Presentation on theme: "Little Albert J.B. Watson & Rosalie Rayners Study on Conditioned Emotional Responses."— Presentation transcript:
Little Albert J.B. Watson & Rosalie Rayners Study on Conditioned Emotional Responses
Psychology c. 1920s Before the 1920s, field dominated by Psychoanalytic School of Thought- Sigmund Freud. Behaviorism movement started in the 1920s. Very different view vs. psychoanalytic school. Watson and other behaviorists claimed: –instead of peoples behavior coming from within, their behavior comes from different environmental & situational stimuli.
J.B Watson andRosalie Rayner
Watson and his contemporaries came of age as the Industrial Revolution. At the turn of the 20th century, with Sigmund Freud leading his own vanguard in psychoanalysis, psychology was trying to find its niche. Often paired with philosophy in university departments, psychology focused on the subjective study of "introspection," research based on patients' reported feelings.
After seven such pairings, Albert B. cried and avoided the animal--even when there was no loud noise. In fact, days later, he showed fear when he saw the rat, the rabbit, the dog, and a sealskin coat. He also had a "negative" response to a bearded Santa Claus mask and the hair on Watson's head.
Watson promoted new ideal. Coined the term behaviorism. Rejected the idea of consciousness. Labeled Freud's views: voodooism. According to Watson, scientists could best study human mind by noting what humans do. And he meant "to gain experimental control over the whole range of emotional reactions."
Give me a dozen healthy infants, well- formed, and my own special world to bring them up in, and I ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select: doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant chief, and, yes, beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors. - J.B. Watson, 1924
Little Albert B., a healthy, stable 9-month-old baby. Shown a live rat, a rabbit, a dog, and a monkey. He showed no fear. But he cried when a researcher struck a hammer against a steel bar. Hopkins psychology professor John B. Watson and his assistant, Rosalie Rayner, then made a clanging sound each time the boy touched the rat.
Neutral Stimuli for Little Albert
Sequence of Stimulus Presentations to Albert on Fourth Day of Testing 1. Blocks- played with blocks as usual 2. Rat- fearful withdrawal but no crying 3. Rat + Noise- fear and crying 4. Rat- fear and crying 5. Rat- fear, crying, and crawling away 6. Rabbit- fear, but less intense 7. Blocks- played as usual 8. Rabbit- same as #6 9. Rabbit- same as #6 10. Rabbit- some fear, but wanted to touch rabbit 11. Dog- fearful 12. Dog + Noise- fear and crawling away 13. Blocks- normal playing
Ethical Concerns 80 years ago, no laws against this. Little Albert never reconditioned. However, some feel that Little Alberts fear would subside over time. This is called extinction.
See also… Johns Hopkins Magazine & McGraw Hill, CoMcGraw Hill, Co. slide presentation Slide design & some content courtesy John Brown