Presentation on theme: "Realism v Idealism Realism – a foreign-policy perspective where a country pursues relations with other countries only out of self interest Idealism – A."— Presentation transcript:
Realism v Idealism Realism – a foreign-policy perspective where a country pursues relations with other countries only out of self interest Idealism – A foreign-policy perspective where a countrys foreign policy is guided by ideology
Woodrow Wilson President Wilson strongly believed in self- determination – the right of a people to chose their own government Yet he intervened in the affairs of other countries more than any previous President. Upholding the Roosevelt corollary, he sent troops into Haiti in 1915, the Dominican Republic in 1916, and Cuba in 1917.
Mexico Wilson hesitated to intervene directly in a Mexican Revolution, which was already underway when he took office. He personally detested the leader of a bloody coup, Victoriano Huerta, and refused to recognize his government. Two events led Wilson to occupy the port city of Veracruz: a dispute over American honor at Tampico and a rumored shipment of German arms en route to Huerta.
Mexico Outrage over occupation of Veracruz, both at home and abroad, stunned Wilson, who agreed to allow the ABC powers–Argentina, Brazil, and Chile–to mediate. Wilson backed Venustiano Carranza, who followed Huerta into power. Rebel leader Pancho Villa (who was angry at American intervention) responded by crossing the border and killing 17 Americans. Wilson sent John J. Pershing and 15,000 troops after him into Mexico, but Villa eluded capture.
The start of World War I The assassination of the heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, started World War I. However, by June 1914, almost any troublesome event could have sparked war. Territorial conflicts and military buildups had caused nations to organize formal alliances. Members of the Triple Entente–which came to be called the Allies– were Britain, France, and Russia. Opposing the Allied Powers were the Central Powers, which consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire.
World War I By November 1914, opposing troops on the Western Front in Belgium and France faced each other in a deadlock. On the Eastern Front in Russia and Germany, the Central Powers rapidly pushed back a disorganized Russian Army, which grew increasingly disaffected with the czars leadership.
World War I World War I resulted in greater loss of life and property than any previous war. The terrible destruction resulted from a combination of old-fashioned strategies and new technology–poison gas, flamethrowers, and tanks. The battles extended to the seas and skies as submarines prowled the oceans and airplanes engaged in dogfights.
World War I The Russian Revolution led to the end of fighting on the Eastern Front, freeing Germany to concentrate all its forces on the Western Front. There soldiers spent most of their time mired down in trenches, firing at each other across a no-mans land.
US Neutrality While Wilson publicly proclaimed neutrality, American interests leaned toward the Allies. Many of the people who had recently emigrated to the United States had their favorite sides, though most tried to distance themselves from the bloodbath overseas. n Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan encouraged Wilson to forbid Americans from traveling in the submarine zone as a way of maintaining neutrality. However, Wilson refused, leading Bryan to resign after the sinking of the Lusitania.
Election of 1916 Americans reelected Wilson in 1916 based, in part, on the Democratic campaign slogan: He kept us out of war! However, a number of forces pushed Wilson closer and closer to war–his own moral commitment to the Allies, heavy investment in Allied victory by American business leaders, and Wilsons deep desire to help shape a lasting peace.
US enters the war Two events finally led the United States to enter the war: (1) interception of the Zimmerman telegram, offering Mexico lost lands in the United States in exchange for an alliance with Germany, and (2) Germanys use of unrestricted submarine warfare, including an attack on the American supply ship Illinois. On April 2, 1917, President Wilson asked the United States Congress to declare war on Germany.