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The Post-Napoleonic Order 1815-1832 The Congress of Vienna Established Congress System to restore balance of power – European powers meet to discuss.

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Presentation on theme: "The Post-Napoleonic Order 1815-1832 The Congress of Vienna Established Congress System to restore balance of power – European powers meet to discuss."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Post-Napoleonic Order

3 The Congress of Vienna Established Congress System to restore balance of power – European powers meet to discuss problems in Europe and to intervene if there is unrest Goal to prevent further revolutions To restore legitimate rulers who were overthrown by Napoleon Faced two problems: Nationalism and Liberalism

4 The Challenge of Nationalism Germany – German people living within different German states – Some want all Germans to be one nation Italy – Italian people living under small Italian states or foreign occupation – Some want all Italians to be one nation

5 The Challenge of Nationalism Austria – Twenty different nationalities within Austrian Empire – Germans in charge, though a minority – Each nationality wants to be a separate nation Russia – Poles and other nationalities want independence Britain – Irish want independence

6 The Challenge of Liberalism Liberalism – The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars challenge old order of Divine Right and aristocratic rule – Demand for constitutional government – Representation in government – Civil liberties – But only for the middle class Conservatives want to go back to before 1789

7 The Legacy of the French Revolution Romanticism – Reaction to the Enlightenment – Questioning of Reason and Rationality – Return to nature and emphasis on pure emotion – Influence in literature, art, and music

8 The Legacy of Napoleon Napoleon inspires German nationalism – Revival of German folk tales – Inspired German national identity The role of history – G.W.F. Hegel ( ) – German philosopher – Believed history moves in cycles and clashes of ideas Thesis, antithesis, synthesis – Fitche - Belief in the role of individual in history Great men move history forward

9 The Conservatives Strike Back Austria – Klemens von Metternich ( ) Austrian chancellor Prevents reforms in Austria Prevents German states from uniting Prussia – Frederick William III opposes constitutional government – Junkers remain in charge

10 The Conservatives Strike Back The Carlsbad Decrees – German university students form groups supporting German unification Burschenschaften – Carlsbad Decrees issued by German Confederation in 1819 Banned student groups Imposed censorship Forbade discussion on German unification

11 The Conservatives Strike Back Russia – Decembrist Revolt (1825) – Army officers attempt a revolt against Czar Nicholas I on December 1825 – Demand a constitution and Nicholas brother Constantine as Czar – Revolt ruthlessly put down – Nicholas I also puts down revolt in Poland in 1830

12 The Conservatives Strike Back France – Bourbons restored under Louis XVIII – Became a constitutional monarchy – Charter keeps most of the gains of the Revolution – Torn in conflict between liberals and conservatives – Repression returns by 1821

13 The Conservatives Strike Back Britain – Workers and farmers agitate against government taxes – Parliament passes Combination Acts outlawing unions in 1799 – Peterloo Massacre Army fires on striking workers Parliament passes Six Acts in 1819 restricting free speech

14 Revolution Erupts Greece – Part of the Ottoman Empire for 500 years – Greeks launch revolution in 1821 Has the sympathy of other European powers – Greek Revolution shows weakness of the Ottoman Empire Spurs Eastern Question – Greece becomes independent kingdom – Serbia also declares independence

15 Revolution Erupts Latin America – French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars lead Spanish and Portuguese colonies to declare independence in 1820 – Most of the emerging countries undemocratic and poor – Britain keeps Spain and Portugal from regaining colonies

16 Revolution Erupts France – Revolution of 1830 Louis XVIII dies in 1824, Charles X succeeds him Charles X attempts to roll back constitutional government Overthrown in 1830; Louis Philippe becomes King France remains a constitutional monarchy under control of the middle class

17 Revolution Erupts Belgium – Added to Holland in 1815 – Belgians demand their independence Based on nationalism; Belgians are Catholic, Dutch are Protestant – Belgium becomes an independent kingdom Protection assured by major European powers

18 Revolution Erupts Britain – No revolution, but makes reforms – Catholic Emancipation Act (1829) allows Irish Catholics to vote and hold office in Ireland – Great Reform Bill (1832) expands electorate by including the middle class

19 Conclusion Europe after the Napoleonic Wars torn in struggle between conservatism and nationalism and liberalism Conservatives try to reverse the influences of the French Revolution Each country tries to deal with the consequences of the new order

20 The Revolution of 1848 The Springtime of Peoples The turning point at which history failed to turn. - - George Macaulay Trevelyn [1937]

21 Revolutions of 1848 Causes (Simplistic) – Liberals from middle class demand rights – Economic slowdown – Poor harvests – Nationalism among European minorities


23 Revolution of 1848 France – Ruled by Louis Philippe since 1830 – Corruption in the government – Poor harvests – High prices for food – Working class demonstrate in Paris Women demanded equal rights Demand workshops and relief for unemployed Soldiers fire on workers Louis Philippe abdicates February 24, 1848

24 Revolution of 1848 Second Republic declared – Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte Elected President of the Second Republic in 1848 Takes power in 1851; constitution did not allow president to be reelected Declared himself Emperor Napoleon III in 1852

25 Revolution of 1848 Austria – Nationalism among minorities – Hungarians (Magyars) demand independence – Students lead uprising in Vienna – Metternich resigns and leaves the country – Emperor Ferdinand I agrees to a liberal constitution under pressure Ferdinand abdicates in 1848; nephew Francis Joseph becomes Emperor and takes back the constitution

26 Revolution of 1848 Austria – Magyar Revolt Hungarians demand autonomy for Hungary Demand to rule over other minorities Magyarization Put down by the Austrians with Russian help – Czech Revolt Slavs in Bohemia and Moravia demand same autonomy as in Hungary Beginning of Pan-Slavism Slavs from all over Europe want to unite into one state – Used by the Russians to further their goals Put down by the Austrians

27 Revolution of 1848 Italy – Divided into separate city-states – Northern Italy under Austrian rule Italians revolt against the Austrians Put down by the Austrian army – Revolution spreads through other parts of Italy Led by Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi – Revolutions put down by French troops

28 Revolution of 1848 Germany – Revolution in Prussia Liberals demand reforms Frederick William IV agrees to reforms New constitution written Voting based on taxes paid

29 Revolution of 1848 Germany – The Frankfurt Assembly Liberals demand changes to the German confederation Liberals meet in Frankfurt to write a new constitution for a united Germany Had no support from military or German rulers Disputes over borders of a united Germany Crown offered to Frederick William IV of Prussia – Says, No, thanks. Germanys last chance at a democracy for 100 years

30 Conclusion Unrest throughout Europe caused Revolution of 1848 Liberals desired greater political participation Nationalities demanded independence Conservatives manage to put down rebellions Few revolutionary goals achieved Moderate liberals withdrew when more radical demands are presented

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