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European Nations 1848-1900 FRANCE The Second Republic of France emerged from the bitter political turmoil of the revolution of 1848 The new government.

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Presentation on theme: "European Nations 1848-1900 FRANCE The Second Republic of France emerged from the bitter political turmoil of the revolution of 1848 The new government."— Presentation transcript:

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2 European Nations

3 FRANCE The Second Republic of France emerged from the bitter political turmoil of the revolution of 1848 The new government placed legislative authority in a National Assembly. Executive authority was in a President, President, to be elected to a 4-year term by universal manhood suffrage. A presidential election gave Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, an overwhelming victory.

4 He blamed the National Assembly for the misdeeds of the government and convinced the people that the republic was a failure. On Dec 2, 1851, the anniversary of the coronation of Napoleon I, Louis Napoleon directed a coup detat -- later became Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.

5 The Second Empire Then he involved France in the Franco-Prussian War in Napoleon III was taken prisoner and France fell into turmoil again. Napoleon IIIs first years were authoritarian since his rule rested on the illegal seizure of power. His insecurity led to the strict control of the press and the limiting of other civil liberties. However, after a number of economic and foreign successes, he became more liberal.

6 The Third French Republic Delegates in the new National Assembly ranged from various monarchists to radical republicans. Delegates in the new National Assembly ranged from various monarchists to radical republicans. Because of the dissension between different factions of monarchists, the Republicans passed a series of laws which collectively became the Constitution of the Third French Republic. Because of the dissension between different factions of monarchists, the Republicans passed a series of laws which collectively became the Constitution of the Third French Republic. The republic began in 1871 and ended in The republic began in 1871 and ended in 1940.

7 Problems of the Third French Republic Paris Commune: Heroic efforts in F-P war. Paris for Parisians. Crushed by French. French v. French. Provinces v. Paris. Paris Commune: Heroic efforts in F-P war. Paris for Parisians. Crushed by French. French v. French. Provinces v. Paris.

8 Dreyfus Affair Dreyfus Affair: a Jewish Republican army captain was framed by monarchist army officers for treason. His unfair trial discredited the monarchist faction of the government. Dreyfus is finally cleared (1906) Zola wrote Jaccuse in his defense Zola wrote Jaccuse in his defense Major Outcomes:Major Outcomes: Divided FranceDivided France Anti-semitism (vitriolic, violent)Anti-semitism (vitriolic, violent) Conservative lose ground. Libs, rads, repub and socs develop informal allianceConservative lose ground. Libs, rads, repub and socs develop informal alliance

9 Anti-Semitism rising in Europe (started heaviest in Russia, leading to movement to W Europe… then anti-Jewish feeling picks up there as well)Anti-Semitism rising in Europe (started heaviest in Russia, leading to movement to W Europe… then anti-Jewish feeling picks up there as well) 1896, Theodor Herzl starts Zionist movement (call for independent Jewish country… find land of Zion)1896, Theodor Herzl starts Zionist movement (call for independent Jewish country… find land of Zion) Guarantee safety for Jews & end anti-semitismGuarantee safety for Jews & end anti-semitism Pre-cursor to modern day IsraelPre-cursor to modern day Israel

10 ENGLAND The British government generally moved toward greater democracy through a process of evolution rather than revolution. Prosperity mitigated social conflict of 1830s and 1840s Disraeli and Gladstone expand suffrage

11 Legislative authority was held by Parliament, consisting of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Monarchs were under a constitution and no longer governed. They were ceremonial heads of state. Executive power belonged to a cabinet led by the Prime Minister.

12 PARLIAMENT Members of the Lords inherited or were appointed to their positions. Members of the Lords inherited or were appointed to their positions. Representatives to the House of Commons were elected by qualified voters (Only 6 percent of British men actually had voting rights). Representatives to the House of Commons were elected by qualified voters (Only 6 percent of British men actually had voting rights). Together both houses passed laws and selected the prime minister.Together both houses passed laws and selected the prime minister.

13 The Struggle for Democracy Reform Act of 1832 increased total electorate from 400,000 to 800,000 by extending the franchise to almost all middle-class men. Reform Act of 1867 increased the electorate from roughly one million to two million, reducing most property qualifications to vote. (However, it left out industrial workers, artisans, and farmers.) (However, it left out industrial workers, artisans, and farmers.)

14 Reform Act of 1867 (a bit more) Disraeli allows expansion of suffrage. Why? Seems inconsistent as hes conservative... Leap in the dark… broaden the base Disraeli allows expansion of suffrage. Why? Seems inconsistent as hes conservative... Leap in the dark… broaden the base Effect of the expansion? Effect of the expansion? Gladstone elected!

