Presentation on theme: "Chapter #15 Acids and Bases. Chapter 15.1 Some common (everyday) Acids Sour milk= lactic acid Vinegar= acetic acid Tart flavor of pop= phosphoric acid."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 15.1 Some common (everyday) Acids Sour milk= lactic acid Vinegar= acetic acid Tart flavor of pop= phosphoric acid Lemons, oranges, grapefruits= citric acid Apples= malic acid Grape juice= tartaric acid
Some common Bases Ammonia for cleaning Lye= NaOH drain and oven cleaners Milk of magnesia= Mg(OH) 2 antacid Al(OH) 3 and NaHCO 3 antacids
Properties of Acids Acids taste sour Acids effect indicators Blue litmus turns red Methyl orange turns red Acids have a pH lower than 7 Acids are proton (hydrogen ion, H+) donors Acids react with active metals, produce H 2 Acids react with carbonates Acids neutralize bases (acid + base = salt and water) Acids conduct electric current
Binary Acids Nomenclature Acids always begin with H Binary Acids that consist of 2 elements 1.Write hydro 2.Write the 2 nd element 3.Change the ending to –ic 4.Write the word ACID HF= Hydrofluoric Acid HBr
Oxyacid Nomenclature Are acids that contain hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element. Never use Hydro 1.Write the name of the polyatomic (pg 210) 2.Change the ending to –ic or –ous (ate -ic & ite –ous) 1.Write the word ACID H 2 SO 4 = sulfuric acid H 3 PO 4
Hypo- and Per- In a series of acids HClO = HYPOchlorous Acid HClO 2 = Chlorous Acid (pg 210) HClO 3 = Chloric Acid (pg 210) HClO 4 = PERchloric Acid
Acids you SHOULD know: Strong Acids Sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4 Hydrochloric acid, HCl Nitric acid, HNO 3 Weak Acids Phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4 Acetic acid, HC 2 H 3 O 2
Sulfuric Acid Highest volume production of any chemical in the U.S.Highest volume production of any chemical in the U.S. Used in the production of paper Used in the production of paper Used in production of fertilizers Used in production of fertilizers Used in petroleum refining Used in petroleum refining Used in Automobile batteries Thick clouds of sulfuric acid are a feature of the atmosphere of Venus. (image provided by NASA)
Nitric Acid Used in the production of fertilizersUsed in the production of fertilizers Used in the production of explosivesUsed in the production of explosives Nitric acid is a volatile acid – its reactive components evaporate easilyNitric acid is a volatile acid – its reactive components evaporate easily Stains proteins (including skin!)Stains proteins (including skin!) Used in making rubber, plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals.Used in making rubber, plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals.
Phosphoric Acid A flavoring agent in sodasA flavoring agent in sodas Used in the manufacture of detergentsUsed in the manufacture of detergents Used in the manufacture of ceramicsUsed in the manufacture of ceramics Used in the manufacture of fertilizersUsed in the manufacture of fertilizers Not a common laboratory reagentNot a common laboratory reagent
Hydrochloric Acid Used in the pickling of iron & steelUsed in the pickling of iron & steel Used as a cleaning agent, in food processing & in activation of oil wells.Used as a cleaning agent, in food processing & in activation of oil wells. Used to purify magnesium from sea waterUsed to purify magnesium from sea water Part of gastric juice, it aids in the digestion of proteinPart of gastric juice, it aids in the digestion of protein Sold commercially as “Muriatic acid” Swimming poolsSold commercially as “Muriatic acid” Swimming pools Stomach ACIDStomach ACID
Acetic Acid Used in the manufacture of plasticsUsed in the manufacture of plastics Used in making food supplements Lysine – amino acid (Jurassic Park)Used in making food supplements Lysine – amino acid (Jurassic Park) Used as a fungicideUsed as a fungicide Acetic acid is the acid present in vinegarAcetic acid is the acid present in vinegar
Properties of Bases Bases taste bitter Bases effect indicators Red litmus turns blue Phenolphthalein turns purple Bases have a pH greater than 7 Bases are proton (hydrogen ion, H+) acceptors Solutions of bases feel slippery Bases neutralize acids Bases conduct electric current
Arrhenius acid is a chemical that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions, H +, in aqueous solution. Arrehenius base is a chemical that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH -, in aqueous solution.
Strong Acids vs. Weak Acids Strong acids are assumed to be 100% ionized in solution (good proton donors). HCl H 2 SO 4 HNO 3 Weak acids are usually less than 5% ionized in solution (poor proton donors). H 3 PO 4 HC 2 H 3 O 2 Organic acids
Strength of Bases Strong bases are strong electrolytes, just as strong acids are strong electrolytes.
Chapter 15.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acid is a Proton Donors (H+)Bronsted-Lowry Acid is a Proton Donors (H+) Bronsted-Lowry Base is a proton acceptorBronsted-Lowry Base is a proton acceptor Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction protons are transferred from one reactant (Acid) to another (base).Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction protons are transferred from one reactant (Acid) to another (base).
Monoprotic acids Diprotic acids Triprotic acids HCl H 2 SO 4 H 3 PO 4 HC 2 H 3 O 2 H 2 CO 3 HNO 3 Polyprotic give up more than one H.
Conjugate base is the species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up (loses) a proton. Conjugate acid is the species from when a Bronsted-Lowry bases gains a proton. HF + H 2 O F - + H 3 O + Acid Base Conjugate Base Conjugate Acid
Oxides Acidic = nonmetals Basic= metals Amphoteric= metalloids MgO Al 2 O 3 CO 2
Chapter 15.3 Neutralization is the reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules. Salt is an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid.
Lewis acid is an atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond. Lewis base is an atom, ion, or molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond. A Lewis acid-base reaction is the formation of one or more covalent bonds between an electron-pair donor and an electron-pair acceptor.
Neutralization Examples HCl + NaOH H 2 O + NaCl 2H 3 PO 4 + 3Mg(OH) 2 6H 2 O + Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2
Information. April 27, 2007. http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/Po werpoint/Unit6/Unit6_files/frame.htm http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/Po werpoint/Unit6/Unit6_files/frame.htm “Cartoon”. Aug. 11, 2006. http://www.nearingzero.net/sbunch1.html http://www.nearingzero.net/sbunch1.html