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AP European History 1945 - Present.

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1 AP European History Present

2 Decolonization Decolonization began after WWII when the European nations could no longer maintain control of their colonial empires. Decolonization began on Aug. 15, 1947, when India declared its independence from the British empire. This created a domino effect throughout the empire.

3 Palestine 1947: Britain announced it was withdrawing from Palestine, leaving its future in the hands of the UN. In response, the UN partitioned Palestine into Arab and Jewish homelands. May 14, 1948: Israel declared independence and was immediately attacked by the Arab nations. Israel won the war with American aid. (1st Arab-Israeli war)

4 Egypt Although Egypt had been independent since 1922, Britain had economically maintained a degree of influence. Abdul Nasser (Egyptian Pres. after WWII) wanted this to end, believing that Britain’s significant influence was detrimental to the future development of Egypt.

5 Suez Crisis 1956: Egypt announced the nationalization of the Suez Canal. In response, Britain, France, and Israel planned a surprise attack on Egypt. The USSR announced it would back Egypt, and the US ordered the Western powers to withdraw. ***This event illustrated the fact that the western European powers had little ability to take action w/o American approval.

6 Sub-Saharan Africa 1957: Ghana (British) declared independence, and was set free. Shortly thereafter, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, and Kenya also declared independence and were freed from the British empire. The British let these places go without much of a fight, because there were few British settlers in any of the nations.

7 Rhodesia Rhodesia had many British settlers.
1965: White British settlers formed their own white-supremacist government and declared independence from Britain. 1980: After much warfare, the Africans finally won control of their nation. It was renamed Zimbabwe.

8 The Dutch East Indies France and the Netherlands wanted to maintain control of their colonies, as a matter of national honor, after WWII. The Dutch fought a costly and ultimately unwinnable war in the Dutch East Indies, finally losing in 1949. The Dutch East Indies became Indonesia.

9 French Indo-China The Viet Minh (a nationalist group founded by Ho Chi Minh) was formed to fight for Vietnamese independence from the Japanese during WWII. After the war, the Viet Minh fought against the French, when the French attempted to restore their colonial authority. This was a bitter and costly war for the French, which they eventually lost. The US was funding the French war effort.

10 Vietnam After the French were defeated in the battle of Dien Bien Phu, they agreed to divide Vietnam into two states. North Vietnam was a communist led nation headed by Ho Chi Minh. South Vietnam was a “democratic” nation headed by President Diem and dominated by the United States. (an anti-communist military dictatorship) 1975: The two nations were united following the Vietnam War.

11 Algeria Algeria had been a French possession since 1830 and was the home of over one million native French persons. France almost erupted into civil war over the Algerian question (to keep it or to fight to hold on to it). 1958: due to the skillful work of Charles de Gaulle, Algeria received its independence and French stability was established.

12 The Cold War The Cold War was a diplomatic crisis which occurred between the United States (and its Western bloc) and the USSR (and its Eastern bloc). The Cold War resulted from a variety of disagreements and problems which surfaced after the end of WWII.

13 The “Iron Curtain” 1946: Churchill called the Soviet domination of E. Europe the “Iron Curtain.” Stalin held a series of unfair elections and coups to install communist puppets in most of the E. European nations. Poland: 1947 Czechoslovakia: 1948 Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia:

14 The West Takes a Stand The USSR was supporting communist rebels in Greece & Turkey. Truman asked Congress for money to aid the governments to withstand the rebels’ assaults. This became the Truman Doctrine, stating that the US would provide aid to any free nation fighting off communism. The Truman Doctrine became the basis of the US policy of “containment.”

15 Military Alliances The lines between the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc were formally drawn with the creation of two alliances. 1949: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): designed to protect W. Europe from Communist aggression 1955: Warsaw Pact: designed to protect E. Europe from capitalist influence.

16 The Marshall Plan : The US provided $9.4 billion in economic assistance to Western Europe to help Europe rebuild after WWII. This aid was provided, in part, so that western European nations could resist the pull of communism.

