2 Anxiety DisordersCharacterized by generalized apprehension, worry, and a variety of physical symptomsGeneralized Anxiety DisorderPhobiasPanic DisorderObsessive-Compulsive DisorderPost-traumatic Stress Disorder
3 Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) 6.8 million, 3.1% Women are twice as likely to be affected than men.Very likely to be comorbid with other disorders.
4 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Experiencing a continuous, generalized feeling of anxiety (reaction to vague or imagined dangers) – 6 months or moreAnxiety in many different areas of lifeAccompanied by physical symptoms…muscle tension, trouble sleeping, irritability, lack of concentration, headaches, fatigue, inability to relax, twitching/trembling, etc.
5 Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) 15 million, 6.8% It is equally common among men and women.
7 Specific Phobias 19 million, 8.7% Women are twice as likely to be affected as men.
8 Phobias Specific Phobia Social Phobia Agoraphobia Severe anxiety is focused on a specific object or situationExamples:Enclosed spacesSnakesSpidersHeightsFlyingSocial PhobiaFear of embarrassing oneself in a social situationSpeaking, eating, using bathroom in publicAgoraphobia“fear of the marketplace”Associated with panic disorder
9 PHOBIAS Common and uncommon phobias 100 90 80 Percentage 70 of people Afraid of itBothers slightlyNot at all afraid of itBeingclosed in,in asmallplacealoneIn a houseat nightPercentageof peoplesurveyed100908070605040302010Snakesin high,exposedplacesMiceFlyingon anairplaneSpidersandinsectsThunderlightningDogsDrivinga carIn acrowdCats
10 PHOBIAS Treatment Exposure Treatment Flooding Counter-Conditioning Systematic Desensitization (1) training the patient to physically relax (2) establishing an anxiety hierarchy of the stimuli (3) counter-conditioning relaxation responding to ea. feared stimulusBiofeedbackModeling
11 Panic Disorder 6 million, 2.7% Women are twice as likely to be affected than men.Very high comorbidity rate with major depression.
12 Frequent Panic Attacks or fear of them: Panic DisorderFrequent Panic Attacks or fear of them:Sudden and unexplainable attacks ofintense fearCome on with/without warningNot associated with a stimulusIndividual fears that he/she is about to diePhysical symptoms…choking, tightness in chest, difficulty breathing, nausea, dizzinessCommonly occurs with Agoraphobia
13 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 2.2 million, 1.0% Equally common among men and women.One-third of affected adults first experienced symptoms in childhood.OCD costs the U.S. 6% of the total $148 billion mental health bill.
15 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OBSESSIONSIntrusive and uncontrollable thoughtsContamination, safety, etc.COMPULSIONSRitualistic and purposeless actionsCleaning, washing, checking, etc.O and C are usually related… compulsions help to decrease the anxiety caused by the obsessionThis pattern begins to interfere with functioning
16 OCD Common Obsessions and Compulsions Among People With Obsessive-Compulsive DisorderThought or BehaviorPercentage*Reporting SymptomObsessions (repetitive thoughts)Concern with dirt, germs, or toxinsSomething terrible happening (fire, death, illness)Symmetry order, or exactnessExcessive hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing,or groomingCompulsions (repetitive behaviors)Repeating rituals (in/out of a door,up/down from a chair)Checking doors, locks, appliances,car brake, homework
17 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 7.7 million, 3.5% Women are more likely to be affected than men.Rape is the most likely trigger of PTSD, 65% of men and 45.9% of women who are raped will develop the disorder.Childhood sexual abuse is a strong predictor of lifetime likelihood for developing PTSD.
18 Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Common among veterans of combat, survivors of accidents and disasters, victims of crimes, etc.Feel long-lasting after-effects of traumaFlashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, mood symptoms, stimulus generalizationSymptoms last more than 1 month… up to years later