15 Gladstones ministry Culmination of liberalism in Gr. Brit in Culmination of liberalism in Gr. Brit in Evolution of a liberal: How? Evolution of a liberal: How? Aristocratic Institutions opened to all now: Aristocratic Institutions opened to all now: Competitive civil service exams. Replaced? Competitive civil service exams. Replaced? Ended purchase of officers commission Ended purchase of officers commission End to Anglican requisites at Ox-Bridge End to Anglican requisites at Ox-Bridge Secret ballot Secret ballot Ed Act of 1870: govt takes over elem ed. Ed Act of 1870: govt takes over elem ed. Why are these typically liberal? Why are these typically liberal?

16 The Status of Women Alfred, Lord Tennyson summed up many 19 th century British attitudes toward women in his poem, The Princess: Man for the field and woman for the hearth: Man for the sword and for the needle she: Man with the head and woman with the heart: Man to command and woman to obey.

17 In 1903 the WSPU (Womens Social and Political Union) was founded to fight for womens rights. In 1903 the WSPU (Womens Social and Political Union) was founded to fight for womens rights. In 1918, after the World War, Parliament granted women over 30 the right to vote. In 1918, after the World War, Parliament granted women over 30 the right to vote. A decade later, it gave the vote to all women over 21.

18 Mrs. Banks: We're clearly soldiers in petticoats And dauntless crusaders for woman's votes Though we adore men individually We agree that as a group they're rather stupid! Cast off the shackles of yesterday! Shoulder to shoulder into the fray! Our daughters' daughters will adore us And they'll sign in grateful chorus "Well done, Sister Suffragette!" From Kensington to Billingsgate One hears the restless cries! From ev'ry corner of the land: "Womankind, arise!" Political equality and equal rights with men! Take heart! For Missus Pankhurst has been clapped in irons again!

19 The Irish Question Irish Catholics contributed to the Church of England. Irish Catholics contributed to the Church of England. Treated as a colony, the Irish were forced to observe English laws. The Irish objected to the control of Irish land by British landowners. When the British government failed to aid Ireland after the disastrous famine of the 1840s, Irish hatred of British rule intensified. Many Irish immigrated to the United States. Irish nationalists demanded home rule. Ulster provinces in North dont want it. Why? Protestant and property owners!

20 New Nations and Democracy in Europe in 1800s Norway and Sweden were united under one monarchy for most of the 1800s until Norway broke the union in The people of Belgium gained their independence from the Dutch in 1830 and established a constitutional monarchy under Leopold I. In 1907 it became the first sovereign state to give the vote to women. Sweden followed their example in 1909.

21 The Netherlands progressed toward democracy with their first constitution in Switzerland used the principle of direct democracy in their 1874 constitution. Denmark gained significant democratic reforms in the early 1900s. Spain and Portugal, unlike the rest of the nations of western Europe, made little progress toward democracy.

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23 German Government 25 states handled local matters 25 states handled local matters The federal government handled national matters, such as defense and banking. The federal government handled national matters, such as defense and banking. Constitution: bicameral legislature Constitution: bicameral legislature Bundesrat: 58 reps from member states Bundesrat: 58 reps from member states Reichstag: 397 members elected by universal manhood suffrage. Reichstag: 397 members elected by universal manhood suffrage. Bundesrat could only introduce legislation, and Reichstag could only reject it. Bundesrat could only introduce legislation, and Reichstag could only reject it.

24 German Government The executive power rested in the hand of the emperor who commanded the army & navy, & appointed govt ministers. The executive power rested in the hand of the emperor who commanded the army & navy, & appointed govt ministers. Chancellor: as chief minister, the chancellor was the prime advisor to the emperor and held a huge amount of governing power. Chancellor: as chief minister, the chancellor was the prime advisor to the emperor and held a huge amount of governing power.

25 William I (King of Prussia ) had grandiose plans of a united Germany, but it was his prime minister, Otto von Bismarck ( ), who was really responsible for the expansion of the Kingdom of Prussia into the German Empire.

26 Unification On Jan. 18, 1871 William I became the emperor of Germany (or Kaiser). The new empire united 25 German states into one federal union. On Jan. 18, 1871 William I became the emperor of Germany (or Kaiser). The new empire united 25 German states into one federal union. However, unification did not make Germany a democratic state; it favored King of Prussia and its aristocracy. However, unification did not make Germany a democratic state; it favored King of Prussia and its aristocracy.

27 Accomplishments of Bismarck Consolidation of the German Empire: Consolidation of the German Empire: created a uniform currency, and legal code. created a uniform currency, and legal code. Tried to suppress the Catholics in the South Tried to suppress the Catholics in the South Catholics organized the Center Party to oppose certain policies of the central govt, & Bismarck resented them because of their ties to the Catholic Church Catholics organized the Center Party to oppose certain policies of the central govt, & Bismarck resented them because of their ties to the Catholic Church Bismarck passed a series of laws to restrict the church (restricting education & clergy) and the KULTURKAMPF resulted. Bismarck passed a series of laws to restrict the church (restricting education & clergy) and the KULTURKAMPF resulted. Eventually, Bismarck backed down. Eventually, Bismarck backed down.

