7Immediate Cause: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand The Balkans: powder keg of Europe
8Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary June 28, 1914 Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary June 28, 1914Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip (Black Hand)Austria Hungary declares war on SerbiaGermany declares war on Russia & FranceGermany invades BelgiumBritain enters war
9The Western Frontwestern_front/index.shtmlwestern_front/index.shtml
10Mass Destruction: Stalemate on the Western Front Hiram Maxim
12U.S. stance: Official Neutrality Pres. WilsonSec. of State Bryan: strict neutralityCol. Edward HouseWalter Hines PageU.S. Ambassador UK
13Secretary of State W.J.Bryan’s objections to loans to belligerents First: Money is the worst of all contrabands because it commands everything else.Second: If we approved of a loan to France we could not, of course, object to a loan to Great Britain, Germany, Russia, or to any other country, and if loans were made to these countries, our citizens would be divided into groups, each group loaning money to the country which it favorsThird: The powerful financial interests which would be connected with these loans would be tempted to use their influence through the newspapers to support the interests of the Government to which they had loaned because the value of the security would be directly affected by the result of the war.
14British Blockade of Germany – Nov. 1914 Attempt to starve GermanyBritish mine North SeaExtension of definition of contrabandBritain invades German colonies in East Africa
15Germany Retaliates German fleet inferior to British Germany uses submarine warfare1915 Zone of warfare around Britain –sink all merchant vesselsAttempt to starve BritainUnterseebooten – U boats
16Germans torpedo passenger ships Lusitania – British ship4,200 cases of Remington rifle cartridgesFuses, empty shrapnel shellsBritain compromised non-belligerent status of shipsBritain starts to use convoys
17U.S. economic interests: Result of Blockade U.S. trade with Germany and Austria (1914: $169 Million; 1916: $1 Million)U.S. trade with England and Allies (1914: $825 Million; 1916: $3,214 Million)U.S. bank loans to England and Allies (March April 1917: $2 Billion plus)
21Zimmermann Telegram 1917“make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.”
25War Industries Board 1915: The first military-industrial complex The challenge of mobilizing in an era of rapid industrializationPoliticsMilitaryEconomic interestsIndustrial preparedness
26Homefront: Food Administration Assure the supply, distribution, and conservation of food during the war,Facilitate transportation of food and prevent monopolies and hoarding, andMaintain governmental power over foods by using voluntary agreements and a licensing system.
28"We are glad ... to fight thus for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples, the German peoples included. . . The world must be made safe for democracy. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind....--W. Wilson Message to Congress April 2, 1917.
29"We are about to do the bidding of wealth's terrible mandate "We are about to do the bidding of wealth's terrible mandate. By our act we will make millions of our countrymen suffer, and the consequences of it may well be that millions of our brethren must shed their life-blood, millions of broken-hearted women must weep, millions of children must suffer with cold, and millions of babes must die from hunger and all because we want to preserve the commercial right of American citizens to deliver munitions of war to belligerent nations."--George Norris (Progressive) Republican Senator from Nebraska. Speech in the U.S. Senate, April 4, 1917.
30Paying for the war Increased corporate taxes Increased taxes on wealthy(income tax in existence since 1913)
31Summarize U.S. entry into war Germany’s use of unrestricted submarine warfareZimmerman telegramCultural ties to BritainLoans to AlliesPropaganda
32The Espionage Act & Alien enemies $10,000 fine, 20 years imprisonment for interfering with recruitmentCould not own firearms, aircraft, wirelessCould not publish an “attack” on U.S. govt.Could not leave without permission14 years & older German nationality
33Free Speech: Casualty of war - Charles Schenck Distributed materials to draftees urging them to oppose the war (compared the draft to slavery)Prosecuted under the 1917 Espionage Act“Clear & Present Danger”6 months jail timeOliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
34Another casualty of war: Eugene Debs Anti-war speechesCriticized the Espionage ActSentenced to 10 years jailRan for presidency 1920 from jail (915,000 votes)Pardoned by Harding in ‘21