Presentation on theme: "Cold War: Beginnings The Yalta Conference: Heads of Government"— Presentation transcript:
1Cold War: Beginnings The Yalta Conference: Heads of Government --sometimes called the Crimea Conference and --codenamed the Argonaut Conference-- February 4, 1945 to February 11, 1945Heads of GovernmentUnited Kingdom Winston Churchill (Left)United States Franklin D. Roosevelt (Center)Soviet Union (USSR) Joseph Stalin (Right)
4Comparative Soviet Losses in WW II U.S UK FR USSRCountry Population m m m mMilitary deaths k k k mCivilian deaths k k k mJewish Holocaust deaths n/a n/a k mTotal deaths k k k mDeaths/ % of population % % % %
5The Decision IJustification for bombing to save heavy losses is not universally accepted.Some sources estimate potential U.S. casualties as significantly lower—perhaps as low as 50,000 men.Not entirely clear that an unconditional Japanese surrender was impossible, especially if Russia had entered the war before the bombing.Russia officially declared war on Japan on August 8, two days after the destruction of Hiroshima.
6The Decision IISome suggest that Truman, fearing a Soviet attempt to dominate the postwar Asian order as it had the Eastern European, ordered the bombing to force Japan's surrender before Russia had the chance to enter the fray (and thus earn the right to affect the peace settlement).Truman may also have wanted to intimidate his potential rival Stalin with the United States' new destructive capability.
7Post War Reflections Read Handout: The "Soviet Experience in World War II”Consider the sacrifices, losses and legacy of World War II upon Russia.Write a word response, addressing the impact of Russian experiences in World War II upon the Soviet psyche leading into the Cold War.
8POTSDAM DECLARATIONAlso: Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese SurrenderIssued July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill and Chiang Kai-Shek.Outlined terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference.If Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt & utter destruction."Japan failed to respond to the declaration.
9Potsdam Points Militarism in Japan must end. Japan would be occupied until the basic objectives set out in this proclamation were met.Japanese sovereignty limited to the islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and such minor islands as the Allies determined.Japanese army would be completely disarmed and allowed to return home.War criminals would be punished including those who had "visited cruelties upon our prisoners."
10Potsdam Points cont…Freedoms of speech, religion and thought--as well as respect for the fundamental human rights shall be established.Japan should be permitted to maintain a viable industrial economy but not industries which would enable her to re-arm for war.Allied forces would be withdrawn from Japan as soon as these objectives have been accomplished."We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction."
11TRUMAN DOCTRINEIt is often cited by historians as the start of the Cold War.The Truman Doctrine was 12 March 1947.U.S. would support Greece & Turkey w) military & economic aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet orbit.The Doctrine shifted American foreign policy towards the Soviet Union from “détente” to, as George F. Kennan phrased it, a policy of “containment.”
12MARSHALL PLANThe Marshall Plan was known officially following its enactment as the European Recovery Program (ERP).The primary plan of the United States: rebuild the allied countries of Europe and repel communism after World War II.Initiative named for United States Secretary of State George Marshall and was largely the creation of State Department officials, especially William L. Clayton and George F. Kennan.Reconstruction plan developed at a meeting of the participating European states in July 1947.Marshall Plan offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its allies, if they would make political reforms and accept certain outside controls.
14NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliancethe Atlantic Allianceor the Western AllianceInternational organization for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949.Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium. Its other official name is the French equivalent,l'Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord (OTAN)English and French are the two official languages of the organization.
15NATOMISSION:.NATO was founded early in the Cold War with the express aim of defending western Europe against a military invasion by the Soviet Union.MEMBERSHIP:The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 is considered the precursor to the NATO--members included…NATO added the following to the Brussels Members…Belgiumthe NetherlandsLuxembourgFrancethe United KingdomThe United StatesCanadaPortugalItalyNorwayDenmarkIcelandGreece and Turkey also joined in 1952.
16Key Events in Asia 38th Parallel as Dividing Line Set in 1945…end of WWIISouth: Singnan Rhee North: Kim Il SungNorth Receives Communist Aid:USSR: Equipment PRC: Training1949 Jiang Jieshi <Nationalist> outMao Zedong <Communist> inPeople’s Republic of ChinaFear of spreading Communism in AsiaNSC“Slavery vs. Freedom” “Fanatic Faith”June 1950: North Korea Invades SouthDepleted U.S./ROK forces “Pusan Perimeter”
17BERLIN BLOCKADEThe Berlin Blockade (June 24, 1948 to May 11, 1949) became one of the first major crises of the new Cold War.Soviet Union blocked railroad and street access to West Berlin.Crisis ended after Soviet Union did not act to stop American, British and French humanitarian airlifts of food and other provisions to the Western-held sectors of Berlin.Referred to as Operation Vittles by the Americans and Operation Plainfare by the British.
19BERLIN AIRLIFT 278,228 flights 2,326,406 tons of food and supplies, including more than 1.5 million tons of coal, were delivered to Berlin.At the height of the operation, on April 16, 1949, an allied aircraft landed in Berlin every minute, with 1,398 flights in 24 hours carrying 12,940 tons (13,160 t) of goods, coal and machinery, beating the record of 8,246 (8,385 t) set only days earlier.USSR lifted blockade at 00:01, on May 12, 1949.However, the airlift did not end until September 30, as the Western nations wanted to build up sufficient amounts of supplies in West Berlin in case the Soviets blockaded it again.
21North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea official name: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin KonghwagukGojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom.North Korea led by Kim Il-sung from 1948 until his death on July 8, 1994, then son:Kim Jong-Il current.The government predominantlyKorean Workers' Party (KWP)80 percent of government officials belong.5th-largest military in the worldLargest % of citizens enlisted(49.03 active troops per thousand citizens).1.08m troops vs. 686,000 South Korean troops3.5 million paramilitary forcesplus 29,000 US troops in South Korea.
22State of Mind 2004 Film by Daniel Gordon & Nick Bonner Filmed in North Korea“93 unblinking minutes of insight into the lives and minds of the people living in North Korea…one of the last locked-down communist dictatorships.”Bruce Wallace, Los Angeles TimesThe film tracks a pair of gymnasts training for the 2003 Mass Games, while also documenting the lives, culture, hardships and political perspectives of North Koreans.
23State of Mind Assignments: Journal: Notes: Impressions & Implications Due when Journals are collected next week.Notes:Use in team CHOICES activity to strengthen and support your strategy/arguments.