2Causes Of World War I: complex and varied, but it all comes down to the… ilitarismlliancesationalismmperialismssassinationompetition
3Militarism Great Britain--> premier navy in Europe Germany-->most powerful armyKinda like Athens and Sparta… and you remember how that turned outGB and Germany rush to outdo each other militarilyOther Euro powers worry and increase militaryMilitary leaders exert influence on political leadersEurope ready for warArms race-->defensive and paranoidSeek strength in numbers, so powers form . . .
4Alliances Bismarck worked HARD to keep peace by encouraging alliances Why is Bismarck a “peace-nik?”Bismarck worked hard to build Germany into a mightynation and saw war as a potential “un-doer!”On eve of Great War--Europe divided into two powerfulAlliancesTriple Entente: Britain, France and Russiafrom earlier Entente Cordiale: Brit and Fr and later agreement btw Brit and RussiaTriple Alliance: Germany, Austria and ItalyMutual defense pacts--> aggression to one=aggression to all
5The Alliance System All major European powers enter into an arms race After unifying Germany in 1871, Bismarck saw that Germany was vulnerableTrapped between France and Russia in a two-front warFormed alliances to prevent Germany from becoming isolatedThree Emperor’s League with Austria and Russia in 1873Dual Alliance with Austria in 1879Triple Alliance with Austria and Italy in 1882All major European powers enter into an arms race
6The Alliance SystemTo assure Britain, Bismarck did not build a large navyIn 1888 Kaiser Wilhelm I died, grandson Wilhelm II becomes KaiserQueen Victoria’s grandsonWanted Germany to be a Great Power like Britain with large navy and colonial empireFired Bismarck in 1890
7The Alliance System Germany refuses to renew alliance with Russia Russia allies with France in 1894France invests in Russian industrializationKaiser Wilhelm II orders construction of large navyBritish get worriedGermany industrializing at faster rate since 1871Britain and Germany in naval arms raceEach country builds more battleshipsGermany meddles in British colonial affairsBoer War in South Africa ( )
8The Alliance SystemBritain spent late 19th century in “splendid isolation”No alliances—no reason for them at the timeRise of Germany changes attitudesBritain and France sign Entente Cordiale in 1904Not quite an alliance but settles colonial disputesMoroccan Crises (1905, 1911)France tries to take over Morocco but Germany interferesBritish intervention prevents warBritain and Russia enter into same agreement in 1907Britain signs alliance with Japan in 1902
9Nationalism 19th c. rise of nationalistic spirit across Europe Countries see own sovereignty and superiority as imptntYet not all seeking independence had achieved sov.Slavics in Balkans and in Austro-HungaryPan-Slavism: Nationalist movement to unite all Slavic peoples, encouraged by Serbs, Bosnians, Slovenes and Croats single political entity in SE EuropeRussia is Slavs’ big brotherNationalism --> tendency to focus on own state’s interest,not interest of international community, which led to . . .
10ImperialismHow so?As European powers added foreign lands to their holdings--> inevitable that these spots would become HOT!Argue over the land--> 1905 and 1911 France and Germany almost go to war over Morocco.Brutality of new imperialism led nations to denounce each other--> increase tensions
11Assassination The spark! Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo (capital of Bosnia—Austrian province) on June 28, 1914Heir to the Austrian throneAssassins part of Serbian terrorist group, the Black HandAustria issue ultimatum to SerbiaGermany gives “Blank Check” to AustriaTo act against SerbiaRussia backs Serbia
12World War I The July Crisis Austria issues ultimatum to Serbia on July 24, 1914A list of 15 demands for Serbia in dealing with assassinsSerbia agrees to all but one; Austria planned it that wayRussia threatens Austria not to attack SerbiaGermany threatens Russia not to attack Austria
13World War I The July Crisis Austria declares war on Serbia on July 28, 1914Russia and Austria mobilizeGermany threatens Russia not to mobilizeGermany declares war on Russia on August 1, 1914Germany declares war on France on August 3, 1914
14World War I The July Crisis Britain had been staying neutral Britain tries to mediate between Austria and Russia throughout crisisBut no one is listeningGermany plans to go through Belgium to attack FrancePart of Schlieffen PlanBritain threatens Germany not to march through BelgiumBritain declares war on Germany on August 4, 1914
15CompetitionOverall competitive nature of Europe at this time—militarily, imperialistically, nationally.
16The Balkans The Eastern Question What happens after the Ottoman Empire falls apart?Between 1878 and 1913, Ottoman Empire loses all of its territories in the BalkansAustria takes Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1878Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Albania, Montenegro gain independenceRussia tries to gain influence in the Balkans in 1878 but stopped at the Congress of Berlin
17The Balkans The Balkan Wars (1912, 1913) Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, and Bulgaria attack the Ottoman EmpireTo gain more territoryTo get them out of the BalkansSerbia becomes a threat to AustriaSerbia wants to extend into Austrian territorySerbia allied with Russia in secret alliance
19World War I The Central Powers The Triple Entente (Allies) Germany, Austria, the Ottoman EmpireOttoman Empire enters alliance with Germany in October 1914The Triple Entente (Allies)Britain, France, RussiaItaly joins Triple Entente in 1915 in secret allianceWorld War I begins
20World War I The Western Front Germany invades Belgium on August 3, 1914Schlieffen PlanInvade and defeat France quickly through Belgium (6 weeks)Then redeploy and concentrate on war v. RussiaBelgium puts up more resistance than expectedBuys time for the British to move into FranceBritish and French stop Germans outside Paris-Stalemate developsBeginning of trench warfareLasts for 3 years
22The Top 5 German Excuses for Schlieffen Plan Failure: 5. Hired a failed Austrian artist with a funny moustache to draw the maps.4. Those Belgians didn’t “waffle” after all. 3. Legendary orders "Last man on the right should brush his sleeve in the English Channel" mistakenly heard as "...brush his TEETH...."2. Superior German planning, equipment and personnel no match for legendary, unsurpassed French panic.And the number one reason why the Schlieffen Plan failed:Hard to take seriously any plan that starts with the word "Schlieffen"!
