Presentation on theme: "Why does the US begin to expand its role in the world?"— Presentation transcript:
Why does the US begin to expand its role in the world?
Overseas markets provided natural resources and new markets for finished goods Economic realities helped to spur the debate about commercial expansion abroad. The cry for new markets struck a responsive chord in American farmers, manufacturers, and investors Other European countries were blocking US trade with their colonies in Africa, Asia and China
To some extent, the idea of exporting American capitalism and democracy overseas drew strength from the Progressive movement, which had shown that Americans had the ability to change a nation once they mobilized for reform. Deeply ingrained racial attitudes added support to the American impulse to become involved in the affairs of other nations. Some Americans believed people in places like the Philippines and most of the Caribbean were racially inferior and should succumb to United States leadership. Christian missionaries
Opponents of imperialism rejected the policy of establishing dominance over other nations on humanitarian and moral grounds. They lamented that extensive trading overseas would drag the nation into the colonialism and militarism of European powers. Many of these opponents embraced isolationism – a belief that the US should militarily, economically, and politically stay within its borders
In 1823, James Monroe told Europe that any attempts to establish colonies in the Western Hemisphere would be seen as an act of agression In 1867, American troops mass on the Mexican border to force the French to leave Mexico
In 1898, US declares war on Spain after a brutal campaign against Cuban and Philippine revolutionaries and the destruction of the US battleship Maine. Within the year Cuba was granted independence and Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines were ceded to the United States
The political and economic climate at the turn of the century favored commercial expansion --Such commercial and military endeavors were promoted by Roosevelts Big Stick foreign policy When European nations threatened to intervene in the Dominican Republic to collect unpaid customs fees, Roosevelt issued a corollary extending the Monroe Doctrine. His corollary claimed international police powers to maintain stability in the Western Hemisphere. The commitment would cause Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson to send troops to Cuba, Nicaragua, and Haiti.
The Spanish American War, fought on two oceans, underscored the need for a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. When Colombia held out for more money, the United States supported Panamanian rebels who were seeking independence from Colombia. In exchange, the United States won the right to build a canal on its own terms.
Taft used economic aid and entrepreneurial investment to gain influence in Latin America. Under this so-called Dollar Diplomacy, the U.S. State Department assumed responsibility for protecting American investors from loan defaults and unfriendly governments
West coast Nativist fears at the turn of the century led to discrimination against Chinese immigrants. At the same time the great numbers of people in China attracted missionaries intent on winning converts and businesspeople seeking new markets. In 1899 and 1900, Secretary of State John Hay sent notes to Japan and key European powers asking them to respect the territorial integrity of China and to keep the door open to trade for all nations. The so-called Open Door policy became a key concept in American foreign policy in the 1900s.
The natural resources and strategic importance of the Philippines led the United States to renege on a promise to honor the Filipino struggle for independence. Filipino revolutionaries, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, waged a guerrilla war against U.S. annexation at full force until 1902 (4,200 Americans died, 15,000 rebels, and 200,000 civilians)
In 1904, Japan launches an assault against Russian holdings in Korea and Manchuria Japanese capture the key port city of Port Arthur, humiliating the Russians. Roosevelt negotiated a settlement that ensured that neither Russia nor Japan reigned supreme in Asia. Japanese keep Port Arthur, much of the surrounding land, and the Southern Sakhalin Islands. He wins the Nobel Peace Prize
Roosevelt soothed Japanese humiliation over segregation of Japanese children in San Francisco schools by negotiating A Gentlemens Agreement in 1907. The agreement ended school segregation, while at the same time controlling Japanese immigration to the United States. In a show of might, Roosevelt sent the Great White Fleet of 16 battleships around the world, with a special stop in Japan in 1908.
The United States had proved that it could effectively resolve conflicts in other parts of the world. As a result, in the early 1900s the nation was often called upon to mediate disputes. In 1906 Roosevelt defused a crisis between Germany and France over Morocco. In 1911 Taft arbitrated a dispute between Great Britain and France over Liberia. These efforts not only kept the door open for trade in Africa, they also helped ensure the peace and security of markets worldwide.