate housing for workers, poor safety standards and wages in industries, and lack of security in employment. zThe Labor Party concentrated on many issues that had been big problems since the industrial revolution.
Britain, continued zTo avoid social unrest, the government enacted a variety of reforms. zThe British government nationalized the Bank of England, the railways, the airlines, and the coal & steel industries. zThe government also established old-age pensions, unemployment insurance, allowances for child-rearing, and the National Health Service.
Reforms in Europe zFrance and West Germany also faced many of the same social and economic problems that were found in Britain. zThe French communist party was somewhat powerful after WWII and forced many socialist reforms. zWest Germany also adopted many similar reforms to bring recovery and stability after the war.
The Cost of Reform zThe economic cost of these social & economic reforms was long debated. yBecause the 1990s process of globalization often had a negative effect for the nations of W. Europe, (with their high wages and very comprehensive social welfare programs), they often found it much harder to compete in the global marketplace. zUnder Margaret Thatcher, there was a significant rollback of the Br. welfare state.
Economic Trends in Europe zTwo major economic trends have been important in Western Europe in the post- war period: yEconomic Integration yEuropean Union zFrance has taken a lead in these movements, partly because they believe that tying Germany to the rest of Europe is necessary for French national security.
Implementation of Economic Reforms z1951: Formation of the European Coal & Steel Community. yGoal: to coordinate the production of coal & steel and to prevent some of the economic competition that had served as a cause for previous 20th century wars.
Economic Reforms, cont. z1958: Formation of the European Common Market (now the European Economic Community--EEC) yThe EEC was established to eliminate custom duties among the participating nations and to establish a common tariff on imports from the rest of the world. yThe EEC is still in existence, today.
More Reforms z1962: Creation of a European Parliament yGoal: to implement common social and economic programs in the various member states. y**Duties were nearly non-existent until the passage of the Maastrict treaty in 1991.
European Union z1991: Members of the European Union (European Parliament) signed the Maastrict treaty in 1991 in Maastrict, Netherlands. yGoal: to establish a common European currency and a central banking structure by yThe Euro is currently in use in member nations.
The Eastern European Satellites zFollowing WWII, the USSR set as a priority the establishment of a system of satellite states in E. Europe. zThe USSR created the Warsaw Pact in 1955 to establish military control of its satellites and COMECON to link and control the E. European economies. zEconomic conditions remained poor in most E. European nations, due to a lack of capital for economic development.
East Germany z1953: East German workers demonstrated in the streets to protest the governments plan to increase productivity (at the cost of the workers benefits). yThis economic protest soon turned into a call for greater political freedom and directly contradicted Soviet policies. zSoviet-supported E. German troops put down the revolt and economic life remained grim for E. Germans.
The Berlin Wall zPolitical and Economic conditions in E. Germany and many other Eastern bloc nations remained so poor that millions were fleeing through West Berlin to freedom in western nations. zThe Berlin Wall was built in 1961 to stop the flow of refugees to the west. yThis was seen and publicized as a barbaric move and became a visible symbol of the cold war conflicts.
Poland z1956: Economic and political conditions similar to those found in E. Germany set off a series of strikes in Poland. zThe Polish government, working with the USSR, sent its troops into the streets to stop the strikers. zThis protest brought a slight raise in workers wages and was viewed as a success by the people, despite the bloodshed.
Hungary z1956: Inspired by the Polish revolt of 1956, Imre Nagy of Hungary encouraged a variety of reforms. yReforms included the creation of a multi- party state with Nagy as premier, a call for respect of human rights, the ending of political ties with the USSR, the release of many political prisoners, the creation of Hungary as a neutral nation, and the removal of Hungary from the Warsaw Pact.
Hungary, continued zIn response to Nagys demonstrations, the Soviets decided to make an example of Hungary to prevent it from threatening their control of their whole system of satellite states. zThe Soviets invaded Hungary, killing thousands and setting up a police state. Reprisals were brutal, and >200,000 refugees fled from Hungary. Nagy was hanged.
Destalinization zFollowing a power struggle after Stalins death in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev took control of the Soviet government. z1956: At the Communist Partys 20th National Congress, Khruschev announced his program of destalinization which attacked the crimes of Stalin and condemned him, claiming that Stalin had deviated from the intentions of Marxist- Leninism.
American-Soviet Tensions zDespite a visit to the US in 1959, tension was high between the superpowers. y1959: Sputnik y1960: U-2 Incident y1961:Bay of Pigs Invasion y1961: Berlin Wall y1962: Cuban Missile Crisis
Detente zSince the Cuban Missile Crisis had brought the superpowers so close to war, both sides decided to embrace a degree of détente, or peaceful coexistence. yHotline yNuclear Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty yMissile negotiations zDétente was seen as a sign of weakness in the USSR and Khruschev was ousted by 1964.