17 The Division of Germany
The Big three agreed at Potsdam on the division of Germany. Britain, France, the US, and the USSR each controlled one zone of occupation. The western powers wanted to see the economic and political restructuring of Germany, while the USSR wanted to maintain Germany as a communist buffer state.

18 Crisis in Germany Spring, 1948: The western powers introduced a new currency into their zones and requested the reunification of the zones. Stalin refused to allow a democratic Germany and withheld his zone from the German constitutional convention. The western powers decided to proceed without him and continued to help Germany construct a new constitution.

19 The Berlin Blockade Stalin responded to western actions by blockading the city of West Berlin. The allies responded to the blockade with a massive airlift which supplied the city for 321 days. Stalin was forced to withdraw his blockade in a major defeat for the Soviets.

20 Two Germanies In response to the Berlin blockade, the western powers joined their zones into a free nation: the Federal Republic of Germany. Stalin later made his zone into the German Democratic Republic, another Soviet puppet state.

21 West Germany By the 1950’s, West Germany had evolved into a stable two-party democracy [Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and Social Democratic Party (SPD)]. Konrad Adenauer (CDU) (Chancellor: ) led W. Germany towards closer ties with the US and the other W. European nations.

22 West Germany, continued
Following the death of Adenauer, Willy Brandt (SPD) took over and began a process called Ostpolitik, which meant he tried to open diplomatic contacts and with Eastern Europe. Brandt formally recognized E. Germany and accepted the post-war settlements in the east, thus easing tensions with the USSR, Poland and Czechoslovakia.

23 Post-war Italy Following WWII, Italy adopted a new constitution which brought the Italian monarchy to an end and created a democratic republic (which still is there today). Two major parties dominated the new government: the communists (because they had been anti-fascist during the war) and the Christian Democratic Party. Italy remained in the W. European bloc.

24 Post-war France The 4th French Republic was formed after WWII, but it was plagued by the frequent changes in government ministries and by factionalism. France had many small parties and so they all had to rely on multi-party coalitions to implement their policies. Women in France voted in parliamentary elections for the first time in 1946.

25 Fifth French Republic Using the Algerian crisis as a pretext, DeGaulle created the 5th French Republic in 1958, giving the French President much more power. DeGaulle used his power to build an independent France and to try to make France somewhat independent of America.

26 Economic Recovery in Western Europe
Marshall Plan aid was used to provide the financial underpinnings for the post-war economic recovery and expansion of W. Europe. This growth lasted until the economic downturn of the early 1970’s.

27 Economic Recovery For approximately a decade after the war, worker’s wages failed to keep up with economic growth. To offset the potential social problems this could have caused, most W. European governments provided “cradle-to-grave” social welfare protection programs for their citizens.

28 Post-war Great Britain
The British Labor Party tried to direct national policy toward solving many problems, such as inadequate housing for workers, poor safety standards and wages in industries, and lack of security in employment. The Labor Party concentrated on many issues that had been big problems since the industrial revolution.

29 Britain, continued To avoid social unrest, the government enacted a variety of reforms. The British government nationalized the Bank of England, the railways, the airlines, and the coal & steel industries. The government also established old-age pensions, unemployment insurance, allowances for child-rearing, and the National Health Service.

30 Reforms in Europe France and West Germany also faced many of the same social and economic problems that were found in Britain. The French communist party was somewhat powerful after WWII and forced many socialist reforms. West Germany also adopted many similar reforms to bring recovery and stability after the war.

31 The Cost of Reform The economic cost of these social & economic reforms was long debated. Because the 1990’s process of globalization often had a negative effect for the nations of W. Europe, (with their high wages and very comprehensive social welfare programs), they often found it much harder to compete in the global marketplace. Under Margaret Thatcher, there was a significant rollback of the Br. welfare state.

32 Economic Trends in Europe
Two major economic trends have been important in Western Europe in the post-war period: Economic Integration European Union France has taken a lead in these movements, partly because they believe that tying Germany to the rest of Europe is necessary for French national security.

33 Implementation of Economic Reforms
1951: Formation of the European Coal & Steel Community. Goal: to coordinate the production of coal & steel and to prevent some of the economic competition that had served as a cause for previous 20th century wars.