23Actual reasons for failure! Belgians’ resistance to G invasions slowed ‘em downLeft of German line failed to lure Fr. Into A+L and destroy itRussians mobilized quickly in the E., requiring G’s to send divisions thereFr. and Br. Counterattack at Battle of the Marne halted G invasion
24World War I The Eastern Front Germany invades Russia in 1914 Russian army no match for GermanyGermany takes Poland, the Baltic coast, and western RussiaThe war becomes unpopular in RussiaLow morale in the army and shortage of supplies in the cities
25World War I War expands outside Europe Africa Asia Middle East British take German coloniesAsiaJapan takes German colonies in the Pacific and German interests in ChinaMiddle EastBritish try to invade Ottoman Empire in Gallipoli campaign in 1915British and French take Palestine, Syria, and Mesopotamia
26World War I Total war effort: a new form of warfare New weapons introducedTanks, airplanes, submarines, machine gunsBut war fought with old tacticsTotal war effort: a new form of warfareEntire economy devoted to the war effortMore women work in factories to make up for men going to warMass media allows effective use of war propagandaBurgfrieden (civil peace):
31Burgfrieden Reichstag-declared. Duration of the war, all pre-war conflicts among Germans would be set aside.Citizens would unite in the interest of defending the country.Social Democrats/Women’s rights advocates/ labor leadersAt first good, but then support waivered.Food shortages, limited expression, anti-war sentiment.
32World War I Russia gets out of the war War going disastrously Czar Nicholas II unable to provide leadershipCzar Nicholas II overthrown in February Revolution (March 1917)Provisional government replaces monarchyBut continues fightingBolsheviks under Lenin gain control in October Revolution (November 1917)Promise “Peace, Land, and Bread”Sign Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918R. yields Poland, Baltic States, Ukraine, FinlandWar indemnity. $6 B marks
33World War I The United States neutral for most of the war Submarine warfareGerman submarines target British shippingSometimes neutral ships sunkLusitania sunk in Americans on boardUS makes Germany promise to restrict submarine warfare. Germans agree, but then reneged.
34World War I The US declares war on Germany in 1917 Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917President Woodrow Wilson wants US to “make the world safe for democracy”US tips the balance on the side of the AlliesAmerican troops, money, and supplies give advantage to the Allies
35World War I Losses in the war lead to revolution in Germany Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates on November 9, 1918Monarchy replaced by a republicGermany calls for an armistice on November 11, 1918World War I comes to an endEstimated 10,000,000 deaths from the warMost destructive war in historyDestroys European assumptions of progress
36The Treaty of Versailles Representatives from Allied nations and Germany meet in ParisWilson represents the United States and tries to make peaceThe Fourteen PointsNational self-determinationOpen agreementsLeague of NationsArms reductionsFree Trade
37The Treaty of Versailles Britain (George) and France (Clemenceau) don’t buy Wilson’s Fourteen PointsThey want revenge on GermanyBritain and France make a harsh peace with GermanyGermany takes full responsibility for the warStripped all of its coloniesOccupy part of German territory. Fr gets A-L back.Ger=No AF; restricted army and navyImpose heavy reparations (132 B gold marks=$33B)Germans feel angry and cheated
38The Treaty of Versailles End of World War I redraws the map of EuropeAustria-Hungary dismembered into new statesOttoman Empire dissolvedNew republic in TurkeyMiddle East divided between Britain and FrancePoland reappears as a republicYugoslavia comes into existenceEmpires gone: Ottoman, Austria-Hungary, Russia, German
39The League of NationsWilson compromises on Fourteen Points to get support for the League of NationsTreaty of Versailles had to be ratified by the USUS Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles in 1919US does not join the League of NationsLeague of Nations has no credibility
40Summary Between 1870 and 1914 European powers enter into alliances Arms race makes Europe highly unstableA series of decisions led Europe into World War IAllies impose a harsh peace on GermanyWorld War I the most destructive war in history
41Impact of War 10,000,000 dead. 20,000,000+ wounded $330 Billion total costEuropean economy in shamblesEuro govs in debt w/ no way to repay—esp to USAPsychologically scarring. Doubts and fears reflected in art, writing and philosophy of early 20th c.20th century was to be a century of prosperity and progress shakes belief in humanity, order and reasonNot the “war to end all wars.”
42The Alliance System All major European powers enter into an arms race After unifying Germany in 1871, Bismarck saw that Germany was vulnerableTrapped between France and Russia in a two-front warFormed alliances to prevent Germany from becoming isolatedThree Emperor’s League with Austria and Russia in 1873Dual Alliance with Austria in 1879Triple Alliance with Austria and Italy in 1882All major European powers enter into an arms race