The Brezhnev Years zBrezhnev replaced Khruschev in 1964 and ruled the USSR until his death in zAlthough he did not reinstate the terror of the Stalin era, he did seek to once again strengthen the role of the Communist party bureaucracy and the KGB. zBrezhnev also clamped down on reform movements in the E. European satellite states and called for a new cold war.
Eastern Europe z1968: Prague Spring: led by Alexander Dubcek, this reform movement in Czechoslovakia attempted to bring about socialism with a human face, while still remaining in the Soviet Bloc. zBrezhnev saw this as a threat to the entire Warsaw Pact and initiated the Brezhnev Doctrine [The USSR would support with all means necessary (including military) any E. European communist state threatened by internal strife or external invasion.] yThis was used as justification for the invasion of Czechoslovakia, ending reform.
Poland z1978: Karol Wojtyla, a Polish Catholic cardinal was elected Pope John Paul II. z1980: A massive strike occurred at the Lenin shipyard in Gdansk, where workers demanded the right to form an independent trade union. z1980: Solidarity formed by Lech Walesa. z1980 +: Solidarity survived the declaration of martial law and being outlawed by going underground, in part with the aid of the Catholic Church.
Poland, continued z : Solidarity operated during these years, attempting to get better pay and political rights for workers in Poland. ySolidarity leaders were periodically harassed and arrested by communist authorities. zBy 1989: The Polish economy was in shambles and this forced the government to negotiate with Lech Walesa and Solidarity.
Poland z1989: Polish government negotiations with Walesa and Solidarity resulted in the promise of multiparty elections. zOctober 1989: Multiparty elections resulted in the election of Walesa to the Presidency and the defeat of all Communist candidates. zThis election ushered in an era of reform that continues to this day.
Revolution in E. Europe zReform policies of Mikhail Gorbachev prevented the USSR from interfering in E. European internal affairs. zThis led to a series of revolutions in 1989 in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Albania, East Germany, and Romania. zThese nations started on the road to democracy and market economies and faced many political and economic struggles in the 1990s.
East Germany zA flood of refugees traveled from E. Germany to Hungary where Hungary allowed their free passage to W. Germany. zThe fall of the Berlin Wall in November, 1990 marked the end of the Communist regime that had oppressed many since z1990: Reunification of East and West Germany.
Romania zWhile the majority of revolutions in E. Europe were relatively peaceful, the one in Romania was not. zThe violent dictator, Nicolae Ceausescu refused to give in to the will of the people and used his own private police force to desperately cling to power. zHe and his equally repugnant wife, Elena, were executed on Christmas Day, 1989.
The USSR zGorbachevs policies of glastnost and perestroika combined with the political transformation of the Soviet satellites to create a desire for change in the Soviet population. zDisasters such as the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the Chernobyl nuclear accident revealed the deplorable state of affairs within the nation.
Problems in the USSR zGorbachev saw the need for change but wanted the Communist party to lead and control the changes. yHis economic changes were very slow and reformers, such as Boris Yeltsin, wanted him to speed up the process. z1990: The Soviet government was forced to allow the political participation of non- Communist parties.
More Problems zAs the political and economic structure of the USSR began to collapse, nationalist movements throughout the USSR also popped up, beginning with the declaration of independence by Lithuania. zOther republics, such as Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakistan, and Uzbekitan soon followed. yBy 1992, 17 republics had broken away.
Revolution in Russia zDecember 1990: Gorbachev appointed a few hard-liners to government positions hoping to stop the tide of rebellion. yHard liners were very concerned about the break away republics and wanted to stop the secessionist movement. zThis move backfired and started a rivalry between Gorbachev and Yeltsin (a reformer and Chairman of the Russian Parliament)
The coup detat zAugust 1991: While Gorbachev was on vacation, the hard-line communists staged a coup and placed him under house arrest in his summer home in the Crimea. yThis was done because the hard-liners feared that Gorbachevs policies were threatening the existence of the Communist party. zYeltsin bravely stood atop a tank outside the parliament building and led the resistance, thus becoming the popular hero of the revolution.
The Coup Fails zAs a result of Yeltsins leadership and the popular support for the reform movement, the coup failed, and the hard-liners were discredited. zAugust 1991-December 1991: More of the Soviet republics continued to break away, further weakening the USSR. zDecember 1991: The USSR was dissolved and Gorbachev resigned.
