Presentation on theme: "Socialism CAUSES Desire to reorganize society to establish cooperation and a new sense of community. Increasing misery of working classes disturbed liberal."— Presentation transcript:
1 SocialismCAUSESDesire to reorganize society to establish cooperation and a new sense of community.Increasing misery of working classes disturbed liberal thinkers (Bentham and Mill), who proposed a modification of laissez-faire economics.Liberal practices in politics (republicanism) and economics (capitalism) seemed to promote selfish individualism and the fragmenting of society.Not until the 19th century did issue of social justice gain broad intellectual base and greater support.
2 Overview of Themes*Between 1815 and 1871, Europe witnessed many reform movements, uprisings, and revolutions.*The participants in these events were inspired by ideologies, or theories of society and government, that lay the foundation for political action.*These ideologies – liberalism, conservatism, socialism, and nationalism – were produced by Western historical developments and endowed the West with a distinctive political culture.
3 Liberalism Main principle: political, social, and economic freedoms are paramount,the main function of government is to protect these freedoms.Agenda-varies from country to country, but 3 main objectives:to establish and protect the individual rights, such as freedom of religion, that liberals sought to have enshrined in constitutions;to expand the right to vote to all property owners, especially the middle class;to promote free trade (laissez faire)
4 Liberals: Opposed what? Favored what? Supported by whom? Aristocratic privilegeFavored:Equality before the lawLimited monarchySupported by:Urban middle class ofProfessionalsMerchantsManufacturersWhy M-C? They felt most aggrieved by their lack of political rights and believed that their growing wealth gave them a basis for claiming a share of political power.
5 Women? Lower classes?Right to vote (the franchise): only to property owners, especially m-c and maleNot lower classes. Poor could not be trusted to elect reps who would protect property rights.No women either. Separate spheres. Women had the home. Men had public affairs
6 Conservatism: Throne, land and altar united! Goals:sought to preserve the established order, in particular monarchy and aristocracy, (and the Church)prevent the spread of those movements born of the French Revolution: liberalism and nationalism.Fine line sep. conservatism (gradual change allowed) from reaction (reject any change and return to old order.Ideological foundation of reactionary movements found in conservatism
7 Holy AllianceAltar: In keeping with the identification of conservatism w/ religion, Prussia, Russia and Austria gave their alliance a religious mission. Defend Christian values.Provided a religious foundation for the reactionary and repressive policies R., P. and A. would implementBritain refused to subscribe: “sublime mysticism and nonsense”
8 SocialismCAUSESDesire to reorganize society to establish cooperation and a new sense of community.Increasing misery of working classes disturbed liberal thinkers (Bentham and Mill), who proposed a modification of laissez-faire economics. IR=disasterLiberal practices in politics (republicanism) and economics (capitalism) seemed to promote selfish individualism and the fragmenting of society.Not until the 19th century did issue of social justice gain broad intellectual base and greater support.
9 Early French Socialists Proposed a system of greater economic equality planned by the government (sometimes called Utopian Socialists)Count Henri de Saint-Simon ( )Industrialization, aided by science, would bring a wondrous new age to Europe.Proper social organization would require the “parasites”—the court, aristocracy, lawyers, churchmen—to give way to the “doers”—leading scientists, engineers, and industrialists.Sought public works projects and establishing investment banks.Every social institution should have as its main goal improved conditions for the poor.
10 Early French Socialists Louis Blanc ( )More practical approach than other early French socialists.Urged workers to fight for universal suffrage and to take control of the state peacefully.Gov’t should set up workshops and factories to guarantee full employment.Pierre Joseph Proudhon ( ) Wrote What is Property? (1840)His answer to this question was, “Nothing but theft!”Believed property was profit stolen from the worker, who was the source of all wealth.Often considered an anarchist as he greatly feared the power of the state.
11 French Socialism Charles Fourier (1772-1837), impact on U.S. Proposed a planned economy and socialist communities.Described socialist utopia in lavish mathematical detail.Seven utopian communities founded along his ideas; most in the U.S.Early proponent of total emancipation of women.Christian Socialism (began in England around 1848)Believed the evils of industrialism would be ended by following Christian principles.Attempted to bridge the gap between the anti-religious drift of socialism and the need for Christian social justice for workers.
12 Another Utopian Socialist, but not French Robert Owen ( )Turned mill in New Lanark, Scotland into a model socialist community.Principles of cooperation prevailedWorkers housed thereTheir children were educated thereEstablished a similar community in New Harmony, Indiana.Utopian socialists were not particularly concerned with granting political rights to workers, nor did they encourage class tensions or class consciousness.
13 Scientific Socialism or Marxism Developed by Karl Marx and Friederich EngelsThe Communist Manifesto (1848)Considered the “bible” of communismIntended to replace utopian hopes and dreams with a militant blueprint for socialist working class success.Theory of dialectical materialismThe economic interpretation of history: all human history has been determined by economic factors (mainly who controls the means of production and distribution).The class struggle: Since the beginning of time there has been a class struggle between the rich and the poor or the exploiters and the exploited.
14 Scientific Socialism or Marxism Theory of dialectical materialism (continued)Theory of Surplus Value: the true value of a product was labor and, since the worker received a small portion of his just labor price, the difference was surplus value, “stolen” from him by the capitalist.Socialism was inevitable: Capitalism contained the seeds of its own destruction (overproduction, unemployment, etc.)Violent revolution:The increasing gap between proletariat and bourgeoisie will be so great that the working classes will rise up in revolution and overthrow the elite bourgeoisie.Will create a “dictatorship of the proletariat.”“WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE!”Creation of a classless society: Will result as modern capitalism is dismantled.“From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs,” will take place.Impact of socialism on European politics became profound by late 19th century
15 How does Communism differ from other forms of socialism? Its call for REVOLUTIONIts emphasis on class conflictIts insistence on complete economic equality
16 Cultural traditions that influenced these ideologies (Yes, we are going to get to Nationalism!) Scientific Rationalism: a manner of thinking with roots in the Scientific Revolution and the EnlightenmentStresses the powers of human reason and considers science superior to all other forms of human knowledge.Sought to create a science of human nature. Produced the IR through its application of scientific knowledge to productionAlso gave birth to positivism
17 Positivism Developed by Auguste Comte Held that science is not only highest form of knowledge, but will inevitably lead to human progressArgued that the highest stage of human development was the positive stage [that which has substance or concrete reality] (as opposed to that which is abstract or speculative).This stage would allow people to discover the laws of human behavior and use them to improve society (sociologists).
18 Nationalism: The Unity of the People First appeared during French RevolutionNation=large community of people with a sense of unity based on a shared homeland and cultureBelieves that nations have a right to have their own political institutions and that the interests of the nation are supreme
19 19th C. NationalistsWanted to estab. nation-states based on self-determinationNation has a right to be ruled only by its own membersAll members of nation should be included in the stateOften spoke of the “antiquity” of their nationHad always been a distinct German or French or Swiss or Italian people living in their respective homelandsReally a fiction. Little cultural unity. Even w/in a nation state there is linguistic, religious and ethnic diversity.Really a myth!
20 19th C. Nationalists (cont’d) Imperialism abroad increased nationalism at home.Nationalism promoted each antion’s sense of its own supremacy.Early 19th c. nationalism is often id’ed with liberalism since both shared a belief in representative gov’t.But, liberalism emphasized the individual, while nationalism stressed political unity (free trade v. econ nationalism [protectionism])Later in 19th c., nationalism was id’ed more with conservatism (Prussia-God, King and Fatherland!)