2Anxiety DisordersCharacterized by generalized apprehension, worry, and a variety of physical symptomsGeneralized Anxiety DisorderPhobiasPanic DisorderObsessive-Compulsive DisorderPost-traumatic Stress Disorder
3Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) 6.8 million, 3.1% Women are twice as likely to be affected than men.Very likely to be comorbid with other disorders.
4Generalized Anxiety Disorder Experiencing a continuous, generalized feeling of anxiety (reaction to vague or imagined dangers) – 6 months or moreAnxiety in many different areas of lifeAccompanied by physical symptoms…muscle tension, trouble sleeping, irritability, lack of concentration, headaches, fatigue, inability to relax, twitching/trembling, etc.
5Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) 15 million, 6.8% It is equally common among men and women.
7Specific Phobias 19 million, 8.7% Women are twice as likely to be affected as men.
8Phobias Specific Phobia Social Phobia Agoraphobia Severe anxiety is focused on a specific object or situationExamples:Enclosed spacesSnakesSpidersHeightsFlyingSocial PhobiaFear of embarrassing oneself in a social situationSpeaking, eating, using bathroom in publicAgoraphobia“fear of the marketplace”Associated with panic disorder
9PHOBIAS Common and uncommon phobias 100 90 80 Percentage 70 of people Afraid of itBothers slightlyNot at all afraid of itBeingclosed in,in asmallplacealoneIn a houseat nightPercentageof peoplesurveyed100908070605040302010Snakesin high,exposedplacesMiceFlyingon anairplaneSpidersandinsectsThunderlightningDogsDrivinga carIn acrowdCats
10PHOBIAS Treatment Exposure Treatment Flooding Counter-Conditioning Systematic Desensitization (1) training the patient to physically relax (2) establishing an anxiety hierarchy of the stimuli (3) counter-conditioning relaxation responding to ea. feared stimulusBiofeedbackModeling
11Panic Disorder 6 million, 2.7% Women are twice as likely to be affected than men.Very high comorbidity rate with major depression.
12Frequent Panic Attacks or fear of them: Panic DisorderFrequent Panic Attacks or fear of them:Sudden and unexplainable attacks ofintense fearCome on with/without warningNot associated with a stimulusIndividual fears that he/she is about to diePhysical symptoms…choking, tightness in chest, difficulty breathing, nausea, dizzinessCommonly occurs with Agoraphobia
13Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 2.2 million, 1.0% Equally common among men and women.One-third of affected adults first experienced symptoms in childhood.OCD costs the U.S. 6% of the total $148 billion mental health bill.
15Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OBSESSIONSIntrusive and uncontrollable thoughtsContamination, safety, etc.COMPULSIONSRitualistic and purposeless actionsCleaning, washing, checking, etc.O and C are usually related… compulsions help to decrease the anxiety caused by the obsessionThis pattern begins to interfere with functioning
16OCD Common Obsessions and Compulsions Among People With Obsessive-Compulsive DisorderThought or BehaviorPercentage*Reporting SymptomObsessions (repetitive thoughts)Concern with dirt, germs, or toxinsSomething terrible happening (fire, death, illness)Symmetry order, or exactnessExcessive hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing,or groomingCompulsions (repetitive behaviors)Repeating rituals (in/out of a door,up/down from a chair)Checking doors, locks, appliances,car brake, homework
17Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 7.7 million, 3.5% Women are more likely to be affected than men.Rape is the most likely trigger of PTSD, 65% of men and 45.9% of women who are raped will develop the disorder.Childhood sexual abuse is a strong predictor of lifetime likelihood for developing PTSD.
18Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Common among veterans of combat, survivors of accidents and disasters, victims of crimes, etc.Feel long-lasting after-effects of traumaFlashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, mood symptoms, stimulus generalizationSymptoms last more than 1 month… up to years later