Problems in Russia zThe Commonwealth of Independent States was formed in 1992, but was ineffective and short- lived because break-away republics feared that Russia had too much power in the confederacy. zThe new Russian Republic faced serious political, social, and economic challenges, many of which still continue, today. zThe mob became very influential in Russia and many break-away republics, as well.
Yugoslavia zFollowing WWII, the nation of Yugoslavia was formed under the control of Josip Tito. yUnder his leadership, the nation was an independent communist country. yHe was able to control most of the ethnic and nationalistic rivalries within the nation. zAfter his death, an ineffective government was formed that was unable to deal with the rivalries.
Yugoslavia, continued zBy the early 1990s, ethnic problems got so bad that Slovenia and Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia. yThe Serbian government of Yugoslavia let Slovenia go peacefully because it had an extremely small Serbian population. yThe secession of Croatia caused the Serbs more concern because of the larger Serbian population that lived there. yThis led to a war that began in 1991.
The Bosnian Crisis zBy 1992, the Bosnian Muslims and Croats feared the Serbs and seceded from Yugoslavia. yThis was an outrage to the Serbian/Yugoslavian government, since 1/3 of the Bosnian population were Serbs. zWar broke out between the Bosnian Serbs and the Bosnian Muslims and Croats. yThe Bosnian Serbs were supported by the Yugoslavian government.
The Crisis Continues zThe Bosnian Serbs did not want to be a part of a Bosnian government in which they would not be the majority ethnic group. zWith the help of Yugoslavian President Slobodan Milosevic, they carried out the policy of ethnic cleansing. yThis involved the forced removal of non-Serb populations from Bosnia and included executions and concentration camps. ySerbs bombed Red Cross relief caravans, and shelled Sarajevo particularly on market days.
The Bosnian Settlement zDue to the atrocities that were being done by the Serbs, the US and other NATO nations got involved to stop the killing. zThis led to the US-brokered Dayton Accords of 1995 which ushered in an era of precarious peace in Bosnia. yThe US and UN sent peacekeepers to protect the Bosnian Muslims. yWar Crimes trials were held to convict those responsible for the ethnic cleansing.
Yugoslavia zBesides Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia, Macedonia also seceded from Yugoslavia. yYugoslavia now consists mainly of what was once the state of Serbia. yMany people refer to Yugoslavia as Serbia. z1999: Kosovo crisis: The Serbs, using the scorched earth policy decided to run the ethnic Albanians out of Kosovo. yMany Kosovars fled to neighboring Albania and Macadonia where they went to refugee camps. yNATO activity & bombings ended this crisis.
Philosophy and Religion zExistentialism zRoman Catholicism zProtestantism
Existentialism Theistic – Søren Kierkegaard, Martin Buber, Paul Tillich, Gabriel Marcel, Karl Jaspers Atheistic – Paul Sartre, Simon de Beauvoir, Friedrich Nietzche, Martin Heidegger, Albert Camus
Key Themes zFreedom: We are condemned to be free zResponsibility: because we have freedom in our fundamental projects and attitudes we are responsible for the people we become
Key Themes zAngst/Dread/Anguish/Anxiety: When we reflect on our freedom we experience anxiety. zBad Faith: Those who refuse to take responsibility for themselves are living an inauthentic existence in bad faith; they are self deluded.
The Keyest Theme: Existence Precedes Essence zWhat is meant here by saying that existence precedes essence? It means that, first of all, man exists, turns up, appears on the scene, and, only afterwards, defines himself.
Kierkegaard zPart of the revolt against reason. Mid-19 th c. zLeap on the darkleap of faith zTruths of Christianity are not revealed in organized religion or in doctrine, but in experiences of individuals facing crises in their lives
Jean Paul Sartre zAtheist zHuman existence has no transcendent significance fundamentally absurd humans are free to make choices. in choices, humans can give life meaning and purpose
RCC zJohn XXIII (r ) zA new era with his papacy zMater et Magistra: reaffirmed Chs commitment to econ. and social reform. Called for increased assist to developing nations zVatican II
Vatican II zMovement for renewal and aggiornamento zReform Churchs liturgy. Vernacular mass instead of Latin. Lay participation increase. More open expression, Condemns anti- Semitism. Ecumenical movement zPaul VI (r ): Humanae Vitae: reaffirms Chs opposition to artificial birth control
Protestantism zKarl Barth: Neoorthodoxy. yRejected religious modernism. Reaffirms Reformation theology xBiblical authority. Revelation of God in Jesus. Human dependence on God
Another Protestant thinker zPaul Tillich yGod=ultimate truth. Ground of Being yOriginal sin, atonement, immortality symbolic yecumenical