34 Economic Reforms, cont. 1958: Formation of the European Common Market (now the European Economic Community--EEC) The EEC was established to eliminate custom duties among the participating nations and to establish a common tariff on imports from the rest of the world. The EEC is still in existence, today.

35 More Reforms 1962: Creation of a European Parliament
Goal: to implement common social and economic programs in the various member states. **Duties were nearly non-existent until the passage of the Maastrict treaty in 1991.

36 European Union 1991: Members of the European Union (European Parliament) signed the Maastrict treaty in 1991 in Maastrict, Netherlands. Goal: to establish a common European currency and a central banking structure by 1999. The Euro is currently in use in member nations.

37 The Eastern European Satellites
Following WWII, the USSR set as a priority the establishment of a system of satellite states in E. Europe. The USSR created the Warsaw Pact in 1955 to establish military control of its satellites and COMECON to link and control the E. European economies. Economic conditions remained poor in most E. European nations, due to a lack of capital for economic development.

38 East Germany 1953: East German workers demonstrated in the streets to protest the government’s plan to increase productivity (at the cost of the worker’s benefits). This economic protest soon turned into a call for greater political freedom and directly contradicted Soviet policies. Soviet-supported E. German troops put down the revolt and economic life remained grim for E. Germans.

39 The Berlin Wall Political and Economic conditions in E. Germany and many other Eastern bloc nations remained so poor that millions were fleeing through West Berlin to freedom in western nations. The Berlin Wall was built in 1961 to stop the flow of refugees to the west. This was seen and publicized as a barbaric move and became a visible symbol of the cold war conflicts.

40 Poland 1956: Economic and political conditions similar to those found in E. Germany set off a series of strikes in Poland. The Polish government, working with the USSR, sent its troops into the streets to stop the strikers. This protest brought a slight raise in workers wages and was viewed as a success by the people, despite the bloodshed.

41 Hungary 1956: Inspired by the Polish revolt of 1956, Imre Nagy of Hungary encouraged a variety of reforms. Reforms included the creation of a multi-party state with Nagy as premier, a call for respect of human rights, the ending of political ties with the USSR, the release of many political prisoners, the creation of Hungary as a neutral nation, and the removal of Hungary from the Warsaw Pact.

42 Hungary, continued In response to Nagy’s demonstrations, the Soviets decided to make an example of Hungary to prevent it from threatening their control of their whole system of satellite states. The Soviets invaded Hungary, killing thousands and setting up a police state. Reprisals were brutal, and >200,000 refugees fled from Hungary. Nagy was hanged.

43 Destalinization Following a power struggle after Stalin’s death in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev took control of the Soviet government. 1956: At the Communist Party’s 20th National Congress, Khruschev announced his program of destalinization which attacked the “crimes” of Stalin and condemned him, claiming that Stalin had deviated from the intentions of Marxist-Leninism.

44 American-Soviet Tensions
Despite a visit to the US in 1959, tension was high between the superpowers. 1959: Sputnik 1960: U-2 Incident 1961: Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961: Berlin Wall 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis

45 Detente Since the Cuban Missile Crisis had brought the superpowers so close to war, both sides decided to embrace a degree of détente, or peaceful coexistence. Hotline Nuclear Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty Missile negotiations Détente was seen as a sign of weakness in the USSR and Khruschev was ousted by 1964.

46 The Brezhnev Years Brezhnev replaced Khruschev in 1964 and ruled the USSR until his death in 1982. Although he did not reinstate the terror of the Stalin era, he did seek to once again strengthen the role of the Communist party bureaucracy and the KGB. Brezhnev also clamped down on reform movements in the E. European satellite states and called for a “new cold war.”

47 Eastern Europe 1968: Prague Spring: led by Alexander Dubcek, this reform movement in Czechoslovakia attempted to bring about “socialism with a human face,” while still remaining in the Soviet Bloc. Brezhnev saw this as a threat to the entire Warsaw Pact and initiated the Brezhnev Doctrine [The USSR would support with all means necessary (including military) any E. European communist state threatened by internal strife or external invasion.] This was used as justification for the invasion of Czechoslovakia, ending reform.

