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World War II and the Holocaust

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1 World War II and the Holocaust

2 Recap of Causes Hitler wanted to scrap the restrictions the Treaty of Versailles imposed on Germany The Allies and League of Nations were unable to stop Hitler British followed policy of appeasement to correct the Treaty of Versailles Belief that if Germany treated fairly, there would be a lasting peace

3 Lead-up to War Hitler remilitarizes Rhineland in 1935
Hitler builds up army and air force Italy invades Ethiopia in 1935; Allies do nothing Rome-Berlin Axis formed in 1936 Germany annexes Austria in 1938 Germany dismembers Czechoslovakia in 1938

4 Spanish Civil War Prelude to Second World War
Monarchy overthrown in 1931 Republic established Fascists vs. Socialists Germany and Italy supported Fascists Soviet Union supported Socialists Allies did nothing Fascists took over

5 War Leaders The Allies The United States: Great Britain
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (later succeeded by Harry Truman) Great Britain Prime Minister Winston Churchill The Soviet Union Premier Josef Stalin

6 War Leaders The Axis Germany Italy Japan Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini
General Hideki Tojo

7 The War in Europe Germany invades Poland on September 1, 1939
Britain and France declare war on Germany Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact signed before invasion Germany and Soviet Union agree to divide Poland in half Soviet Union takes Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania Poland no match for Germany and Soviet Union

8 The War in Europe Germany invades Western Europe in 1940
“Blitzkrieg” (lightning war) fast moving attacks by tanks and aircraft Norway and Denmark conquered in April Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxemburg conquered in May France conquered in June Hitler forces armistice on the French Northern France occupied; southern France and colonies under Vichy government

9 The War in Europe Hitler targets Britain
Britain and Empire alone in war against Germany Fall of France leaves Britain vulnerable Britain forced to evacuate from France in Dunkirk Winston Churchill ( ) becomes Prime Minister in 1940 Chamberlain resigns in disgrace

10 The War in Europe The Battle of Britain (1940)
German strategy: Operation Sea Lion Knock out air force before invasion of Britain Luftwaffe (air force) begins air raids in southern England between August and September Hitler turns on cities Radar and British fighters turn back Germans Hitler forced to postpone invasion of Britain

11 The War in Europe Italy and the war
Mussolini wants to recreate Roman Empire Alliance with Italy becomes a burden for Hitler Mussolini invades Greece and Egypt Resistance by Greeks and British force Hitler to divert resources Delays Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union

12 The War in Europe Hitler turns to the Soviet Union
Despite non-aggression pact Part of master plan Germany would expand to the Soviet Union Germans would settle into western Russia Poles, Russians, and Slavs would serve Germany Stalin warned of German attack but did not listen

13 The War in Europe Hitler invades Soviet Union June 22, 1941
Operation Barbarossa Stalin taken completely by surprise Soviet Union unprepared by invasion Most of experienced officers purged during the 1930s German army sweeps through western Russia Russian winter stops German army outside Moscow and Leningrad

14 The War in the Pacific Japan becomes a major power in Asia in early 20th century Japan annexes Korea in 1910 Japan takes over German colonies in the Pacific after World War I Japan militarizes in the 1930s Military takes over the government Depression also hits Japan Military sees conquest of Asia as solution for Depression Also to “liberate” Asia from European imperialism

15 The War in the Pacific Japan invades Manchuria in 1931
League of Nations does nothing Manchuria becomes Japanese puppet state Japan invades the rest of China in 1937 Japan enters Rome-Berlin Axis in in 1940 Japan takes over French Indochina in 1940 Japanese aggression makes United States nervous

16 The War in the Pacific United States neutral at the beginning of the war Americans believed US was “duped” into World War I Many Americans did not want to get involved Congress passed strict neutrality laws in 1938 Franklin Roosevelt wanted to help Britain Lend Lease Act gives Britain money and weapons in exchange for naval bases

17 The War in the Pacific Japanese aggression threatened American interests in the Pacific US pressures Japan to withdraw from Indochina Freezes access to oil and metal supplies Japanese military government had to decide whether to withdraw or attack

18 The War in the Pacific Japanese navy attacks Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 Plan was to knock out US Navy so Japan could take over Asia Catches US by surprise Battleships were destroyed US declares war on Japan December 8, 1941

19 The War in the Pacific Japan takes over Southeast Asia and the Pacific
Takes the Philippines, Malaya, East Indies, Burma, and islands in the South Pacific The US Navy temporarily crippled Battleships destroyed, but not aircraft carriers US in charge of the Pacific

20 The Home Front Total War
Like World War I, entire economies of nations involved devoted to war effort Government in control of the economy Rationing of rubber, oil, and anything that would serve the war Propaganda used to rally support for the war

21 Major Battles Battle of El-Alamein (1942) Battle of Midway (1942)
First major Allied victory In North Africa under leadership of British field marshal Bernard Montgomery Battle of Midway (1942) Ended Japanese advance in the Pacific Battle of Stalingrad (1942) Ended German advance into Russia

22 The Holocaust Hitler begins “Final Solution” for the Jews during the war Precedents Anti-Semitism not new in Europe Nuremberg Laws in 1935 Kristallnacht (1938) Jewish businesses attacked by Nazis Many Jews left Germany

23 The Holocaust Construction of concentration camps throughout Europe
Nazis had help from collaborators in occupied countries in rounding up Jews Jews sent to concentration camps Worked as slave labor Eventually killed in gas chambers

24 The Holocaust Six million Jews died in the Holocaust
1 million died in Auschwitz alone Other populations also suffered Gypsies, Poles, Russians, Romanians, etc. Allies informed about the Holocaust as early as 1942 but did nothing

25 The End of the War D-Day June 6, 1944
Allies begin liberation of Western Europe Through landing at Normandy in France To provide “Second Front” for the Soviet Union Landing allowed Allies to begin liberation of France and neighboring countries and invasion of Germany from the West Soviets invade Germany from the East Suffered the most casualties in the war 20 million dead Germany surrenders on May 8, 1945 Hitler commits suicide

26 The End of the War Surrender of Germany allows Allies to focus on Japan Pacific campaign costly for the US Fierce fighting on islands Iwo Jima, and Okinawa Japanese soldiers would not surrender Kamikaze tactics used by Japanese

27 Allied War Aims Atlantic Charter
Signed in 1941 by Roosevelt and Churchill To liberate countries occupied by Nazis To allow liberated countries to choose their own governments Unconditional Surrender by Germany and Japan

28 The End of the War Secret Allied plan to end war with Japan
Atom bomb (“Manhattan Project”) Germans first began research on atom bomb Scientists warn Allies Allies beat the Germans in developing atom bomb US drops first atom bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 Warned the Japanese government first Second bomb dropped on August 9, 1945 in Nagasaki Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945

29 The End of the War The Yalta Conference February 1945
Plans to reconstruct Europe after the war Soviet Union had troops in Eastern Europe “liberated” from the Nazis Stalin wanted security on western border Stalin promises to allow free elections in Eastern Europe

30 The End of the War Potsdam Conference July 1945
Changes in Allied leadership FDR replaced by Harry Truman Churchill replaced by Clement Atltlee (Labour) Russian border moves westward Poland takes eastern Germany

31 The End of the War Germany divided into four zones
Britain, US, France, Soviet Union Japan occupied by the United States World War II officially ends on September 2, 1945 The most destructive war in history

32 Effects of WW II Cities leveled
Millions killed: ca. 72 million total (military and civilian) New fear of atomic war Antagonism between West and USSR= Cold War Decolonization

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