2 What is biotechnology?Living things use chemical reactions to produce new materials.Biotechnology is the use of these reactions by humans to manufacture useful products.
3 Uses of biotechnology What products are made using biotechnology? There are several items in the image that rely on biotechnology:biological washing powder – use of lipases, proteases and carbohydrases to break down fat, protein and carbohydrate stainsbeer – production of alcohol by fermentationwine – production of alcohol by fermentationbread – production of carbon dioxide by fermentationcheese – conversion of lactose to lactic acid, and production of curdyoghurt – conversion of lactose to lactic acidbaby food – use of proteases to ‘pre-digest’ the foodpenicillin – the mould Penicillium notatum is used industrially to produce the antibiotic penicillinsoft-centred chocolates – the centres initially start off hard and mainly contain sucrose; over time this is broken down by invertase to produce simpler sugars and so make the centre soft and runnystone-washed denim – cellulase and other enzymes are used to remove some of the dye from the denim and abrade the material to give a faded, worn appearanceplants – bacteria are used to transfer disease-resistance and other genes into plants
4 Biotechnology – an old art Can you think of some products that have been made using biotechnology for thousands of years?breadcheese and yoghurtbeer and wine
6 + + What is fermentation? Yeast cells contain enzymes that converts sugars (such as glucose and sucrose) into alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide.glucose+ethanolcarbon dioxideC6H12O6 (aq)C2H5OH (l)CO2 (g)+This reaction is called fermentation.Fermentation usually takes place at 20-30°C. It must take place in anaerobic conditions (without oxygen) otherwise the ethanol would react with oxygen and turn into vinegar.
7 Fermentation in the lab How can fermentation be shown to create carbon dioxide?water bath at 35 °Csugar solution and yeastlimewater
9 Fermentation and wine-making Grapes convert carbon dioxide to glucose by photosynthesis.Grapes are crushed to release their juice, which contains the glucose.The juice is fermented under anaerobic conditions by the natural yeast on the grape skins.The enzymes in the yeast convert the glucose to alcohol.
10 Fermentation and beer-making Barley grains are warmed with water to germinate. This produces sugar.Barley is boiled with waterto release the sugar.Hops are added for flavour.Yeast is added and enzymes in this convert the sugar to alcohol.Beer is usually filtered and the yeast recycled to make more beer.
12 Fermentation and bread-making Flour is mixed with water, yeast, salt and sugar to make a dough.The dough is left in a warm environment to allow fermentation.Fermentation produces carbon dioxide gas, which makes the dough rise.The bread is baked, killing the yeast and evaporating the alcohol. Holes are left in the mixture where the CO2 gas expanded.
15 Making yoghurtPasteurized or sterilized milk is used to kill unwanted bacteria.The milk is mixed with specially-cultured bacteria and kept warm.The enzyme lactase from the bacteria convert milk sugar (lactose) into lactic acid, which gives a sour taste and makes the product semi-solid.