48 Poland 1978: Karol Wojtyla, a Polish Catholic cardinal was elected Pope John Paul II. 1980: A massive strike occurred at the Lenin shipyard in Gdansk, where workers demanded the right to form an independent trade union. 1980: Solidarity formed by Lech Walesa. 1980 +: Solidarity survived the declaration of martial law and being outlawed by going underground, in part with the aid of the Catholic Church.

49 Poland, continued : Solidarity operated during these years, attempting to get better pay and political rights for workers in Poland. Solidarity leaders were periodically harassed and arrested by communist authorities. By 1989: The Polish economy was in shambles and this forced the government to negotiate with Lech Walesa and Solidarity.

50 Poland 1989: Polish government negotiations with Walesa and Solidarity resulted in the promise of multiparty elections. October 1989: Multiparty elections resulted in the election of Walesa to the Presidency and the defeat of all Communist candidates. This election ushered in an era of reform that continues to this day.

51 Revolution in E. Europe Reform policies of Mikhail Gorbachev prevented the USSR from interfering in E. European internal affairs. This led to a series of revolutions in 1989 in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Albania, East Germany, and Romania. These nations started on the road to democracy and market economies and faced many political and economic struggles in the 1990’s.

52 East Germany A flood of refugees traveled from E. Germany to Hungary where Hungary allowed their free passage to W. Germany. The fall of the Berlin Wall in November, 1990 marked the end of the Communist regime that had oppressed many since 1945. 1990: Reunification of East and West Germany.

53 Romania While the majority of revolutions in E. Europe were relatively peaceful, the one in Romania was not. The violent dictator, Nicolae Ceausescu refused to give in to the will of the people and used his own private police force to desperately cling to power. He and his equally repugnant wife, Elena, were executed on Christmas Day, 1989.

54 The USSR Gorbachev’s policies of glastnost and perestroika combined with the political transformation of the Soviet satellites to create a desire for change in the Soviet population. Disasters such as the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the Chernobyl nuclear accident revealed the deplorable state of affairs within the nation.

55 Problems in the USSR Gorbachev saw the need for change but wanted the Communist party to lead and control the changes. His economic changes were very slow and reformers, such as Boris Yeltsin, wanted him to speed up the process. 1990: The Soviet government was forced to allow the political participation of non-Communist parties.

56 More Problems As the political and economic structure of the USSR began to collapse, nationalist movements throughout the USSR also popped up, beginning with the declaration of independence by Lithuania. Other republics, such as Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakistan, and Uzbekitan soon followed. By 1992, 17 republics had broken away.

57 Revolution in Russia December 1990: Gorbachev appointed a few hard-liners to government positions hoping to stop the tide of rebellion. Hard liners were very concerned about the break away republics and wanted to stop the secessionist movement. This move backfired and started a rivalry between Gorbachev and Yeltsin (a reformer and Chairman of the Russian Parliament)

58 The coup d’etat August 1991: While Gorbachev was on vacation, the hard-line communists staged a coup and placed him under house arrest in his summer home in the Crimea. This was done because the hard-liners feared that Gorbachev’s policies were threatening the existence of the Communist party. Yeltsin bravely stood atop a tank outside the parliament building and led the resistance, thus becoming the popular hero of the revolution.

59 The Coup Fails As a result of Yeltsin’s leadership and the popular support for the reform movement, the coup failed, and the hard-liners were discredited. August 1991-December 1991: More of the Soviet republics continued to break away, further weakening the USSR. December 1991: The USSR was dissolved and Gorbachev resigned.

60 Problems in Russia The Commonwealth of Independent States was formed in 1992, but was ineffective and short-lived because break-away republics feared that Russia had too much power in the confederacy. The new Russian Republic faced serious political, social, and economic challenges, many of which still continue, today. The mob became very influential in Russia and many break-away republics, as well.

61 Yugoslavia Following WWII, the nation of Yugoslavia was formed under the control of Josip Tito. Under his leadership, the nation was an independent communist country. He was able to control most of the ethnic and nationalistic rivalries within the nation. After his death, an ineffective government was formed that was unable to deal with the rivalries.