28 Other Actions of Bismarck Tried to suppress the socialists: Tried to suppress the socialists: Socialists appealed to urban workers who resented low pay and bad working conditions. Socialists appealed to urban workers who resented low pay and bad working conditions. Bismarck tried to suppress them forcibly in 1878 with anti- socialist laws, but this failed. Bismarck tried to suppress them forcibly in 1878 with anti- socialist laws, but this failed. By the 1880s, Bismarck began to undermine them by supporting social legislation to gain the support of the workers. By the 1880s, Bismarck began to undermine them by supporting social legislation to gain the support of the workers. These programs included unemployment insurance & workers comp., and social security payments for retired Germans. These programs included unemployment insurance & workers comp., and social security payments for retired Germans.

29 German Policies 1888: William II (defender of divine right) became king and Bismarck remained the chancellor, until he was dismissed by William. 1888: William II (defender of divine right) became king and Bismarck remained the chancellor, until he was dismissed by William. William II did the following: William II did the following: Built up a strong army & navy Built up a strong army & navy Encouraged industry & commerce Encouraged industry & commerce Encouraged imperialism and annexation Encouraged imperialism and annexation

30 The Fall of Bismarck With the support of Kaiser William I, Bismarck took charge of policy in the German Empire. William II was a man of great energy and strong opinions. William II favored a powerful military. Because of Williams belief in a strong monarchy, he came into conflict with Bismarck. Bismarck wanted the Kaiser to stay out of political affairs.

31 Under William I, Bismarck was able to get his way by threatening to resign. But when Bismarck offered his resignation to William II in 1890, the Kaiser accepted it. William began his own personal rule of the German Empire. During his reign, William II encouraged development in two key areasthe military and industry. He insisted that a strong army was the best support for royal authority. By 1914, Germany had become one of the worlds major industrial powers

32 Russia in the 19th Century Russian society remained semi-feudal and backward, with much popular discontent. Russian society remained semi-feudal and backward, with much popular discontent. Russia remained isolated from Western culture and did not modernize. Russia remained isolated from Western culture and did not modernize. Oppression & censorship increased and the government was inefficient. Oppression & censorship increased and the government was inefficient. Czars were anti-liberal Czars were anti-liberal Russia was weak internationally & began to lose foreign wars (Crimean, Russo-Japanese) Russia was weak internationally & began to lose foreign wars (Crimean, Russo-Japanese)

33 Nicholas I ( ) Dictatorial ruler who stood for strong nationalism, autocracy, and religious orthodoxy. Dictatorial ruler who stood for strong nationalism, autocracy, and religious orthodoxy. He did the following: He did the following: Expanded the royal bureaucracy Expanded the royal bureaucracy Published a new legal code Published a new legal code Fostered industry and Railroads Fostered industry and Railroads Enforced strict censorship with secret police Enforced strict censorship with secret police Had strong control over the military Had strong control over the military Lost the Crimean War Lost the Crimean War Put down a Polish revolt Put down a Polish revolt

34 Alexander II ( ) A conservative reformer, who abolished serfdom in A conservative reformer, who abolished serfdom in Zemstvo Laws: created local assemblies to solve local problems in Zemstvo Laws: created local assemblies to solve local problems in As reform led to radical demands, many groups began to plot and carry out terrorist acts. As reform led to radical demands, many groups began to plot and carry out terrorist acts. 1881: Alexander was assassinated. Today! 1881: Alexander was assassinated. Today!

35 Russia Crimean War exposes Russias weakness – Economically backward – Technologically behind Czar Alexander II decides to abolish serfdom in 1861 – But freed serfs had to pay back the landlords and fell into debt – Some reforms made in the government but no fundamental changes in limiting Czars power – Alexander II assassinated by revolutionaries in 1881

36 Nicholas II ( ) Industrial progress occurred during his reign, but urban & rural conditions remained miserable and the population was on the verge of revolution. Industrial progress occurred during his reign, but urban & rural conditions remained miserable and the population was on the verge of revolution. 1905: Russia lost the Russo-Japanese war. 1905: Russia lost the Russo-Japanese war. 1905: Revolution occurred which included the Bloody Sunday massacre. 1905: Revolution occurred which included the Bloody Sunday massacre. The czar was forced to accept the October Manifesto which created the Duma (estab Russian constitutional govt). Some Land reforms. No one satisfied. The czar was forced to accept the October Manifesto which created the Duma (estab Russian constitutional govt). Some Land reforms. No one satisfied.

37 Nicholas, continued Nicholas failed to uphold his promises made in the Oct. Manifesto and instead promoted more conservative policies under his chief agricultural advisor, Stolypin. Nicholas failed to uphold his promises made in the Oct. Manifesto and instead promoted more conservative policies under his chief agricultural advisor, Stolypin. Stolypin was assassinated by rebels Stolypin was assassinated by rebels Three major groups of revolutionaries existed in Russia at the turn of the century: Social Democrats (Marxists), Cadets, and Social Revolutionaries Three major groups of revolutionaries existed in Russia at the turn of the century: Social Democrats (Marxists), Cadets, and Social Revolutionaries


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