62 Yugoslavia, continued By the early 1990’s, ethnic problems got so bad that Slovenia and Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia. The Serbian government of Yugoslavia let Slovenia go peacefully because it had an extremely small Serbian population. The secession of Croatia caused the Serbs more concern because of the larger Serbian population that lived there. This led to a war that began in 1991.

63 The Bosnian Crisis By 1992, the Bosnian Muslims and Croats feared the Serbs and seceded from Yugoslavia. This was an outrage to the Serbian/Yugoslavian government, since 1/3 of the Bosnian population were Serbs. War broke out between the Bosnian Serbs and the Bosnian Muslims and Croats. The Bosnian Serbs were supported by the Yugoslavian government.

64 The Crisis Continues The Bosnian Serbs did not want to be a part of a Bosnian government in which they would not be the majority ethnic group. With the help of Yugoslavian President Slobodan Milosevic, they carried out the policy of “ethnic cleansing.” This involved the forced removal of non-Serb populations from Bosnia and included executions and concentration camps. Serbs bombed Red Cross relief caravans, and shelled Sarajevo particularly on market days.

65 The Bosnian Settlement
Due to the atrocities that were being done by the Serbs, the US and other NATO nations got involved to stop the killing. This led to the US-brokered Dayton Accords of 1995 which ushered in an era of precarious peace in Bosnia. The US and UN sent peacekeepers to protect the Bosnian Muslims. War Crimes trials were held to convict those responsible for the ethnic cleansing.

66 Yugoslavia Besides Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia, Macedonia also seceded from Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia now consists mainly of what was once the state of Serbia. Many people refer to Yugoslavia as “Serbia.” 1999: Kosovo crisis: The Serbs, using the scorched earth policy decided to run the ethnic Albanians out of Kosovo. Many Kosovars fled to neighboring Albania and Macadonia where they went to refugee camps. NATO activity & bombings ended this crisis.

67 Philosophy and Religion
Existentialism Roman Catholicism Protestantism

68 Existentialism Theistic – Søren Kierkegaard, Martin Buber, Paul Tillich, Gabriel Marcel, Karl Jaspers Atheistic – Paul Sartre, Simon de Beauvoir, Friedrich Nietzche, Martin Heidegger, Albert Camus

69 Key Themes Freedom: We are condemned to be free
Responsibility: because we have freedom in our fundamental projects and attitudes we are responsible for the people we become

70 Key Themes Angst/Dread/Anguish/Anxiety: When we reflect on our freedom we experience anxiety. Bad Faith: Those who refuse to take responsibility for themselves are living an inauthentic existence in bad faith; they are self deluded.

71 The Keyest Theme: Existence Precedes Essence
What is meant here by saying that existence precedes essence? It means that, first of all, man exists, turns up, appears on the scene, and, only afterwards, defines himself.

72 Kierkegaard Part of the revolt against reason. Mid-19th c.
Leap on the dark—leap of faith Truths of Christianity are not revealed in organized religion or in doctrine, but in experiences of individuals facing crises in their lives

73 Jean Paul Sartre Atheist
Human existence has no transcendent significance fundamentally absurdhumans are free to make choices. in choices, humans can give life meaning and purpose

74 RCC John XXIII (r. 1958-1963) A new era with his papacy
Mater et Magistra: reaffirmed Ch’s commitment to econ. and social reform. Called for increased assist to developing nations Vatican II

75 Vatican II Movement for renewal and aggiornamento
Reform Church’s liturgy. Vernacular mass instead of Latin. Lay participation increase. More open expression, Condemns anti-Semitism. Ecumenical movement Paul VI (r ): Humanae Vitae: reaffirms Ch’s opposition to artificial birth control

76 Protestantism Karl Barth: Neoorthodoxy.
Rejected religious modernism. Reaffirms Reformation theology Biblical authority. Revelation of God in Jesus. Human dependence on God

77 Another Protestant thinker
Paul Tillich God=ultimate truth. “Ground of Being” Original sin, atonement, immortality—symbolic ecumenical

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